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Christopher M Goodwin, Joshua Munger
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes disease in immunosuppressed populations. HCMV has a complex relationship with innate immune signaling pathways. Specifically, HCMV has been found to block some aspects of inflammatory signaling while benefiting from others. Through analysis of knockout cell lines targeting the NFκB regulatory kinases IKKα and IKKβ, we find that the IKK kinases are host restriction factors that contribute to cytokine-mediated resistance to viral infection, limit the initiation of HCMV infection, and attenuate viral cell-to-cell spread...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
Allen S Chen, Vincent F Miccio, Clark C Smith, George C Christolias, Adam R Blanchard
Objective: To determine if skin wheals reduce procedural pain associated with lumbar medial branch blocks (MBBs) performed with 25-gauge needles. Design: Prospective comparative observational study. Setting: Outpatient Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and interventional pain practice within an academic tertiary care center. Subjects: Ninety-nine consecutive patients who underwent lumbar MBBs for facet pain were included...
February 12, 2019: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
J de Andrés Ares, F Gilsanz
Low back pain is currently one of the main public health problems. Among the multiple causes, pain in the zygapophysial joints, also called facets or posterior vertebral joints, are an important cause, usually secondary to osteoarthritis. The source of low back pain is often difficult to find, making the therapeutic approach to the patient sub-optimal. Diagnostic blocks are a very important tool in establishing an adequate treatment for patients with low back pain, as long as they are performed accurately, with an adequate local anaesthetic volume, with a suitable image and fluoroscopic projection and its result are precisely interpreted...
January 22, 2019: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Eldon Loh, Jennifer N Reid, Fatimah Alibrahim, Blayne Welk
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a common treatment modality for chronic axial spine pain. Controversy exists over its effectiveness, and outcomes in a real-world setting have not been evaluated despite increasing use of RFA. This study examined changes in healthcare utilization and opioid use after RFA in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Ontario using administrative data. Ontario residents receiving their initial RFA between 1 January 2009 and 31 March 2015 were included...
January 23, 2019: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Hui Shi, Xiao-Long Wang, Hong-Feng Quan, Lin Yan, Xiu-Ying Pei, Rui Wang, Xiao-Dong Peng
Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation. They can be phenotypically divided into a classical phenotype (pro-inflammatory, M1) or an alternative phenotype (anti-inflammatory, M2) with different physiological characteristics and biological functions in the inflammatory process. Betaine has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we aimed to verify the anti-inflammatory effects of betaine and elucidate its possible molecular mechanisms of action in vitro. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial cells were used as an inflammatory model to study the anti-inflammatory efficacy of betaine and explore its mechanism of regulating microglial polarisation by investigating the morphological changes and associated inflammatory changes...
January 21, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Toshiaki Katayama, Shuichi Kawashima, Shinobu Okamoto, Yuki Moriya, Hirokazu Chiba, Yuki Naito, Takatomo Fujisawa, Hiroshi Mori, Toshihisa Takagi
TogoGenome is a genome database that is purely based on the Semantic Web technology, which enables the integration of heterogeneous data and flexible semantic searches. All the information is stored as Resource Description Framework (RDF) data, and the reporting web pages are generated on the fly using SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) queries. TogoGenome provides a semantic-faceted search system by gene functional annotation, taxonomy, phenotypes and environment based on the relevant ontologies...
January 1, 2019: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Jennifer L Russell, Ngoc-Lan L Tran, Thomas E Mallouk
During evaporative self-assembly of colloidal crystal films, spherical L-arginine-stabilized silica colloids adapt to different close-packed geometries by faceting and forming bridge connections with their nearest neighbors. We systematically studied the morphological changes of 37 and 138 nm diameter colloids during evaporative assembly and compared them to 65 nm Stöber silica colloids prepared without L-arginine. Colloidal crystal films were grown from particles that had been dialyzed against water or L-arginine, and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and/or L-arginine were added to solutions during colloidal film growth...
January 8, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alexander Bagger, Logi Arnarson, Martin H Hansen, Eckhard Spohr, Jan Rossmeisl
Electrochemical CO reduction holds the promise to be a cornerstone for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. However, the underlying understanding of the carbon-carbon coupling towards multiple-carbon products is not complete. Here we present thermodynamic realistic structures of the electrochemical interfaces, by explicit ab initio simulations. We investigate how key CO reduction reaction intermediates are stabilized in different electrolytes, and for different pH. We find that the catalytic trends, previously observed experimentally, can be explained by the interplay between the metal surface and the electrolyte...
January 8, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Neah Likhite, Vikas Yadav, Eric J Milliman, Danesh H Sopariwala, Sabina Lorca, Nithya P Narayana, Megha Sheth, Erin L Reineke, Vincent Giguère, Vihang Narkar
Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) have emerged as major metabolic regulators in various tissues. However, their expression and function in the vasculature remains unknown. Here we report the transcriptional program and cellular function of ERRα in endothelial cells (ECs), a cell type with a multi-faceted role in vasculature. Of the three ERR subtypes ECs exclusively express ERRα. Gene expression profiling of ECs lacking ERRα revealed that ERRα predominantly acts as a transcriptional repressor, targeting genes linked with angiogenesis, cell migration and cell adhesion...
January 2, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Teresa Cecchi, Alessandro Pezzella, Eduardo Di Mauro, Samuel Cestola, David Ginsburg, Mattia Luzi, Alessandro Rigucci, Clara Santato
The antioxidant activity of eumelanin, a ubiquitous pigment in flora and fauna, constitutes one of its most fascinating physicochemical properties. To shed light on free radical scavenging vs redox facets of such activity, we applied hydrogen atom transfer- and electron transfer-based assays to pristine Sepia ink, eumelanin from Sepia ink, chemically controlled eumelanins and their precursor building blocks. Our work contributes to the rational use of the antioxidant properties of eumelanin for health, cosmetics and environmental applications...
January 2, 2019: Natural Product Research
Qiubo Zhang, Guoping Gao, Yuting Shen, Xinxing Peng, Junyi Shangguan, Yu Wang, Hui Dong, Karen C Bustillo, Lin-Wang Wang, Litao Sun, Haimei Zheng
An understanding of nanocrystal shape evolution is significant for the design, synthesis and applications of nanocrystals with surface-enhanced properties such as catalysis or plasmonic. Surface adsorbates that selectively adhere to certain facets may strongly affect the atomic pathways of nanocrystal shape development. However, it is a great challenge to directly observe such dynamic processes in situ with high spatial resolution. Here, we report the anomalous shape evolution of Ag2O2 nanocrystals modulated by the surface adsorbates of Ag clusters during electron beam etching, which is revealed through in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
December 24, 2018: Nano Letters
Francesco Serafin, Mark J Bowick, Sidney R Nagel
Chemical design of block copolymers makes it possible to create polymer vesicles with tunable microscopic structure. Here we focus on a model of a vesicle made of smectic liquid-crystalline block copolymers at zero temperature. The vesicle assumes a faceted tetrahedral shape and the smectic layers arrange in a stack of parallel straight lines with topological defects localized at the vertices. We counted the number of allowed states at [Formula: see text]. For any fixed shape, we found a two-dimensional countable degeneracy in the smectic pattern depending on the tilt angle between the smectic layers and the edge of the tetrahedral shell...
December 11, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Orlando Marin, Maria Alesker, Shani Guttman, Gregory Gershinsky, Eitan Edri, Hagay Shpaisman, Rodrigo E Guerra, David Zitoun, Moshe Deutsch, Eli Sloutskin
HYPOTHESIS: Temperature-controlled self-faceting of liquid droplets has been recently discovered in surfactant-stabilized alkane-in-water emulsions. We hypothesize that similar self-faceting may occur in emulsion droplets of UV-polymerizable linear hydrocarbons. We further hypothesize that the faceted droplet shapes can be fixed by UV-initiated polymerization, thus providing a new route towards the production of solid polyhedra. EXPERIMENTS: Temperature-induced shape variations were studied by optical microscopy in micron-size emulsion droplets of UV-polymerizable alkyl acrylate...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
D J Priour, N J McGuigan
Porous materials made up of impermeable grains constrain fluid flow to voids around the impenetrable inclusions. A percolation transition marks the boundary between densities of grains permitting bulk transport and concentrations blocking traversal on macroscopic scales. With dynamical infiltration of void spaces using virtual tracer particles, we treat inclusion geometries exactly. We calculate the critical number density per volume ρ_{c} for a variety of axially symmetric shapes and faceted solids with the former including cylinders, ellipsoids, cones, and tablet shaped grains from highly oblate (platelike) to highly prolate (needlelike) extremes...
November 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Antonio J Gonzalez, Stuart S Berr, Gabriel Cañizares, Andrea Gonzalez-Montoro, Abel Orero, Carlos Correcher, Ahmadreza Rezaei, Johan Nuyts, Filomeno Sanchez, Stan Majewski, Jose M Benlloch
There are drawbacks with using a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner design employing the traditional arrangement of multiple detectors in an array format. Typically PET systems are constructed with many regular gaps between the detector modules in a ring or box configuration, with additional axial gaps between the rings. Although this has been significantly reduced with the use of the compact high granularity SiPM photodetector technology, such a scanner design leads to a decrease in the number of annihilation photons that are detected causing lower scanner sensitivity...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Cristina Mazzarolo, Aldo Morra, Jose Sanudo, Raffaele De Caro
Differential diagnosis between normal/variant anatomy and pathological/traumatic findings represents one of the main matters of investigation of the so-called forensic clinical anatomy. In the literature, many anatomical variations of the laryngeal thyroid cartilage have been reported, with potential implications in forensic pathology. They include triticeal cartilages, foramen thyroideum, asymmetry, segmentation or agenesis of the superior thyroid horns, bone connections with the hyoid bone, absence of cricothyroid facets, hypertrophy of the inferior thyroid tubercle, and asymmetries in the thyroid notch, isthmus, or length of the inferior horn...
December 6, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Matthias Steidl, Klaus Schwarzburg, Beatriz Galiana, Thomas Kups, Oliver Supplie, Peter Kleinschmidt, Gerhard Lilienkamp, Thomas Hannappel
Dilute nitride III-V nanowires (NWs) possess great potential as building blocks in future optoelectronical and electrochemical devices. Here, we provide evidence for the growth of GaP/GaPN core-shell NWs via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), both on GaP(111)B and on GaP/Si(111) hetero-substrates. The NW morphology meets the common needs for use in applications, i. e. they are straight and vertically oriented to the substrate as well as homogeneous in length. Moreover, no parasitical island growth is observed...
December 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
Reinhard Maurer, Karsten Reuter
In molecular nanotechnology, a single molecule is envisioned to act as the basic building block of electronic devices. Such devices may be of special interest for organic photovoltaics, data storage, and smart materials. However, more often than not the molecular function is quenched upon contact with a conducting support. Trial-and-error-based decoupling strategies via molecular functionalisation and change of substrate have in many instances proven to yield unpredictable results. The adsorbate-substrate interactions that govern the function can be understood with the help of first-principles simulation...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Thomas C Erren, Philip Lewis
Chronotype, defined as the temporal phenotype of an organism, has been addressed in Chronobiology International in some 200 publications between 1997 and 2018. Readers may thus be interested in what roles chronotype may play in studies concerning chronobiology and health. In line with Karl Popper, our objective is to synthesize terms and concepts for falsifiable experimental, field, and ultimately epidemiological research. To this end, we offer 17 building blocks where each should follow from one or more others...
December 4, 2018: Chronobiology International
David W Lee, Christopher Huston
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature studying therapeutic intraarticular zygapophyseal (commonly referred to as facet) joint injections in the atraumatic patient population. As a result of this, intraarticular injections have been dismissed as a possible treatment for cervical zygapophyseal joint-mediated pain. Radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) is currently the accepted treatment for facet joint neck pain. OBJECTIVE: This prospective observational study investigated injection response in an atraumatic population to determine treatment viability and whether injections reduce the need for RFN in neck pain patients...
November 2018: Pain Physician
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