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Needle chest decompression

Richard N Lesperance, Colin M Carroll, James K Aden, Jason B Young, Timothy C Nunez
Tension pneumothorax is commonly treated with needle decompression (ND) at the 2nd intercostal space midclavicular line (2nd ICS MCL) but is thought to have a high failure rate. Few studies have attempted to directly measure the failure rate in patients receiving the intervention. We performed a retrospective analysis of 10 years of patients receiving prehospital ND. CT scans were reviewed to record the location of catheters left indwelling and the proportion of patients who did not have any pneumothorax. Chest wall thickness was measured on both injured and uninjured sides at the 2nd ICS MCL and compared with the recommended alternative, the 5th ICS anterior axillary line (5th ICS AAL)...
November 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Maria J Mandt, Kari Hayes, Fred Severyn, Kathleen Adelgais
OBJECTIVE: Needle thoracostomy is a life-saving procedure. Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines recommend insertion of a 5 cm, 14-gauge needle for pneumothorax decompression. High-risk complications can arise if utilizing an inappropriate needle size. No study exist evaluating appropriate needle length in pediatric patients. Utilizing computed tomography (CT), we determined the needle length required to access the pleural cavity in children matched to Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape color...
January 9, 2019: Prehospital Emergency Care
Brenton Robinson
Subcutaneous emphysema (SE) is often seen as a sequela of chest tube placement, cardiothoracic surgery, trauma, pneumothorax, infection or malignancy. In most cases SE is self-limited and requires no intervention. Rarely, air can rapidly dissect into subcutaneous tissue planes leading to respiratory distress, patient discomfort and airway compromise. This is a case of a 75-year-old woman that developed massive SE and impending respiratory failure with rapid progression of air into her subcutaneous tissue. In an effort to rapidly stabilize the patient we placed multiple percutaneous angiocatheters into the subfascial space with complete resolution in <24 h...
July 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Maximilian Kippnich, Yvonne Jelting, Martin Kraus, Thorsten Artmann, Thomas Wurmb, Peter Kranke
BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing threat by terrorism and the resulting range of operations for the emergency medical service, the equipment as well as the rescue strategies are being adapted and expanded. An example is the "Recommended Action for Emergency Medical Services in Special Operations" (REBEL, Handlungsempfehlung für Rettungsdienst bei besonderen Einsatzlagen) of the highest Bavarian rescue service authority. In the following article, three cases are presented using new tools such as hemostyptics, thoracic patches and tourniquet from the REBEL kit in everyday operations...
July 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Frank K Butler, John B Holcomb, Stacy Shackelford, Harold R Montgomery, Shawn Anderson, Jeffrey S Cain, Howard R Champion, Cord W Cunningham, Warren C Dorlac, Brendon Drew, Kurt Edwards, John V Gandy, Elon Glassberg, Jennifer Gurney, Theodore Harcke, Donald A Jenkins, Jay Johannigman, Bijan S Kheirabadi, Russ S Kotwal, Lanny F Littlejohn, Matthew Martin, Edward L Mazuchowski, Edward J Otten, Travis Polk, Peter Rhee, Jason M Seery, Zsolt Stockinger, Jeremy Torrisi, Avi Yitzak, Ken Zafren, Scott P Zietlow
This change to the Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Guidelines that updates the recommendations for management of suspected tension pneumothorax for combat casualties in the prehospital setting does the following things: (1) Continues the aggressive approach to suspecting and treating tension pneumothorax based on mechanism of injury and respiratory distress that TCCC has advocated for in the past, as opposed to waiting until shock develops as a result of the tension pneumothorax before treating. The new wording does, however, emphasize that shock and cardiac arrest may ensue if the tension pneumothorax is not treated promptly...
December 0: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Virginia S Blackman, Benjamin D Walrath, Lauren K Reeves, Alejandra G Mora, Joseph K Maddry, Zsolt T Stockinger
BACKGROUND: US Navy nurses provide en route care for critically injured combat casualties without having a formal program for training, utilization, or evaluation. Little is known about missions supported by Navy nurses. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the number and types of patients transported and skill sets required by Navy nurses during 2 combat support deployments. METHODS: All interfacility casualty transfers between 2 separate facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan were assessed...
April 2018: Critical Care Nurse
Juan P Garrahan, Mark Lyttle, Ed Oakley, Stuart Dalziel, Lucia Nguyen, Arjun Rao, Santiago Mintegi, Franz Babl
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that approximately one per thousand paediatric ED attendances may require some sort of critical procedure, with intubation being by far the most common. It is unknown how often critical non-airway procedures such as chest decompression, CPR, ED thoracotomy, defibrillation, pacing, and advanced vascular access techniques are performed by paediatric emergency clinicians. OBJECTIVE: To determine the recent performance or supervision, and confidence for various paediatric critical non-airway procedures by senior paediatric emergency clinicians...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
S Goh, W R Xu, L T Teo
INTRODUCTION: Our study aims to compare the anterior and lateral approaches for needle thoracostomy (NT) and determine the adequacy of catheter lengths used for NT in Asian trauma patients based on computed tomography chest wall measurements. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review of chest computed tomography scans of 583 Singaporean trauma patients during period of 2011-2015 was conducted. Four measurements of chest wall thickness (CWT) were taken at the second intercostal space, midclavicular line and fifth intercostal space, midaxillary line bilaterally...
October 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Matthew L Leatherman, Laura M Fluke, Christian S McEvoy, Douglas M Pokorny, Robert L Ricca, Matthew J Martin, Christopher S Gamble, Travis M Polk
BACKGROUND: Tension pneumothorax is a cause of potentially preventable death in prehospital and battlefield settings and 14-gauge angiocatheter (14G AC) decompression remains the current treatment standard, despite its high incidence of failure. Traumatic pneumothorax is often associated with hemothorax, but 14G AC has no proven efficacy for associated hemothorax. We sought to compare the 14G AC to three alternative devices for treatment of tension hemopneumothorax (t-H/PTX) in a positive-pressure ventilation swine model...
December 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Luis E Morales Tenorio, Kelsey J Devine, Jayme Lee, Timothy M Kowalewski, Victor H Barocas
Tension pneumothorax, a major preventable cause of battlefield death, often arises from chest trauma and is treated by needle decompression to release trapped air from the pleural cavity. Surgical simulation mannequins are often employed to train medical personnel to perform this procedure properly. Accurate reproduction of the mechanical behavior of the parietal pleura, especially in response to needle penetration, is essential to maximize the fidelity of these surgical simulators. To date, however, the design of pleura-simulating material has been largely empirical and based on subjective practitioner feel rather than on the tissue properties, which have remained unknown...
November 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Bashar Alzghoul, Ayoub Innabi, Anusha Shanbhag, Kshitij Chatterjee, Farah Amer, Nikihil Meena
Pneumothorax is a well-recognized complication of central venous line insertion (CVL). Rarely, pneumothorax can lead to electrocardiogram (ECG) findings mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We present a 63-year-old man with iatrogenic right-sided pneumothorax who developed ST-segment elevation on a 12-lead ECG suggestive of myocardial infarction. The ECG findings completely resolved after needle decompression and chest tube placement. This case points up this rare electrocardiographic finding with discussion of possible mechanisms and differential diagnosis...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
Matthew L Leatherman, Jenny M Held, Laura M Fluke, Christian S McEvoy, Kenji Inaba, Daniel Grabo, Matthew J Martin, Angela S Earley, Robert L Ricca, Travis M Polk
BACKGROUND: Tension pneumothorax (tPTX) remains a significant cause of potentially preventable death in military and civilian settings. The current prehospital standard of care for tPTX is immediate decompression with a 14-gauge 8-cm angiocatheter; however, failure rates may be as high as 17% to 60%. Alternative devices, such as 10-gauge angiocatheter, modified Veress needle, and laparoscopic trocar, have shown to be potentially more effective in animal models; however, little is known about the relative insertional safety or mechanical stability during casualty movement...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Alexander Kaserer, Philipp Stein, Hans-Peter Simmen, Donat R Spahn, Valentin Neuhaus
INTRODUCTION: Chest decompression can be performed by different techniques, like needle thoracocentesis (NT), lateral thoracostomy (LT), or tube thoracostomy (TT). The aim of this study was to report the incidence of prehospital chest decompression and to analyse the effectiveness of these techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series study, all medical records of adult trauma patients undergoing prehospital chest decompression and admitted to the resuscitation area of a level-1 trauma center between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed and analysed...
March 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Joseph K Maddry, Alejandra G Mora, Shelia Savell, Lauren K Reeves, Crystal A Perez, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: Medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) is the movement and en route care of injured and medically compromised patients by medical care providers via helicopter. Military MEDEVAC platforms provide lifesaving interventions that improve survival in combat. There is limited evidence to support decision making related to en route care and allocation of resources. The association between provider type and en route care is not well understood. Our objective was to describe MEDEVAC providers and identify associations between provider type, procedures performed, and outcomes...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
H Drinhaus, T Annecke, J Hinkelbein
Decompression of the chest is a life-saving invasive procedure for tension pneumothorax, trauma-associated cardiopulmonary resuscitation or massive haematopneumothorax that every emergency physician or intensivist must master. Particularly in the preclinical setting, indication must be restricted to urgent cases, but in these cases chest decompression must be executed without delay, even in subpar circumstances. The methods available are needle decompression or thoracentesis via mini-thoracotomy with or without insertion of a chest tube in the midclavicular line of the 2nd/3rd intercostal space (Monaldi-position) or in the anterior to mid-axillary line of the 4th/5th intercostal space (Bülau-position)...
October 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Joseph Maddry, Alejandra G Mora, Shelia Savell, Lauren K Reeves, Crystal A Perez, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: Medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) is the movement and en route care of injured and medically compromised patients by medical care providers via helicopter. Military MEDEVAC platforms provide life-saving interventions that improve survival in combat. There is limited evidence to support decision making related to en route care and allocation of resources. The association between provider type and en route care is not well understood. Our objective was to describe MEDEVAC providers and identify associations between provider type, procedures performed, and outcomes...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jennifer Davies, David Spitzer, Maria Phylactou, Martin Glasser
A 91-year-old presented with a rare cause of cardiac arrest. He was initially admitted with severe back pain following vomiting and diagnosed with probable aspiration pneumonia. On day 3 of admission, he was discovered in cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started. On intubation, a left-sided pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema were noted. Needle decompression showed gastric fluid leaking from the cannula. The patient regained a cardiac output, and a subsequent CT scan confirmed a large pneumomediastinum with air tracking to the neck and chest, and bilateral pneumothoraces...
May 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
I M Shapey, D S Kumar, K Roberts
BACKGROUND: On occasion, advanced invasive procedures in pre-hospital care can be life saving. This study aimed to identify the contemporary use of these procedures on a regional doctor-led air ambulance unit, and to define the need, skill set and training requirements for a regional pre-hospital team in the UK. METHODS: Mission data were recorded prospectively and the database reviewed to identify invasive procedures over a 76-month period. These cases were reviewed with indications, mechanism of injury, presence of cardiac arrest at any time point (±return of spontaneous circulation) and procedural failure or morbidity...
December 2012: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Danuel V Laan, Trang Diem N Vu, Cornelius A Thiels, T K Pandian, Henry J Schiller, M Hassan Murad, Johnathon M Aho
INTRODUCTION: Current Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines recommend decompression for thoracic tension physiology using a 5-cm angiocatheter at the second intercostal space (ICS) on the midclavicular line (MCL). High failure rates occur. Through systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to determine the chest wall thickness (CWT) of the 2nd ICS-MCL, the 4th/5th ICS at the anterior axillary line (AAL), the 4th/5th ICS mid axillary line (MAL) and needle thoracostomy failure rates using the currently recommended 5-cm angiocatheter...
April 2016: Injury
Matthias Hecker, Katrin Hegenscheid, Henry Völzke, Peter Hinz, Jörn Lange, Axel Ekkernkamp, Matthias Frank
BACKGROUND: Tension pneumothorax is one of the leading causes of preventable death in both military and civilian trauma patients. Needle decompression is recommended in trauma guidelines as an emergency procedure to relieve increased intrapleural pressure. The main reason for decompression failure is reported to be insufficient needle length in proportion to the chest wall thickness (CWT). So far, population-based epidemiologic data on CWT are missing. Therefore, it was the aim of this work to investigate the CWT in the second intercostal space, midclavicular line, based on magnetic resonance imaging data of a large population-based sample...
January 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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