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CV Disease

Jonviea D Chamberlain, Anne Buzzell, Hans Peter Gmünder, Kerstin Hug, Xavier Jordan, André Moser, Martin Schubert, Marcel Zwahlen, Martin W G Brinkhof
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) are a neurological condition associated with reduced well-being, increased morbidity and reductions in life expectancy. Estimates of all-cause and cause-specific mortality can aid in identifying targets for prevention and management of contributors for premature mortality. OBJECTIVES: To compare all-cause and cause-specific rates of mortality to that of the Swiss general population; to identify differentials in risk of cause-specific mortality according to lesion characteristics...
February 14, 2019: Neuroepidemiology
Justyna Rosińska, Wojciech Ambrosius, Joanna Maciejewska, Robert Narożny, Wojciech Kozubski, Maria Łukasik
INTRODUCTION: Platelet-derived microvesicles (pMVs) exhibit procoagulant and proinflammatory properties and play a role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The study examined the association between the total number of pMVs and their phenotypes with carotid atherosclerosis and recurrent vascular events (VEs) in patients in the convalescent phase of ischemic stroke (IS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 72 patients with IS secondary to large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) (n = 40) and small arteries occlusion (SAO) (n = 32) and 69 matched cardiovascular disease risk-factor (RF) controls...
February 2, 2019: Thrombosis Research
Fan Meng, Ruifeng Li, Liyu Ma, Lifang Liu, Xiaorong Lai, Dongyang Yang, Junmin Wei, Dong Ma, Zijun Li
Esophageal carcinoma, with a increasing incidence, is one of the most aggressive carcinomas in gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate an association of oral pathogens with multiple diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and gastrointestinal malignancies. Nevertheless, a causal relationship between oral pathogens and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been elucidated. Here, we found that Porphyromonas was significantly enriched in the saliva of patients with ESCC, compared with that in normal human...
February 11, 2019: Microbes and Infection
Jonathan H Soslow, Meng Xu, James C Slaughter, Kimberly Crum, Joshua D Chew, W Bryan Burnette, Yan Ru Su, Kelsey Tomasek, David A Parra, Larry W Markham
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Standard cardiac biomarkers are poor indicators of DMD cardiovascular disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate collagen turnover. Given the cardiac fibrosis seen in DMD, we hypothesized that MMPs and TIMPs correlate with severity of DMD cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospectively enrolled DMD subjects (n=42) underwent cardiac MRI for function and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), including LGE severity from 0 (no LGE) to 4 (severe)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Jiankun Li, Hairong Wang, Xiaowei Shi, Lili Zhao, Tao Lv, Qi Yuan, Wenyang Hao, Jing Zhu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The abnormal increase in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are critical events in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including restenosis and atherosclerosis. The dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (common name: Huangqin in China) have been confirmed to possess beneficial effects on CVD by clinical and modern pharmacological studies. Flavonoids in Huangqin exert anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Blaine Phillips, Justyna Szostak, Bjoern Titz, Walter K Schlage, Emmanuel Guedj, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Florian Martin, Ansgar Buettner, Ashraf Elamin, Alain Sewer, Nicolas Sierro, Mohamed Amin Choukrallah, Thomas Schneider, Nikolai V Ivanov, Charles Teng, Ching Keong Tung, Wei Ting Lim, Ying Shan Yeo, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors in the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Modified-risk tobacco products (MRTP) are being developed to provide substitute products for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit, to lessen the smoking-related health risks. In this study, the ApoE-/- mouse model was used to investigate the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) from the reference cigarette 3R4F, or aerosol from two potential MRTPs based on the heat-not-burn principle, carbon-heated tobacco product 1...
February 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yazun Bashir Jarrar, Qais Jarrar, Abdulqader Abed, Mohammad Abu-Shalhoob
Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites are involved in cardiovascular diseases and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the gene expression of ARA-metabolizing cyp450 genes in the hearts, kidneys and livers of experimental mice. Thirty five Balb/c mice were divided into 5 groups, and each group contained 7 mice. Then, the groups were administered different NSAIDs, diclofenac mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, or meloxicam, for 14 days in doses equivalent to those used in human treatment...
February 11, 2019: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Farahmand Maryam, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Davood Khalili, Leila Cheraghi, Mahnaz Bahri Khomami, Fereidoun Azizi
AIMS: Duration of endogenous estrogen exposure is apparently associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, the longer durations being more cardiovascular disease protective in women. We aimed to investigate the association of cumulative duration of endogenous estrogen exposure over women's reproductive lifespans with cardiovascular disease outcomes. MAIN METHODS: For the purpose of the present study, of 10,192 female participants, after excluding those using HRT (n = 84), 3656 women, aged ≥30 years, who met eligibility criteria were selected and divided into three groups based on tertiles (T1, T2, T3) of exposure durations to endogenous estrogen...
February 11, 2019: Life Sciences
Michihiro Satoh, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Kei Asayama, Yoshitaka Murakami, Daisuke Sugiyama, Michiko Yamada, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Kiyomi Sakata, Fujiko Irie, Toshimi Sairenchi, Shizukiyo Ishikawa, Masahiko Kiyama, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Katsuyuki Miura, Yutaka Imai, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Tomonori Okamura
Lifetime risk (LTR) provides an absolute risk assessment during the remainder of one’s life. Few studies have focused on the LTRs of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD), categorized by fine blood pressure in Asian populations. We aimed to assess it using a large database of a meta-analysis with the individual participant data. The present metaanalysis included 107 737 Japanese (42.4% men; mean age, 55.1 years) from 13 cohorts. During the mean follow-up of 15.2±5.3 years (1 559 136 person-years), 1922 died from stroke and 913 from CHD...
January 2019: Hypertension
Rebecca D Ganetzky, Claudia Stendel, Elizabeth M McCormick, Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham, Amy C Goldstein, Thomas Klopstock, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial complex V (CV) generates cellular energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial disease caused by the m.8993T>G pathogenic variant in CV subunit gene, MT-ATP6, was among the first described human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases. Due to a lack of clinically-available functional assays, validating the definitive pathogenicity of additional MT-ATP6 variants remains challenging. We reviewed all reported MT-ATP6 disease cases (n=218) to date, to assess for MT-ATP6 variants, heteroplasmy levels, and inheritance correlation with clinical presentation and biochemical findings...
February 14, 2019: Human Mutation
Edin Begic, Suncica Hadzidedic, Ajla Kulaglic, Belma Ramic-Brkic, Zijo Begic, Mirsada Causevic
Alzheimer's disease represents the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of progressive cognitive impairment. Predicting cognitive decline is challenging but would be invaluable in an increasingly aging population which also experiences a rising cardiovascular risk. In order to examine whether plasma measurements of one of the established biomarkers of heart failure, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), reflect a decline in cognitive function, associated with Alzheimer's disease neurodegeneration, BNP levels were analysed, by using a novel assay called a SOMAscan, in 1...
2019: PloS One
Cathy Hue-Beauvais, Etienne Aujean, Guy Miranda, Delphine Ralliard-Rousseau, Sarah Valentino, Nicolas Brun, Stessy Ladebese, Christine Péchoux, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Madia Charlier
Exposure to fine-particulate air pollution is a major global health concern because it is associated with reduced birth weight and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we have investigated the potential for exposure to diesel exhaust during pregnancy to influence mammary gland development and milk composition. Female rabbits were therefore exposed by nose-only inhalation to either diluted diesel exhaust fumes (1 mg/m3) or clean air for 2h/day, 5 days/week, from the 3rd to the 27th days of pregnancy...
2019: PloS One
Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Farshad Farzadfar, Bagher Larijani, Moghadameh Mirzaei, Ali Akbar Haghdoost
BACKGROUND: Following the epidemiologic and demographic transition, non-communicable disease mortality is the leading cause of death in Iran. Projecting mortality trend can provide valuable tools for policy makers and planners. In this article, we have estimated the trend of non-communicable disease mortality during 2001-2015 and have projected it until 2030 at national and subnational levels in Iran. METHODS: The data employed was gathered from the Iranian death registration system and using the Spatio-temporal model, the trends of 4 major categories of non-communicable diseases (cancers, cardiovascular diseases, asthma and COPD, and diabetes) by 2030 were projected at the national and subnational levels...
2019: PloS One
Sandeep Kumar, Reinier A Boon, Lars Maegdefessel, Stefanie Dimmeler, Hanjoong Jo
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a local dilatation of the abdominal aortic vessel wall and is among the most challenging cardiovascular diseases as without urgent surgical intervention, ruptured AAA has a mortality rate of >80%. Most patients present acutely after aneurysm rupture or dissection from a previously asymptomatic condition and are managed by either surgery or endovascular repair. Patients usually are old and have other concurrent diseases and conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia making surgical intervention more difficult...
February 15, 2019: Circulation Research
John D Akins, Charles K Crawford, Heath M Burton, Anthony S Wolfe, Emre Vardarli, Edward F Coyle
Acute exercise improves postprandial lipemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, recent research suggests that prolonged sedentary behavior might abolish these healthy metabolic benefits. Accordingly, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of an acute bout of exercise on postprandial plasma triglyceride, glucose, and insulin concentrations after four days of prolonged sitting (~13.5 hrs/day). METHODS: Ten untrained to recreationally active men (n=5) and women (n=5) completed a counterbalanced, crossover study...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jeffrey I Mechanick, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, W Timothy Garvey
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) has created a dysglycemia-based chronic disease (DBCD) multimorbidity care model consisting of four distinct stages along the insulin resistance-prediabetes-type 2 diabetes (T2D) spectrum that are actionable in a preventive care paradigm to reduce the potential impact of T2D, cardiometabolic risk, and cardiovascular events. The controversy of whether there is value, cost-effectiveness, or clinical benefit of diagnosing and/or managing the prediabetes state is resolved by regarding the problem, not in isolation, but as an intermediate stage in the continuum of a progressive chronic disease with opportunities for multiple concurrent prevention strategies...
November 2018: Endocrine Practice
Philipp Hillmeister, Ivo Buschmann, Anja Bondke Persson
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) a Greek philosopher presented in one of his earliest work in the fourth century BC an accurate and universal description of the human cardiovascular system. Aristotle laid the foundation of modern evidence-based medicine, concluding there cannot be a scientific conclusion which is drawn from a single person or an individual alone: "Individuum est ineffabile" (The individual cannot be grasped) 1 . Nowadays diseases of the cardiovascular system (CVD) are the leading cause of illness and death worldwide, except on the African continent 2 , while at the same time modern clinical medicine sees a paradigm shift towards individual, personalized treatment refining the standards set by evidence-based guidelines...
February 14, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Wenhua Zhao, Lixue Wang, Viktoria Haller, Andreas Ritsch
SCOPE: HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. Polyphenols including ellagitannins have been shown to exert antiatherogenic properties. Urolithin B is formed from ellagitannins by components of the gut microbiota and urolithins might be involved in beneficial effects against cardiovascular diseases in vitro. In this study we investigated the influence of urolithin B on several parameters involved in the lipid plaque deposition and the reverse cholesterol transport...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Eun-Ho Lee, Sung-Cheol Yun, Ye-Ji Lim, Jun-Young Jo, Dae-Kee Choi, In-Cheol Choi
We assessed whether perioperative fluid management with balanced solutions and a limited volume of hydroxyethyl starch (renal-protective fluid management [RPF] strategy) could improve renal outcomes after cardiovascular surgery.For this retrospective observational study, we evaluated 2613 patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. The control group were given intravenous fluids with saline-based solutions and unlimited volumes of hydroxyethyl starch solutions and the RPF group were given intravenous fluids with RPF...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hisato Takagi, Yosuke Hari, Norikazu Kawai, Toshiki Kuno, Tomo Ando
AIMS: To evaluate whether liver disease is associated with increased mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and whether TAVI is associated with decreased mortality compared to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with liver disease, we performed meta-analyses of currently available studies. METHODS: Studies reporting mortality in TAVI patients with liver disease versus those without liver disease and mortality after TAVI versus SAVR in patients with liver disease were eligible to be included...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
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