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Alexithymia Review

Ana Sofia Sequeira, Bruno Silva
BACKGROUND: The construct of alexithymia includes a deficit in identifying and describing feelings. It has been proposed that alexithymia plays a role in the etiology of PNES but patients with epilepsy have also scored high on measures of alexithymia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of alexithymia in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and to compare it with patients with epilepsy and healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines...
February 15, 2019: Psychosomatics
Maria Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Andrea Bulbena-Cabré, Anahita Bassir Nia, Gillian Zipursky, Marianne Goodman, Antonia S New
This article reviews the most salient neurobiological information available about borderline personality disorder (BPD) and presents a theoretic model for what lies at the heart of BPD that is grounded in those findings. It reviews the heritability, genetics, and the biological models of BPD, including the neurobiology of affective instability, impaired interoception, oxytocin and opiate models of poor attachment or interpersonal dysfunction, and structural brain imaging over the course of development in BPD; and posits that the core characteristic of BPD may be an impairment in emotional interoception or alexithymia...
December 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Emma Kinnaird, Catherine Stewart, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: New research suggests that, rather than representing a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), emotional processing difficulties reflect co-occurring alexithymia. Autistic individuals with alexithymia could therefore represent a specific subgroup of autism who may benefit from tailored interventions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the nature and prevalence of alexithymia in autism using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). METHODS: Online scientific databases were searched systematically for studies on ASD popu lations using the TAS...
November 3, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
N Solano-Pinto, C de-la-Pena, I Solbes-Canales, E Bernabeu-Brotons
INTRODUCTION: Eating disorders are severe mental disorders that appear in different diagnostic forms, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In recent years, a number of studies have highlighted the involvement of neuropsychological processes in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. AIM: To review the evidence on the deficits in the executive functions, attentional biases and central coherence in anorexia and bulimia nervosa in relation to a neuropsychological risk profile, a different neuropsychological profile associated with the aforementioned eating pathologies and the role of variables (body mass index, age, anxiety, impulsiveness, alexithymia, mood, body image) in the presence of neuropsychological deficits...
November 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Ciro Conversano, Laura Marchi, Ciacchini Rebecca, Claudia Carmassi, Bastianina Contena, Laura Maria Bazzichi, Angelo Gemignani
Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) is the second most common rheumatic disease with many effects on patient's quality of life. It has been described as a chronic condition characterized by widespread musculo-skeletal pain, sleep disorders and prominent fatigue. Regarding the role of personality factors in fibromyalgia, researchers have focused both on personality traits and psychopathological aspects showing inconsistent results. In particular, several studies have examined the role of alexithymia in FM patients, a trait of personality characterized by difficulty in identification, recognition and description of emotions and feelings, while others have focused on a specific type of personality, such as type D personality (distressed personality)...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Suzanne C Segerstrom, Gregory T Smith
Abundant evidence links personality with emotion via coping. Alternatively, personality can be viewed as an emergent property of responses to the experience of emotion. Dispositions to control, approach, escape, and avoid one's emotional experience underlie diverse traits, including positive and negative urgency, trait emotional approach and avoidance, alexithymia, and emotional expressiveness. In this review, we consider the neurobiological underpinnings of these dispositions and the nature (e.g., stability) and adaptiveness of the associated traits...
September 28, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Katharina S Goerlich
Neuroscientific studies have mostly employed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby et al., 1994a) for the assessment of alexithymia, a self-report scale that assesses the alexithymia facets difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and externally oriented thinking. These facets can be considered to capture difficulties in the cognitive processing of emotions associated with alexithymia. However, Nemiah and Sifneos' original conceptualization of alexithymia included also an affective component, a lack of imaginative capacities, which cannot be assessed using the TAS-20...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
O R Esin
The review highlights the main aspects of the epidemiology of chronic pain (pain lasting more than three months) as a factor that has a significant impact on the quality of life of children and adolescents. The paper presents new data on the epidemiology of headache, abdominal pain, musculoskeletal pain and combined pain syndromes. The author draws attention to the importance of alexithymia as a factor aggravating chronic pain in children and adolescents.
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Kevin Glisenti, Esben Strodl, Robert King
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for binge-eating disorder (BED). METHODS: We used a single-subject design in which 12 weeks of individual EFT were applied nonconcurrently to six female adult participants with BED, following three weekly baseline sessions. Participants were assessed for binge-eating psychopathology and emotion regulation difficulties on a weekly basis during baseline and treatment...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Hilary Norman, Lisa Marzano, Mark Coulson, Andrea Oskis
QUESTION: Alexithymia has been found to be modifiable through treatment, with associated clinical benefits. Recent studies have begun to test the potential of mindfulness-based interventions to reduce alexithymia, using skills-based, group training to improve non-judgemental, present-moment awareness. The objective of this review therefore was to conduct a systematic synthesis to assess the current state of knowledge about the effect of mindfulness-based interventions on alexithymia to inform clinical practice...
August 4, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Umberto Albert, Diana De Ronchi, Giuseppe Maina, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Historically, OCD has been considered to be associated with a relatively low risk of suicide. Recent studies, on the contrary, revealed a significant association between OCD and suicide attempts and ideation. A huge variation in prevalence rates, however, is reported. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence rates of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in individuals with OCD, and to identify predictors of suicide risk among subjects with OCD. METHOD: We systematically reviewed the literature on suicide risk (ideation and/or attempts) and OCD...
June 20, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Steven Davey, Jamin Halberstadt, Elliot Bell, Sunny Collings
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a problem of emotion regulation and for this reason alone may relate to suicidality. This article investigates the evidence for a direct relationship. It explores the possibility of an additional role for interoception in future research. METHODS: A scoping review of peer-reviewed journal articles examining alexithymia and suicidality was undertaken, followed by a critical assessment of the overall state of the evidence base in relation to interoception...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Endre Visted, Jon Vøllestad, Morten Birkeland Nielsen, Elisabeth Schanche
Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent, recurrent, and potentially chronic disorder. Identifying risk factors and underlying mechanisms to inform preventive and therapeutic interventions is therefore imperative. Emotion regulation is a proposed factor in the development and maintenance of MDD. The aim of the present review was to summarize and synthesize research on self-reported emotion regulation strategy use and emotion regulation abilities in adults diagnosed with current and remitted MDD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jenna E Boyd, Alina Protopopescu, Charlene O'Connor, Richard W J Neufeld, Rakesh Jetly, Heather K Hood, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
Background : Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant functional impairment in important areas, including interpersonal relationships and occupational or educational roles. Preliminary evidence suggests that the dissociative subtype of PTSD (PTSD+DS), characterized by marked symptoms of depersonalization and derealization, is associated with increased functional impairment and disease severity, including among military members and veterans diagnosed with PTSD. Similarly, first responders (e...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Daniel Maroti, Peter Lilliengren, Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar
Background: Alexithymia and emotional awareness may be considered overlapping constructs and both have been shown to be related to psychological and emotional well-being. However, it is not clear how the constructs relate to each other empirically or if they may overlap more or less in different populations. The aim of this review was therefore to conduct a meta-analysis of correlations between the most commonly used measures of alexithymia (i.e., the self-report instrument Toronto Alexithymia Scale; TAS-20) and emotional awareness (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tatjana van Strien
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Eating in response to negative emotions (EE) may be an explanatory factor of the weight regain of many dieters. This narrative review presents evidence on possible causes of EE and the association of EE with depression and obesity and discusses implications of these findings for the treatment of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Possible causes of EE are high dietary restraint, poor interoceptive awareness, alexithymia, emotion dysregulation and a reversed hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) stress axis...
April 25, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Danilo Carrozzino, Piero Porcelli
Background: Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality construct that represents a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotions and is currently understood to be related to a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. The present review aims to investigate the relationship of alexithymia with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders as functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID, as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)] and liver diseases as chronic hepatitis C (CHC), cirrhosis, and liver transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Giulia Natalucci, Noemi Faedda, Dario Calderoni, Rita Cerutti, Paola Verdecchia, Vincenzo Guidetti
Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints in children and adolescents and comorbidity rates are very high and the major associated diseases are depression, anxiety, atopic disorders, sleep, and behavioral disorders. In recent years, it has been highlighted that difficulties regulating emotions such as alexithymia have also been associated with diagnosis of somatization. Methods: We carried out a mini review analyzing the relation between alexithymia and primary headache (e.g., migraine and tension type headache) in children and adolescents by synthesizing the relevant studies in the literature on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ananya Mahapatra, Pawan Sharma
It has been hypothesized that individuals with alexithymia who have difficulty in identifying, expressing, and communicating emotions may overuse Internet as a tool of social interaction to better regulate their emotions and to fulfill their unmet social needs. Similarly, an increasing body of evidence suggests that alexithymia may also play an essential role in the etiopathogenesis of addictive disorders. We conducted a scoping review of questionnaire-based studies of problematic Internet use/Internet addiction and alexithymia...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors
K E Cruise, R Becerra
There has been a substantial growth in empirical research aimed at examining the co-occurrence of alexithymia and problematic alcohol use and alcohol use disorder (AUD) since Thorberg, Young, Sullivan, and Lyvers (2009) original review article. The objective of the present paper is therefore to provide a critical update review of research on alexithymia and problematic alcohol use published since 2009. A systematic search was conducted through PsychINFO, Medline, and ProQuest databases to obtain relevant literature published between 2009 and 2016...
February 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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