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Cortisol diurnal

Alice Jiang, Tammy T Tran, Farrah N Madison, Arnold Bakker
Stress is a potent modulator of brain function and particularly mnemonic processes. While chronic stress is associated with long-term deficits in memory, the effects of acute stress on mnemonic functions are less clear as previous reports have been inconsistent. Some studies suggest that cortisol, a stress hormone that modulates biological changes in response to stress, may enhance memory consolidation and impair memory retrieval. However, other studies report no effect of cortisol on either memory consolidation or retrieval...
April 2019: Learning & Memory
William R Lovallo, Andrew J Cohoon, Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Kristen H Sorocco
Women have smaller cortisol responses to psychological stress than men do, and women taking hormonal contraceptives (HC+) have smaller responses than HC- women. Cortisol secretion undergoes substantial diurnal variation, with elevated levels in the morning and lower levels in the afternoon, and these variations are accompanied by differences in response to acute stress. However, the impact of HC use on these diurnal relationships has not been examined. We tested saliva cortisol values in 744 healthy young adults, 351 men and 393 women, 254 HC- and 139 HC+, who were assigned to morning (9:00 am) or afternoon (1:00 pm) test sessions that were held both on a rest day and on a stress day that included public speaking and mental arithmetic challenges...
March 21, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Michael Gardner, Stafford Lightman, Diana Kuh, Hannie Comijs, Dorly Deeg, John Gallacher, Marie-Claude Geoffroy, Mika Kivimaki, Meena Kumari, Chris Power, Rebecca Hardy, Marcus Richards, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
Evidence on the association between functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and cognitive capability at older ages is mixed. We undertook a systematic review (until October 2016) and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to test if dysregulation of the HPA axis is associated with worse cognitive capability. Five cohort studies were included in the IPD meta-analysis of diurnal cortisol patterns with crystallised and fluid cognitive ability. Higher night time cortisol was associated with worse fluid ability (standardised coefficient per SD increase -0...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jennifer M Hulett, Kristen L Fessele, Margaret F Clayton, Linda H Eaton
Salivary cortisol is a commonly used biomarker in cancer survivorship research; however, variations in sampling protocols and parameter reporting limit comparisons across studies. Standardized practices to provide rigor and reproducibility of diurnal salivary cortisol sampling and reporting are not well established. Previous systematic reviews examining relationships between diurnal salivary cortisol and clinical outcomes have resulted in mixed findings. It remains unclear which sampling protocols and reporting parameters offer the greatest utility for clinical research...
March 11, 2019: Biological Research for Nursing
Guido G Urizar, Ilona S Yim, Anthony Rodriguez, Christine Dunkel Schetter
BACKGROUND: Dysregulations in maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function and the end product, cortisol, have been associated with a heightened risk for stress-related health complications during pregnancy and post partum. Given the adverse health impact that maternal cortisol may have on expectant mothers and their infants, empirically-based prenatal interventions are needed to target optimal management of stress and its biological effects in at-risk pregnant women, a primary example of which is cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM)...
February 22, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ethan S Young, Allison K Farrell, Elizabeth A Carlson, Michelle M Englund, Gregory E Miller, Megan R Gunnar, Glenn I Roisman, Jeffry A Simpson
Major life stress often produces a flat diurnal cortisol slope, an indicator of potential long-term health problems. Exposure to stress early in childhood or the accumulation of stress across the life span may be responsible for this pattern. However, the relative impact of life stress at different life stages on diurnal cortisol is unknown. Using a longitudinal sample of adults followed from birth, we examined three models of the effect of stress exposure on diurnal cortisol: the cumulative model, the biological-embedding model, and the sensitization model...
March 8, 2019: Psychological Science
Nancy A Nicolson, Thyagi Ponnamperuma
Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to aspects of diurnal cortisol secretion in adolescents, but little is known about gender differences in these associations. A school-based sample of Sri Lankan adolescents aged 13-16 years took part in this study 4.5 years after the 2004 tsunami had impacted many of their lives to varying degrees. Saliva samples were obtained 4 times a day for 3 days in 84 participants, who also completed measures of lifetime trauma, current stressors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)...
February 27, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Satu M Kumpulainen, Kati Heinonen, Nina Kaseva, Sture Andersson, Aulikki Lano, Rebecca M Reynolds, Dieter Wolke, Eero Kajantie, Johan G Eriksson, Katri Räikkönen
Background Maternal early pregnancy overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 ) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) are associated with mental and physical health adversities in the offspring. Prenatal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been put forward as one of the mechanisms that may play pathophysiological role. However, evidence linking maternal overweight and obesity with offspring HPA-axis activity is scarce. We studied if maternal early pregnancy BMI is associated with diurnal salivary cortisol, a marker of HPA-axis activity, in young adult offspring...
February 15, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Md Shafiqur Rahman, Xuan Zhao, Jia Jia Liu, Enid Quintana Torres, Babylonia Tibert, Parvin Kumar, Viktor Kaldo, Nils Lindefors, Yvonne Forsell, Catharina Lavebratt
Purpose of the Study: Cortisol hypersecretion plays a role in depression pathophysiology. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and physical exercise (PE) are new treatment alternatives for depression, and their long-lasting effect on cortisol is unknown. We investigated cortisol level changes after 12 weeks of ICBT, PE or treatment as usual (TAU). Procedures: The present pre-post repeated measure study analysed data derived from a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of 12 weeks' interventions of ICBT, PE and TAU in depressed primary care patients (Sweden 2011-2013) and aimed at prospectively evaluating the within-group effects of ICBT, PE and TAU on diurnal salivary cortisol levels in a small representative subsample ( n = 56, 38 and 27, respectively)...
February 2019: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Dixie Meyer, Joanne Salas, Stephanie Barkley, Tony W Buchanan
Individuals in stable relationships tend to be healthier than those not in stable relationships. Despite this general positive influence of relationships on health, the mechanisms for the impact of relationship quality on health are not clear. Research has focused on many factors to explain this connection, including inter- and intra-couple dynamics of physiology and behavior. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between perceived health, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality on diurnal cortisol in 30 male/female romantic dyads (N = 60)...
February 26, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Claudio Singh Solorzano, Andrew Steptoe, Elizabeth Leigh, Tara Kidd, Marjan Jahangiri, Lydia Poole
BACKGROUND: The relationship between pre-surgical distress and diurnal cortisol following surgery has not been investigated prospectively in caregivers of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients before. We aimed to examine the relationship between pre-surgical anxiety and caregiver burden and diurnal cortisol measured 2 months after the surgery in the caregivers of CABG patients. METHOD: We used a sample of 103 caregivers of elective CABG patients that were assessed 28...
February 21, 2019: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Rebecca K Campbell, Katrina L Devick, Brent A Coull, Whitney Cowell, Talia Askowitz, Brandon Goldson, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright
Women's experience of trauma may cause lifelong alterations in physiological stress regulation, which can be transmitted to offspring in utero. We investigated, in a prospective pregnancy cohort, associations among maternal lifetime interpersonal trauma (IPT) history, prenatal cortisol dysregulation, and children's memory domains. Sex-specific effects were also explored. Pregnant women were enrolled from Brigham & Women's Hospital and affiliated clinics near Boston, MA, in 2002-2007. IPT was assessed with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, short form...
February 15, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Lisa J Berlin, Tiffany L Martoccio, Crystal I Bryce, Brenda Jones Harden
Attachment-based parenting interventions have shown positive effects on early cortisol regulation, a key biomarker. Evaluations to date have focused on diurnal cortisol production in high-risk infants. It is important to understand whether attachment-based intervention may also improve stress-induced cortisol production in typically developing infants. This randomized controlled trial tested an enhanced model of U.S. Early Head Start (EHS) services that combined home-based EHS with a brief, attachment-based parenting intervention, Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC)...
January 4, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Leah C Hibel, Evelyn Mercado, Kristin Valentino
In the current study, we examined the attunement and transmission of mother-child diurnal cortisol among maltreating ( N = 165) and nonmaltreating ( N = 83) mothers and their preschool-aged children. Over half of the families had a substantiated child maltreatment case with the mother as the perpetrator. Mothers collected three saliva samples (waking, midday, and bedtime) on themselves and their child on two consecutive days, which were later assayed for cortisol. This design allows for the examination of concurrent attunement, as well as cross-lagged transmission, across the day...
January 30, 2019: Child Maltreatment
ELizabeth K Fletcher, Monica Kanki, James Morgan, David W Ray, Lea Delbridge, Peter James Fuller, Colin D Clyne, Morag Young
We previously identified a critical pathogenic role for MR activation in cardiomyocytes that included a potential interaction between the MR and the molecular circadian clock. While glucocorticoid regulation of the circadian clock is undisputed, MR interactions with circadian clock signalling are limited. We hypothesised that the MR influences cardiac circadian clock signalling, and vice versa. 10nM aldosterone or corticosterone regulated CRY 1, PER1, PER2 and ReverbA (NR1D1) gene expression patterns in H9c2 cells over 24hr...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
Allison E Gaffey, Erin C Walsh, Charlotte O Ladd, Roxanne M Hoks, Heather C Abercrombie
BACKGROUND: Decades of research point to cortisol insensitivity as a biomarker of depression. Despite a vast literature on cortisol's effects on memory, the role of cortisol insensitivity in core psychological features of depression, such as emotional memory biases, is unknown. METHODS: Sixty-five premenopausal women with varying levels of depression completed this study involving an at-home low-dose dexamethasone suppression test and four experimental sessions (i...
December 4, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Nicole B Perry, Carrie E DePasquale, Philip H Fisher, Megan R Gunnar
The current study compared behavioral and adrenocortical functioning of maltreated ( N = 91) and comparably aged (1.5-3 years) institutionally-reared children soon after (1.5-2.5 months) placement in foster care or adoptive homes, respectively. Foster and adoptive parents reported on the children's socioemotional competence and behavior problems, experimenters scored fear and positive affect to laboratory tasks, and diurnal cortisol measures were obtained. We sought to address whether these early contexts, characterized by different types of neglect and deprivation, have differential effects on young children's development...
January 27, 2019: Child Maltreatment
M Lambert, J Brunet, M-E Couture-Lalande, C Bielajew
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) helps reduce cancer-related symptoms and improves overall functioning for women with and without a history of breast cancer (BC). Few researchers have examined the associations between PA and physiological stress measures. The aim of this study was to determine whether aerobic PA was associated with diurnal and reactive cortisol patterns, and whether these associations differed for women with and without a history of BC. METHODS: Participants were 25 women with a history of BC and 23 women without a history of BC who self-reported aerobic PA frequency...
February 2019: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Anders S West, Henriette P Sennels, Sofie A Simonsen, Marie Schønsted, Alexander H Zielinski, Niklas C Hansen, Poul J Jennum, Birgit Sander, Frauke Wolfram, Helle K Iversen
Background: Stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation often lack sufficient daytime blue light exposure due to the absence of natural light and are often exposed to light at unnatural time points. We hypothesized that artificial light imitating daylight, termed naturalistic light, would stabilize the circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin and serum cortisol levels among long-term hospitalized stroke patients. Methods: A quasi-randomized controlled trial. Stroke patients in need of rehabilitation were randomized between May 1, 2014, and June 1, 2015 to either a rehabilitation unit equipped entirely with always on naturalistic lighting (IU), or to a rehabilitation unit with standard indoor lighting (CU)...
2019: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Antje von Suchodoletz, Natalia M Rojas, Iryna Nadyukova, Ross A A Larsen, Fitim Uka
Teachers' stress is a dynamic combination of the individual teacher's characteristics and characteristics of the classroom and school environment. To date, there are limited studies on teachers' stress in the context of lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), where working conditions as well as general political and economic circumstances might pose a considerable threat for teachers' well-being. This study explores whether certain combinations of individual and environmental experiences of teachers in LMICs may result in stress, assessed as patterns of diurnal cortisol rhythm...
January 17, 2019: American Journal of Community Psychology
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