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Aging And Review

K Wang, L Luo, Z Z He
Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a hearing disorder where cochlear inner hair cell and/or the auditory nerve function is disrupted while outer hair cell function is normal. It can affect people of all ages, from infancy to adulthood. People with auditory neuropathy may have normal hearing threshold, or hearing loss ranging from mild to severe; they always have poor speech-perception abilities. It is a heterogeneous disorder which can have either congenital or acquired causes. AN may result from specific loss of cochlear inner hair cells, disordered release of neurotransmitters by inner hair cell ribbon synapses, deafferentation accompanying loss of auditory nerve fibers, neural dys-synchrony or conduction block as a result of demyelination of nerve fibers and auditory nerve hypoplasia...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
N Sai, W J Han, M M Wang, X Qin, T Zhang, W D Shen, J Liu, P Dai, S M Yang, D Y Han
Objective: To elucidate the clinical behavior, causes of misdiagnosis, surgical management, and outcomes of facial nerve schwannomas (FNS). Methods: A retrospective review in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2015 was carried out and evaluated 110 patients with FNS, including 50 males and 60 females, aged 16-67 years old. The appropriate surgical strategy was selected based on each patient's clinical manifestations, facial nerve function, and imaging characteristics...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Adrien Chopin, Daphne Bavelier, Dennis Michael Levi
PURPOSE: Stereoscopic vision (or stereopsis) is the ability to perceive depth from binocular disparity - the difference of viewpoints between the two eyes. Interestingly, there are large individual differences as to how well one can appreciate depth from such a cue. The total absence of stereoscopic vision, called 'stereoblindness', has been associated with negative behavioural outcomes such as poor distance estimation. Surprisingly, the prevalence of stereoblindness remains unclear, as it appears highly dependent on the way in which stereopsis is measured...
March 2019: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Sarah De Schryver, Bruce Mazer, Ann Clarke, Yvan St Pierre, Duncan Lejtneyi, Alexandra Langlois, Bahar Torabi, Wei W Zhao, Edmond S Chan, Ingrid Baerg, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on side effects of cow's milk oral immunotherapy (CM-OIT) using consensus definitions of food-induced anaphylaxis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of allergic reactions (ARs) and to identify risk factors associated with higher risk of anaphylactic ARs (AARs) during CM-OIT in children. METHODS: Clinical charts of children receiving CM-OIT were carefully reviewed.ARs were defined as single-organ ARs and AARs were defined as involvement of 2 organ systems and/or hypotension in response to CM protein...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Nicolás Molano-González, Juan-Manuel Anaya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the geoepidemiology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Latin America. METHODS: This was a three phase study in which original data from a Colombian cohort of patients with SS is presented, followed by a systematic review of Colombian and Latin American studies. Lastly, the geoepidemiology of SS in Latin America was assessed by comparing the clinical characteristics of the region with those of the rest of the world by means of a meta-analysis approach...
February 15, 2019: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Qi Jia, Guanghui Chen, Jiashi Cao, Xinghai Yang, Zhenhua Zhou, Haifeng Wei, Tielong Liu, Jianru Xiao
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of the bone are benign but locally aggressive. Pediatric spine giant-cell tumors (PSGCTs) have been infrequently reported in the literature because of the rarity of the disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to define the overall occurrence rate of PSGCTs among all spinal GCTs in our center and investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of this rare disease. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review...
February 15, 2019: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Sanjay M Aher, Arne Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia. Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of late initiation of ESAs, between eight and 28 days after birth, in reducing the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm or low birth weight infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 5 June 2018), Embase (1980 to 5 June 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 5 June 2018)...
February 15, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Liming Lu, Jingchun Zeng, Zehuai Wen, Chunzhi Tang, Nenggui Xu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma, also called malignant hepatoma, is a primary malignancy of the liver. Despite regular surveillance conducted in high-risk populations, most people with hepatocellular carcinoma are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Consequently, only a minority of people with the disease are suitable for surgical resection when diagnosed. OBJECTIVES: To compare the beneficial and harmful effects of transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) followed by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT) versus TACE alone in adults with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, considered unsuitable for surgical resection...
February 16, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tomas Dobrocky, Lorenz Grunder, Philipe S Breiding, Mattia Branca, Andreas Limacher, Pascal J Mosimann, Pasquale Mordasini, Felix Zibold, Levin Haeni, Christopher M Jesse, Christian Fung, Andreas Raabe, Christian T Ulrich, Jan Gralla, Jürgen Beck, Eike I Piechowiak
Importance: Various signs may be observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). However, the lack of a classification system integrating these findings limits decision making in clinical practice. Objective: To develop a probability score based on the most relevant brain MRI findings to assess the likelihood of an underlying spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in patients with SIH. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study in consecutive patients investigated for SIH was conducted at a single hospital department from February 2013 to October 2017...
February 18, 2019: JAMA Neurology
Ana Maria Furkima, Roberta Gonçalves da Silva, Gabriela Vanin, Rosemary Martino
INTRODUCTION: Temporal features of swallowing physiology vary with age in healthy normals and have the potential to impact swallow safety and efficiency in patients with dysphagia. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relation between temporal features of swallowing with penetration, aspiration and residue in adult patients with dysphagia regardless of etiology. METHODS: Operational definitions of relevant terms were defined a priori. A search of 5 databases was conducted to November 2016 without restriction to language...
February 9, 2019: NeuroRehabilitation
Alberto Serrano-Pozo, John H Growdon
Population-based clinic-pathological studies have established that the most common pathological substrate of dementia in community-dwelling elderly people is mixed, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular ischemic disease (CVID), rather than pure AD. While these could be just two frequent unrelated comorbidities in the elderly, epidemiological research has reinforced the idea that mid-life (age <65 years) vascular risk factors increase the risk of late-onset (age ≥ 65 years) dementia, and specifically AD...
2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kieran J Marston, Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Jeremiah J Peiffer
The global population is aging at an unprecedented rate giving rise to a greater prevalence of age-related illnesses such as dementia and vascular disease. Dementia affects approximately 47 million individuals globally with projections of 130 million by the year 2050. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately 75% of all cases and is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function, memory, and cerebral volume. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood; however, aging, genetics, and an individual's diet and lifestyle over several decades appear to be key determinants...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Tobore Onojighofia Tobore
Alzheimers' disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, with an estimated 5 million new cases occurring annually. Among the elderly, AD shortens life expectancy, results in disability, decreases quality of life, and ultimately, leads to institutionalization. Despite extensive research in the last few decades, its heterogeneous pathophysiology and etiopathogenesis have made it difficult to develop an effective treatment and prevention strategy. Aging is the biggest risk factor for AD and evidence suggest that the total number of older people in the population is going to increase astronomically in the next decades...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Elizabeth M Anderson, Jin Zhang, Greg Russell, Isai G Bowline, Braghadheeswar Thyagarajan, DengFeng Li, Lijun Ma, Erica R Anderson, Mariana Murea
Introduction: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathophysiology of kidney disease. Inhibitors of mitochondrial metabolism are being developed for the treatment of solid organ and hematologic malignancies. We describe the incidence and clinical features of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with the antimitochondrial drug CPI-613. Methods: We identified 33 patients with relapsed or refractory malignancy, previously enrolled in 3 open-label phase II studies, who received single-agent CPI-613 chemotherapy...
February 2019: KI Reports
Neelam Kaushal, Divya Vohora, Rajinder K Jalali, Sujeet Jha
Objectives: An understanding of bone mineral density (BMD) pattern in a population is crucial for prevention and diagnosis of osteoporosis and management of its complications in later life. This study aimed to screen the bone health status and factors associated with osteoporosis in an apparently healthy Indian population. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was done in a tertiary-care hospital for the subjects who had undergone preventive health-check-ups that included BMD measurements at femur-neck, total-femur, and lumbar-spine...
June 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Lo-Yu Chang, Keh-Sung Tsai, Jen-Kuei Peng, Chung-Hwan Chen, Gau-Tyan Lin, Chin-Hsueh Lin, Shih-Te Tu, I-Chieh Mao, Yih-Lan Gau, Hsusan-Chih Liu, Chi-Chien Niu, Min-Hong Hsieh, Jui-Teng Chien, Wei-Chieh Hung, Rong-Sen Yang, Chih-Hsing Wu, Ding-Cheng Chan
Osteoporosis and its associated fragility fractures are becoming a severe burden in the healthcare system globally. In the Asian-Pacific (AP) region, the rapidly increasing in aging population is the main reason accounting for the burden. Moreover, the paucity of quality care for osteoporosis continues to be an ongoing challenge. The Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) is a program promoted by International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) with a goal to improve quality of postfracture care and prevention of secondary fractures...
June 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Martha E Stewart, Anne T Knisely, Mackenzie W Sullivan, Kari L Ring, Susan C Modesitt
The objectives of this study were to determine both surgical and subsequent cancer outcomes for high-risk women from the University of Virginia's High-Risk Breast/Ovarian Cancer clinic undergoing ovarian cancer risk-reducing surgery. Retrospective review identified high risk women who had ovarian risk reducing surgery over the past decade and surgical outcomes, pathology, pre-operative screening results, and pre-/post-operative cancer diagnoses were evaluated. One hundred and eighty-three high-risk women had risk reducing surgery at a mean age of 50...
May 2019: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Rachael E Kreisler, Heather N Cornell, Julie K Levy
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a long-term (23-year) trap-neuter-return program on the population size of community cats in the Ocean Reef Community and to describe the demographic composition and outcome of enrolled cats. A retrospective study was performed using both cat census data collected between 1999 and 2013 as well as individual medical records for cats whose first visit occurred between 3/31/1995 and 12/31/2017. Medical record entries were reviewed to determine program inputs, cat outcomes, retroviral disease prevalence, and average age of first visit, sterilization, and death through 6/11/2018...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
M H Phyu, K W Y Kyaw, Z Myint, A Thida, S Satyanarayana, S T Aung
Setting: Myanmar's National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) uses the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay to diagnose rifampicin (RMP) resistance in sputum smear-positive (Sm+) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. The Xpert test may occasionally yield negative results (Xpert-) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, indicating a false-positive sputum smear result, false-negative Xpert result or infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Patients with NTM may respond poorly to first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. Objective: To assess the burden of Sm+, Xpert- results at the national level and treatment outcomes of Sm+, Xpert- patients in Yangon Region...
December 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Dominique P Germain, Perry M Elliott, Bruno Falissard, Victor V Fomin, Max J Hilz, Ana Jovanovic, Ilkka Kantola, Aleš Linhart, Renzo Mignani, Mehdi Namdar, Albina Nowak, João-Paulo Oliveira, Maurizio Pieroni, Miguel Viana-Baptista, Christoph Wanner, Marco Spada
Background: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human α-galactosidase has been available for the treatment of Fabry disease since 2001 in Europe and 2003 in the USA. Treatment outcomes with ERT are dependent on baseline patient characteristics, and published data are derived from heterogeneous study populations. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of all original articles on ERT in the treatment of Fabry disease published up until January 2017...
June 2019: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
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