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HIV drug

Don Des Jarlais, Anneli Uuskula, Ave Talu, David M Barnes, Mait Raag, Kamyar Arasteh, Greete Org, Donna Demarest, Jonathan Feelemyer, Hayley Berg, Susan Tross
We tested the hypothesis that an updated "Break the Cycle" (BtC) intervention, based in social cognitive theory and motivational interviewing, would reduce the likelihood that current persons who inject drugs (PWID) would assist persons who do not inject drugs (non-PWID) with first injections in Tallinn, Estonia and Staten Island, New York City. 402 PWID were recruited, a baseline interview covering demographics, drug use, and assisting non-PWID with first drug injections was administered, followed by BtC intervention...
March 16, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Landon Myer, Andrew D Redd, Elton Mukonda, Briana A Lynch, Tamsin K Phillips, Anna Eisenberg, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Adam Capoferri, Alison Zerbe, William Clarke, Maia Lesosky, Autumn Breaud, James McIntyre, Daniel Bruno, Craig Martens, Elaine J Abrams, Steven J Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Elevated viral load (VL) early after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation appears frequently in pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV, however the relative contributions of pre-ART drug-resistant mutations (DRM) versus non-adherence in the aetiology of elevated VL are unknown. METHODS: Within a cohort of women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa, we compared women with elevated VL after initial suppression (cases, n=80) incidence-density matched to women who maintained suppression over time (controls, n=87)...
March 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
José A Bauermeister, Jesse M Golinkoff, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Daniela López, Craig J Hoesley, Beatrice A Chen, Peter Anderson, Charlene S Dezzutti, Julie Strizki, Carol Sprinkle, Faye Heard, Wayne Hall, Cindy Jacobson, Jennifer Berthiaume, Ashley Mayo, Barbra A Richardson, Jeanna Piper
Intravaginal rings (IVR) containing antiretroviral drugs are a promising method for HIV prevention. We triangulated quantitative and qualitative assessments to evaluate the acceptability of four IVRs used continuously for 28 days as part of a Phase I trial (N = 48 HIV-negative women; ages 18-45). Adherence was high throughout the trial, yet 30% of participants reported involuntary IVR expulsions followed by re-insertion. Most participants (93.6%) felt comfortable with the IVR being inside their body. Participants reported liking the IVR more (36...
March 15, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Mathabo Ruth Lutu, Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Pascale Edith Mofo Mato, Khmera Govender, Londiwe Mphumelelo Gumede, Sinenhlanhla Innocentia Kumalo, Nontokozo Nomfundo Mlambo, Ranjendraparsad Hurchund, Peter Mark Oroma Owira
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) form the backbone in combination antiretroviral therapy (cARVs). They halt chain elongation of the viral cDNA by acting as false substrates in counterfeit incorporation mechanism to viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. In the process genomic DNA polymerase as well as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase-γ (which has a much higher affinity for these drugs at therapeutic doses) are also impaired. This leads to mitochondrial toxicity that manifests clinically as mitochondrial myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis and lipoatrophy...
March 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xi Hu, Bingyu Liang, Chongxing Zhou, Junjun Jiang, Jiegang Huang, Chuanyi Ning, Jie Liu, Bo Zhou, Ning Zang, Jinzhen Lai, Rongfeng Chen, Yanyan Liao, Peijiang Pan, Xin Liu, Guanghua Lan, Xianwu Pang, Li Ye, Zhiyong Shen, Hao Liang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease and to identify the factors associated with HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease among patients with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, in Southwestern China. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed HIV registered in the HIV surveillance system of Guangxi Centers for Disease Control between January 2012 and December 2016 were included in this study...
March 16, 2019: AIDS Research and Therapy
Claudia Stoicescu, Rima Ameilia, Irwanto, Ignatius Praptoraharjo, Mietta Mahanani
Women who inject drugs are disproportionately affected by co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV), poor mental health, and substance use. Less is known about the potentially synergistic effects of these factors on women's HIV risk behavior, and no known studies in Asia examine these relationships. This study assessed the additive and interactive effects of exposure to syndemic IPV, depressive symptoms and non-injection crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth) on HIV sexual risk behaviors in the largest cross-sectional sample of women who inject drugs in Indonesia...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Katherine M Rich, Jeffrey A Wickersham, Javier Valencia Huamaní, Sara N Kiani, Robinson Cabello, Paul Elish, Jorge Florez Arce, Lia N Pizzicato, Jaime Soria, Jorge Sanchez, Frederick L Altice
PURPOSE: Globally, transgender women (TGW) experience a high burden of adverse health outcomes, including a high prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as well as psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. To address gaps in HIV research in Peru focused specifically on TGW, this study presents characteristics of a sample of HIV-positive TGW and identifies factors associated with viral suppression. METHODS: Between June 2015 and August 2016, 50 HIV-positive TGW were recruited in Lima, Peru...
November 2018: LGBT Health
Jaime Younger, Janet Raboud, Leah Szadkowski, Richard Harrigan, Sharon Walmsley, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Marina B Klein, Curtis Cooper, Ann N Burchell, Mona Loutfy, Mark Hull, Alex Wong, Rejean Thomas, Robert Hogg, Julio Montaner, Chris Tsoukas, Tony Antoniou
BACKGROUND: The real-world effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be influenced by circulating HIV strains resistant to either tenofovir or emtricitabine. Yet, few studies have examined rates of resistance to these drugs in clinical settings. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral naïve participants in the Canadian Observational Cohort collaboration who initiated antiretroviral therapy between 2006 and 2014. In separate analyses, we determined the prevalence of pretherapy resistance and cumulative incidence of follow-up resistance to tenofovir and emtricitabine...
March 15, 2019: Antiviral Therapy
S Dhillon, C A Sabin, J Alagaratnam, E Bagkeris, F A Post, M Boffito, J Anderson, J Vera, I Williams, M Johnson, M Sachikonye, D Babalis, P W Mallon, A Winston
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe agreement between the QRISK2, Framingham and Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators in a large UK study of people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: PLWH enrolled in the Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in People over Fifty (POPPY) study without a prior CVD event were included in this study. QRISK2, Framingham CVD and the full and reduced D:A:D CVD scores were calculated; participants were stratified into 'low' (< 10%), 'intermediate' (10-20%) and 'high' (> 20%) categories for each...
March 14, 2019: HIV Medicine
Willias Masocha, Amal Thomas
Neuropathic pain sometimes occurs during chemotherapy with paclitaxel or HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). We previously reported that coadministration of indomethacin plus minocycline (IPM) was antihyperalgesic in a cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-dependent manner in a mouse model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. We evaluated if IPM combination has antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic activities in animal models of paclitaxel or NRTI (ddC, zalcitabine)-induced neuropathic pain, and whether antagonists of CB1, CB2 receptors or G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) can inhibit these activities of IPM...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Desire Takou, Joseph Fokam, Georges Teto, Maria-Mercedes Santoro, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Aubin Joseph Nanfack, Samuel Martin Sosso, Béatrice Dambaya, Romina Salpini, Serge Clotaire Billong, Caterina Gori, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang, Giulia Cappelli, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo-Federico Perno, Alexis Ndjolo
BACKGROUND: With the phase-out of stavudine (d4T), change to first-line regimens with zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF) in resource-limited settings (RLS) might increase risks of cross-resistance to nucleos(t) ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). This would restrict the scope of switching to the World Health Organisation (WHO)-recommended standard second-line combinations (SLC) without HIV drug resistance (HIVDR)-testing in routine clinical practice. METHODS: An observational study was conducted among 101 Cameroonian patients (55...
March 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ling Luo, Nidan Wang, Yongsong Yue, Yang Han, Wei Lv, Zhengyin Liu, Zhifeng Qiu, Hongzhou Lu, Xiaoping Tang, Tong Zhang, Min Zhao, Yun He, He Shenghua, Min Wang, Yongzhen Li, Shaobiao Huang, Yong Li, Jing Liu, Zhu Tuofu, Jean-Pierre Routy, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: The effect of ART initiation time on HIV-1 DNA reservoir in chronically infected individuals is not well understood. Determining the potential influencing factors associated with a low HIV-1 DNA level in chronic infection is an important step toward drug-free control. METHODS: A prospective study included 444 chronically HIV-infected adults was performed. Participants were divided into two groups: early initiation group (EIG) or delayed initiation group (DIG) based on their baseline CD4 count; 350 to 500 and < 350 cells/mm3 , respectively...
March 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ekaterina Maidji, Mary E Moreno, Jose M Rivera, Pheroze Joshi, Sofiya A Galkina, Galina Kosikova, Ma Somsouk, Cheryl A Stoddart
Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly suppresses HIV replication, lymphoid tissues remain a sanctuary site where the virus may replicate. Tracking the earliest steps of HIV spread from these cellular reservoirs after drug cessation is pivotal for elucidating how infection can be prevented. In this study, we developed an in vivo model of HIV persistence in which viral replication in the lymphoid compartments of humanized mice was inhibited by the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) to very low levels, which recapitulated ART-suppression in HIV-infected individuals...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Vinodhini Krishnakumar, Siva Sundara Kumar Durairajan, Kalichamy Alagarasu, Min Li, Aditya Prasad Dash
Well-developed mouse models are important for understanding the pathogenesis and progression of immunological response to viral infections in humans. Moreover, to test vaccines, anti-viral drugs and therapeutic agents, mouse models are fundamental for preclinical investigations. Human viruses, however, seldom infect mice due to differences in the cellular receptors used by the viruses for entry, as well as in the innate immune responses in mice and humans. In other words, a species barrier exists when using mouse models for investigating human viral infections...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Hong-Ha M Truong, Sharon Pipkin, Robert M Grant, Teri Liegler, Kara J O'Keefe, Susan Scheer
BACKGROUND: Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (eiART) can improve clinical outcomes for persons with HIV and reduce onward transmission risk. Baseline drug resistance testing (bDRT) can inform regimen selection upon subsequent treatment initiation. We examined the uptake of eiART and bDRT within 3 months and 30 days of HIV diagnosis. METHODS: We analyzed a population-based sample from the San Francisco Department of Public Health HIV/AIDS Case Registry of newly-diagnosed HIV/non-AIDS individuals between 2001 and 2015 who received care at publicly-funded facilities (N = 3,124)...
2019: PloS One
Kevin Cranston, Charles Alpren, Betsey John, Erica Dawson, Kathleen Roosevelt, Amanda Burrage, Janice Bryant, William M Switzer, Courtney Breen, Philip J Peters, Tracy Stiles, Ashley Murray, H Dawn Fukuda, William Adih, Linda Goldman, Nivedha Panneer, Barry Callis, Ellsworth M Campbell, Liisa Randall, Anne Marie France, R Monina Klevens, Sheryl Lyss, Shauna Onofrey, Christine Agnew-Brune, Michael Goulart, Hongwei Jia, Matthew Tumpney, Paul McClung, Sharoda Dasgupta, Danae Bixler, Kischa Hampton, Jenifer Leaf Jaeger, Kate Buchacz, Alfred DeMaria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2019: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Carla Tilchin, Christina M Schumacher, Kevin J Psoter, Elizabeth Humes, Ravikiran Muvva, Patrick Chaulk, William Checkley, Jacky M Jennings
BACKGROUND: The release of the first drug for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 marked the beginning of a new era of HIV prevention. Although PrEP is highly efficacious, identifying and ultimately increasing uptake among the highest risk male subgroups remains a challenge. METHODS: Public health surveillance data from 2009 to 2016 was used to evaluate the risk of an HIV diagnosis after a syphilis (ie, primary, secondary, or early latent), gonorrhea, and repeat diagnoses among urban males, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in Baltimore City...
April 2019: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Anna M Leddy, Janet M Turan, Mallory O Johnson, Torsten B Neilands, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Gina Wingood, Phyllis C Tien, Tracey E Wilson, Carmen H Logie, Sheri D Weiser, Bulent Turan
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether experienced poverty stigma is associated with worse HIV care and treatment outcomes. DESIGN: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 433 women living with HIV enrolled in the Women's Adherence and Visit Engagement (WAVE) sub-study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: Exposure was experienced poverty stigma, measured using the Perceived Stigma of Poverty Scale. Outcomes were viral suppression, CD4 cell count ≥350 cells/mm, and attending all HIV care visits in the past six months...
March 11, 2019: AIDS
Antonella Castagna, Stefano Rusconi, Roberto Gulminetti, Stefano Bonora, Giovanni Mazzola, Maria Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Nicoletta Ladisa, Sinibaldo Carosella, Annamaria Cattelan, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Maurizio Mena, Andrea Poli, Laura Galli, Agostino Riva
: We evaluated efficacy and safety of a two-drug regimen including dolutegravir (DTG) and unboosted atazanavir (uATV) in 151 HIV-1 infected patients with HIV-RNA > 50 copies/ml.During a median follow-up of 62 (42-97) weeks, 2 VFs (1%) and 13 treatment discontinuations (9%) occurred; the 48-week probability of VF was 0.8% (95% CI = 0.2%-5.6%).Switch to DTG + uATV may represent a boosting and RTIs sparing option in subjects with long exposure to ART and risk of cardiovascular disease.
March 11, 2019: AIDS
Katherine R McLaughlin, Lisa G Johnston, Laura J Gamble, Trdat Grigoryan, Arshak Papoyan, Samvel Grigoryan
BACKGROUND: Estimates of the sizes of hidden populations, including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who inject drugs (PWID), are essential for understanding the magnitude of vulnerabilities, health care needs, risk behaviors, and HIV and other infections. OBJECTIVE: This article advances the successive sampling-population size estimation (SS-PSE) method by examining the performance of a modification allowing visibility to be jointly modeled with population size in the context of 15 datasets...
March 14, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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