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Janeesh Plakkal Ayyappan, Kezia Lizardo, Sean Wang, Edward Yurkow, Jyothi F Nagajyothi
Trypanosoma cruzi infection results in debilitating cardiomyopathy, which is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the endemic regions of Chagas disease (CD). The pathogenesis of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM) has been intensely studied as a chronic inflammatory disease until recent observations reporting the role of cardio-metabolic dysfunctions. In particular, we demonstrated accumulation of lipid droplets and impaired cardiac lipid metabolism in the hearts of cardiomyopathic mice and patients, and their association with impaired mitochondrial functions and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in CD mice...
March 13, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Farzane Shanebandpour Tabari, Ansar Karimian, Hadi Parsian, Vahid Rameshknia, Ata Mahmoodpour, Maryam Majidinia, Mahmood Maniati, Bahman Yousefi
FGF21 is a peptide hormone that regulates homeostasis of lipid and glucose as well as energy metabolism. It is mainly expressed and secreted in liver and adipose tissues, and it is expressed in lower amounts in the aorta. Recent clinical and preclinical studies indicate increased serum FGF21 levels in atherosclerosis patients. Also, FGF21 therapy has been reported to reduce the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis in animal models and in vitro studies. Moreover, growing evidence indicates that administration of exogenous FGF21 induces anti-atherosclerotic effects, because of its ability to reduce lipid profile, alleviation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis...
March 16, 2019: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Finn Jung, Tino Lippmann, Annette Brandt, Cheng Jun Jin, Anna Janina Engstler, Anja Baumann
PURPOSE: Results of some epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a decreased risk to develop NAFLD. Here, the effect of the consumption of moderate beer and diluted ethanol, respectively, on the development of NAFLD were assessed. METHODS: Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (C-D) or a diet rich in fructose, fat and cholesterol (FFC) enriched isocalorically and isoalcoholically with beer (FFC + B) or plain ethanol (FFC + E) (2...
March 16, 2019: European Journal of Nutrition
Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Sandrine Passemard, Alain Verloes, Pierre Gressens, Vincent El Ghouzzi
The Golgi apparatus (GA) is involved in a whole spectrum of activities, from lipid biosynthesis and membrane secretion to the posttranslational processing and trafficking of most proteins, the control of mitosis, cell polarity, migration and morphogenesis, and diverse processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, and the stress response. In keeping with its versatility, mutations in GA proteins lead to a number of different disorders, including syndromes with multisystem involvement. Intriguingly, however, > 40% of the GA-related genes known to be associated with disease affect the central or peripheral nervous system, highlighting the critical importance of the GA for neural function...
March 15, 2019: Developmental Neuroscience
J Vinoth Arul Raj, B Bharathiraja, B Vijayakumar, S Arokiyaraj, J Iyyappan, R Praveen Kumar
In this present work nanocomposite composed of Mn-ZnO capped with Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) was utilized as heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of oil extracted from Nannochloropsis oculata into biodiesel using methanol as an acyl acceptor. The synthesized Mn-ZnO novel nanocomposite capped with Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) was characterized by using SEM and XRD. Lipid contents from the microalgae were extracted by sonication and biphasic solvent method. The process parameters involved for heterogeneous catalysis of N...
March 7, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Liyuan Chai, Chunlian Ding, Jiawei Li, Zhihui Yang, Yan Shi
The release of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] into water bodies poses a major threat to the environment and human health. However, studies of the biological response to Cr(VI) are limited. In this study, a toxic bacterial mechanism of Cr(VI) was investigated using Pannonibacter phragmitetus BB (hereafter BB), which was isolated from chromate slag. The maximum Cr(VI) concentrations with respect to the resistance and reduction by BB are 4000 mg L-1 and 2500 mg L-1 , respectively. In the BB genome, more genes responsible for Cr(VI) resistance and reduction are observed compared with other P...
March 6, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Praveen Gupta, Chandra Shekhar Seth
The present study investigates As(V) toxicity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Pusa Rohini) and its alleviation by exogenous supplementation of nitrate. The seven days old seedlings were grown up to thirty days under defined levels of As(V) concentrations (0, 2.5, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/250 g soil) in alone or/and in combination with 20 mM nitrate. The arsenic accumulation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, and AsA-GSH cycle were evaluated. Results revealed that As(V) exposure significantly (P ≤ 0...
March 9, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Neha Gupta, Puneet Khare, D P Singh
Microalga Scenedesmus vacuolatus exhibited maximum growth, protein and carbohydrate contents at 10.0 mM concentration of nitrate, 1.0 mM of glutamate nitrogen and at C/N ratio (12 mM acetate+10 mM nitrate). However, these cell constituents showed the highest values in the C+N grown cells, but the lipid content was found to be the highest glutamate grown cells. FTIR analysis of Lipid/Carbohydrate and Lipid/Protein ratio and flow cytometric analysis of neutral lipids revealed higher lipid content in the glutamate grown cells than in the nitrogen starved, nitrate and C+N grown cells...
March 14, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tahereh Dara, Alireza Vatanara, Mohsen Nabi Meybodi, Molood Alsadat Vakilinezhad, Soroor Sadegh Malvajerd, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Azam Shamsian, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Hooman Kaghazian, Mohammad Hossein Mosaddegh
Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) is a promising approach for delivery of various drugs including proteins and peptides. However, the loading of hydrophilic drugs into the lipoid matrix of SLNs is challenging. The statistical design is a potential method facilitating the optimization of nanoparticles characteristics. In this study, the Box-Behnken design was conducted to optimize the preparation of Erythropoietin (EPO) loaded SLNs. Circular dichroism, size exclusion chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and ELISA tests were used to prove the compatibility of the process with the stability of EPO...
March 1, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Marc Long, Aleicia Holland, Hélène Planquette, David González Santana, Hannah Whitby, Philippe Soudant, Géraldine Sarthou, Hélène Hégaret, Dianne F Jolley
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum produces toxic compounds, including paralytic shellfish toxins, but also some unknown extracellular toxins. Although copper (Cu) is an essential element, it can impair microalgal physiology and increase their toxic potency. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of dissolved Cu (7 nM, 79 nM and 164 nM) on A. minutum allelochemical potency, here defined as negative effects of a protist on competing protists through the release of chemicals...
March 8, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Z Mazyarkin, T Peleg, I Golani, L Sharony, I Kremer, A Shamir
The positive effect of exercise on human health and the relationship between physical activity, health, and wellbeing are well studied and extensively documented in the literature. However, considerably less attention is devoted to the impact of exercise on mental health and wellbeing for people experiencing a mental illness, in general, and in particular for inpatients in the mental health care system. Here, we determine the clinical feasibility and effects of short-term (up to three months) vs long-term (up to six months) group-based exercise program for inpatients with chronic mental health...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jone Garate, Sergio Lage, Roberto Fernández, Verónica Velasco, Beatriz Abad, Aintzane Asumendi, Jesús Gardeazabal, Yoana Arroyo-Berdugo, María Ángeles Rodríguez, Juan Luis Artola, Ignacio Zabalza, Begoña Ochoa, José A Fernández, María Dolores Boyano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2019: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Zhengkun Zhang, Yang Lu, Wenjing Xu, Qian Du, Li Sui, Yu Zhao, Qiyun Li
Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana) is a broad-spectrum entomopathogenic species of fungi which is a natural enemy of Ostrinia furnacalis (O. furnacalis). Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of pathogenicity difference of B. bassiana strains on O. furnacalis has not been investigated before. In this study, two B. bassiana strains isolated from the infected O. furnacalis and exhibited different pathogenicity were chose to analyze the gene expression using RNA-sequencing analysis. To investigate the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of these two strains, total RNA was extracted and Cuffdiff software was applied to perform the significance analysis of the microarrays method...
March 13, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Carine Raquel Richter Schmitz, Tuany Eichwald, Maria Victória Branco Flores, Karina Giacomini Varela, Analu Mantovani, Jovani Antônio Steffani, Viviane Glaser, Diego de Carvalho, Aline Pertile Remor
INTRODUCTION: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element required for several biological systems. However, it is toxic in excessive accumulation. The toxic effects following Mn overexposure is well known in the CNS but other studies evaluating other target tissues remain scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate sex-related differences in oxidative stress, metabolic parameters and Mn deposition in peripheral organs of Wistar rats exposed to subacute model of intoxication...
March 13, 2019: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Nancy N Shahin, Nagla A El-Nabarawy, Ahmed S Gouda, Bruno Mégarbane
The exponentially increasing use of electromagnetic field (EMF)-emitting devices imposes substantial health burden on modern societies with particular concerns of male infertility. Limited studies have addressed the modulation of this risk by protective agents. We investigated the hazardous effects of rat exposure to EMF (900 MHz, 2 h/day for 8 weeks) on male fertility and evaluated the possible protective effect of the polyamine, spermine, against EMF-induced alterations. Exposure to EMF significantly decreased sperm count, viability and motility, and increased sperm deformities...
March 13, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ricardo Gaspar, Jon Pallbo, Ulrich Weininger, Sara Linse, Emma Sparr
The deposition of α-synuclein fibrils is one hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigate how ganglioside lipids, present in high amounts in neurons and exosomes, influence the aggregation kinetics of α-synuclein. Gangliosides, as well as, other anionic lipid species with small or large headgroups were found to induce conformational changes of α-synuclein monomers and catalyse their aggregation at mildly acidic conditions. Although the extent of this catalytic effect was slightly higher for gangliosides, the results imply that charge interactions are more important than headgroup chemistry in triggering aggregation...
March 13, 2019: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Proteins and Proteomics
S Granato, G Barbaro, M R Di Giorgio, F M Rossi, C Marzano, F Impronta, M Spaziani, A Anzuini, A Lenzi, A F Radicioni
CONTEXT: Klinefelter syndrome (KS), in which subjects have additional copies of X chromosomes, is the most common male sex chromosome abnormality, with a prevalence of 1 in 660 and an incidence of about 1 in 500-700 newborns. Its sign and symptoms include infertility, generally low testosterone levels, and an increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) reflects visceral adiposity rather than general obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze echocardiographic EFT in a cohort of patients with KS in comparison with non-obese and obese euploid controls, and to evaluate its correlation with biochemical parameters...
March 13, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Federica Gilardi, Carine Winkler, Laure Quignodon, Jean-Gael Diserens, Barbara Toffoli, Mariano Schiffrin, Chiara Sardella, Frédéric Preitner, Béatrice Desvergne
BACKGROUND: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor involved in many aspects of metabolism, immune response and development. Numerous studies relying on tissue-specific invalidation of the Pparg gene have shown distinct facets of its activity, whereas the effects of its systemic inactivation remain unexplored due to embryonic lethality. By maintaining PPARγ expression in the placenta, we recently generated a mouse model carrying Pparg full body deletion (PpargΔ/Δ ), which in contrast to a previously published model is totally deprived of any form of adipose tissue...
March 13, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Rommy Díaz, Manuel Lee-Estevez, John Quiñones, Kelly Dumorné, Stefania Short, Patricio Ulloa-Rodríguez, Ivan Valdebenito, Néstor Sepúlveda, Jorge G Farías
The cold storage and cryopreservation of semen decrease sperm quality. Morphological and biochemical analyses of spermatozoa provide valuable information for the optimization of storage protocols to obtain a sufficient number of spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology and lipid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) spermatozoa after storage at 4 °C and cryopreservation. Semen samples were obtained by stripping. One aliquot was stored at 4 °C for 7 days, and another aliquot was cryopreserved...
March 5, 2019: Animal Reproduction Science
Sandie Gerby, Mathias Simplicien, Pascale Duchez, Jean Chevaleyre, Zoran Ivanovic, Marija Vlaski-Lafarge
BACKGROUND: Cold-induced cell injuries are associated with an increase in the cellular labile iron pool (LIP) followed by lipid peroxidation and alteration of mitochondrial function, which lead to cell death. Recently, we showed that incubation in a hypoxic/hypercapnic (HH) gas mixture improved the survival of a population of cord blood hematopoietic progenitors and CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in severe hypothermia. To explain the underlying mechanism, here we test if this HH-induced cytoprotection in cold conditions is associated with the level of LIP and lysosome stability...
March 13, 2019: Cytotherapy
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