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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764815/comparison-of-individual-group-and-environmental-sampling-strategies-to-conduct-influenza-surveillance-in-pigs
#1
Jorge Garrido-Mantilla, Julio Alvarez, Marie Culhane, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Jean Paul Cano, Montserrat Torremorell
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen in pigs that affects productivity and has important public health implications because of its zoonotic nature. Surveillance is central to the control of influenza, however, detection of IAV infections can be challenging in endemically infected herds with low prevalence of infection. METHODS: In groups of suckling (18-21 days of age) and growing (35-45 days of age) pigs, we compared various sampling approaches to detect, isolate and sequence IAV using individual (nasal swabs, nasal wipes and oropharyngeal swabs), group (oral fluids, surface wipes and sow udder skin wipes) and environmental (airborne particles deposited on surfaces and air samples) sampling approaches...
February 14, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762476/a-distinct-geographic-variant-of-sasx-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st239-and-st368-lineage-from-south-india
#2
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Hariharan Triplicane Dwarakanathan, Elakkiya Munusamy, Lydia Jennifer, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Staphylococcal surface protein sasX is a colonization mediating virulence factor in ST239 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, which potentially contribute to its successful establishment. We aimed to study the presence and dissemination of sasX in clinical MRSA isolates and among MRSA carriers. A total of 450 nonduplicate clinical MRSA isolates recovered from blood cultures between 2013 and 2017 were included in this study. In addition, 93 nasal swabs were collected from patients receiving hemodialysis, after obtaining consent and screening for MRSA colonization...
February 14, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761851/risk-factors-for-rectal-colonization-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-a-case-control-study-from-turkey
#3
Fatma Eser, Gül Ruhsar Yılmaz, Rahmet Güner, İmran Hasanoğlu, Fatma Yekta Ürkmez Korkmaz, Ziya Cibali Açıkgöz, Mehmet Akın Taşyaran
Background/aim: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Materials and methods: The study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2016. The colonized group consisted of patients who had a CRE strain in their rectal swab cultures, whereas patients with negative rectal surveillance cultures for CRE who were concurrently hospitalized in the same units with the colonized group patients were included in the control group...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759100/the-successful-containment-of-a-hospital-outbreak-caused-by-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st307-using-active-surveillance
#4
Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Elvira Garza-González, Magaly Padilla-Orozco, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Eduardo Pérez-Alba, Samantha Flores-Treviño, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Jesus Silva-Sánchez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
The worldwide dissemination of high-risk carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones has become a major threat to healthcare facilities. This study describes the successful containment of a hospital outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae Sequence Type (ST) 307 using active surveillance. The outbreak began when a patient was transferred from a local hospital. After 48 hours in our hospital, a tracheal aspirate was positive for a meropenem resistant and carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755106/chlamydia-trachomatis-in-women-with-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid-report-from-a-tertiary-center-in-eastern-nepal
#5
B Khanal, S Siwakoti, D Uprety, N Poudyal, A Sharma, N R Bhattarai
Chlamydia trachomatis is an important agent of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) globally. Laboratory diagnosis, which is vital for early and appropriate treatment, remains a challenge in resource-limited settings. Our study was undertaken to detect C. trachomatis in women with clinical features of PID. Three endocervical swabs, each obtained from 100 women clinically diagnosed with PID, were subjected to C. trachomatis antigen detection, microscopy and bacteriological culture. Logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors associated with PID...
February 12, 2019: Tropical Doctor
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747832/highly-sensitive-molecular-assay-for-group-a-streptococci-over-identifies-carriers-and-may-impact-outpatient-antimicrobial-stewardship
#6
Robert R Tanz, Elizabeth J Ranniger, Jason L Rippe, Renée L Dietz, Caroline L Oktem, Christine L Lowmiller, Stanford T Shulman
BACKGROUND: Timely, accurate diagnosis of streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis prevents ARF and limits antibiotic overuse. The Illumigene® Group A Streptococcus assay (Meridian Bioscience) is a molecular test for GAS pharyngitis with high sensitivity and specificity. We sought to determine whether the Illumigene test is more likely than throat culture to be positive in patients without pharyngeal symptoms and explore the limits of detection of the test. METHODS: Patients aged 3-17 years were eligible if they had no history of pharyngitis or use of antibiotics within the previous 2 weeks; there were no URI symptoms, sore throat, or fever; and no signs of infection...
February 6, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747431/-pets-dogs-cats-as-a-possible-source-of-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungi-in-humans
#7
Zuzana Čermáková, Jan Wipler, Tomáš Hanzálek, Hana Horáková, Vladimír Buchta
INTRODUCTION: The microbiological aspect of a relationship between pets (dogs/cats) and their owners is mainly concerned with the incidence of the shared fungal species that can be potential pathogens. Since sharing homes with pets is very popular in the Czech Republic, there is an increased possibility of communication between microbiota of the two macroorganisms (the pet and the owner). The aim of the study was to determine, based on the close relationship between pets and humans, the biodiversity of shared fungi, also with respect to previous antimicrobial therapy...
June 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742990/commensal-microflora-in-human-conjunctiva-characteristics-of-microflora-in-the-patients-with-chronic-ocular-graft-versus-host-disease
#8
Eisuke Shimizu, Yoko Ogawa, Yumiko Saijo, Mio Yamane, Miki Uchino, Mizuka Kamoi, Masaki Fukui, Fan Yang, Jingliang He, Shin Mukai, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To investigate the transformation in the composition of ocular surface microflora. Evidence shows that microbial diversity correlates with autoimmune disorders. Chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the lethal complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) which influences patients' quality of life. It has a similar pathophysiology to autoimmune disorders but the relation of the microbial status especially in the ocular surface and chronic ocular GVHD is still unknown...
February 8, 2019: Ocular Surface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742640/viable-neisseria-meningitidis-is-commonly-present-in-saliva-in-healthy-young-adults-non-invasive-sampling-and-enhanced-sensitivity-of-detection-in-a-follow-up-carriage-study-in-portuguese-students
#9
Fernanda Rodrigues, Hannah Christensen, Begonia Morales-Aza, Paulina Sikora, Elizabeth Oliver, Jennifer Oliver, Jay Lucidarme, Robin Marlow, Luís Januário, Adam Finn
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Improved sensitivity and efficiency of detection and quantification of carriage of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) in young people is important for evaluation of the impact of vaccines upon transmission and associated population-wide effects. Saliva collection is quick, non-invasive and facilitates frequent sampling, but has been reported to yield low sensitivity by culture. We re-evaluated this approach in a follow-up cross sectional study using direct and culture-amplified PCR...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740462/indoor-air-pollution-and-tobacco-smoke-exposure-impact-on-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-carriage-in-mothers-and-infants-in-an-african-birth-cohort-study
#10
Aneesa Vanker, Polite M Nduru, Whitney Barnett, Felix S Dube, Peter D Sly, Robert P Gie, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Indoor air pollution (IAP) or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure may influence nasopharyngeal carriage of bacterial species and development of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the impact of antenatal or postnatal IAP/ETS exposure on nasopharyngeal bacteria in mothers and infants. A South African cohort study followed mother-infant pairs from birth through the first year. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at birth, 6 and 12 months for bacterial culture...
February 2019: ERJ Open Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739247/an-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-associated-with-gii-17-norovirus-contaminated-secondary-water-supply-system-in-wuhan-china-2017
#11
Xuan Zhou, De-Guang Kong, Jing Li, Bei-Bei Pang, Ying Zhao, Jun-Bo Zhou, Ting Zhang, Jun-Qiang Xu, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Yuan-Hong Wang
A gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a university in May, 2017, Wuhan, China. The epidemiological survey and pathogen analysis were conducted to identify the pathogen and control this outbreak. Feces or anal swabs from individuals, water, and swabs taken from tap surfaces of the secondary water supply system (SWSS) and foods were collected for the detection of viruses and pathogenic enteric bacteria by real-time RT-PCR and culture, respectively. Nucleotide sequences were determined by RT-PCR and direct sequencing...
February 9, 2019: Food and Environmental Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737868/the-impact-of-a-multimodal-approach-to-vancomycin-discontinuation-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-hsct-with-febrile-neutropenia-fn
#12
Sarah Perreault, Dayna McManus, Noffar Bar, Francine Foss, Lohith Gowda, Iris Isufi, Stuart Seropian, Maricar Malinis, Jeffrey E Topal
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend adding vancomycin to empiric treatment of FN in patients who meet specific criteria. After 48 hours, the guidelines recommend discontinuing vancomycin if resistant Gram-positive organisms are not identified. Based on these recommendations, a vancomycin stewardship team defined criteria for discontinuation of vancomycin at 48 hours and increased surveillance of vancomycin usage through a multimodal approach. The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to assess the impact of this multimodal approach on the discontinuation of empiric vancomycin at 48 hours in FN...
February 8, 2019: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733176/colonization-of-intestinal-microbiota-with-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-paediatric-intensive-care-units-in-cairo-egypt
#13
Doaa M Ghaith, Zeinat K Mohamed, Mohamed G Farahat, Walaa Aboulkasem Shahin, Hadeel O Mohamed
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Colonized patients with carbapenamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are vulnerable to invasive infections from their endogenous flora. We aimed to assess faecal colonization with (CPE) among children admitted to Cairo University paediatric intensive care units (ICUs). The phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were also studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 413 Enterobacteriaceae isolates have been isolated from cultured rectal swabs of 100 children...
February 4, 2019: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732581/a-systematic-review-of-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-meningococcal-disease-in-children
#14
Thomas Waterfield, Derek Fairley, Bronagh Blackwood, James McKenna, Michael D Shields
BACKGROUND: The early recognition of meningococcal disease in children is vital. During the prodrome however, meningococcal infection presents similarly to many self-limiting viral infections. This mandates a cautious approach with many children receiving unnecessary broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics. Advances in nucleic acid amplification techniques mean that it is now possible to test for Neisseria meningitidis DNA using Loop-mediated-isothermal AMPlification (LAMP). This technique is quicker than traditional PCR techniques and can be performed using simple equipment...
February 7, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725183/re-emergence-of-a-coxsackievirus-a24-variant-causing-acute-hemorrhagic-conjunctivitis-in-brazil-from-2017-to-2018
#15
Ivanildo P Sousa, Fernanda M Burlandy, James L Ferreira, Jainara C S Alves, Edivaldo C Sousa-Júnior, Fernando N Tavares, Edson E da Silva
A large outbreak (over 200,000 cases) of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) took place in Brazil during the summer of 2017/2018, seven years after a nationwide epidemic, which occurred in 2011. To identify the etiological agent, 80 conjunctival swabs from patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of AHC were analyzed at the national enterovirus laboratory. Real-time RT-PCR for human enteroviruses was performed, and enterovirus RNA was detected in 91.25% (73/80) of the specimens. Twenty-nine swab fluids were used to inoculate cell cultures (RD and Hep2C), and 72...
February 6, 2019: Archives of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723170/bacterial-contamination-of-circuit-inner-surfaces-after-high-flow-oxygen-therapy
#16
Mutsuo Onodera, Emiko Nakataki, Nobuto Nakanishi, Taiga Itagaki, Masami Sato, Jun Oto, Masaji Nishimura
BACKGROUND: During high-flow oxygen therapy, heated humidified gas is delivered at high flow. Although the warmth and humidity of this gas facilitates mucociliary function in the lower airway, warm and humid conditions also promote bacterial growth. Bacterial contamination of high-flow oxygen therapy circuits has not been well investigated. We examined the incidence of bacterial contamination in high-flow oxygen therapy circuits. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in a university hospital 10-bed general ICU...
February 5, 2019: Respiratory Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30722715/the-colonization-rate-of-needleless-connector-and-the-impact-of-disinfection-for-15-s-on-colonization-a-prospective-pre-and-post-intervention-study
#17
İlker Devrim, Nevbahar Demiray, Yeliz Oruç, Kenan Sipahi, İlknur Çağlar, Ferhat Sarı, Nuriye Turgut, Gülhan Atakul, Nihal Özdamar, Vecihe Dursun, Yelda Sorguç, Nuri Bayram, Hasan Agın
PURPOSE: The optimal scrubbing time for the disinfection of the surface of needleless connectors has not been determined. The evidence for successful needleless connector decontamination with 70% isopropyl alcohol ranges from 5 to 60 s. The aim of this prospective study was to identify colonization on the external surface of needleless connectors on central venous catheters and measure the efficiency of 15 s of scrubbing with 70% alcohol. METHOD: A total of 31 patients were included...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Vascular Access
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720420/-candidatus-ornithobacterium-hominis-insights-gained-from-draft-genomes-obtained-from-nasopharyngeal-swabs
#18
Susannah J Salter, Paul Scott, Andrew J Page, Alan Tracey, Marcus C de Goffau, Claire Cormie, Bernardo Ochoa-Montaño, Clare L Ling, Jiraporn Tangmanakit, Paul Turner, Julian Parkhill
'Candidatus Ornithobacterium hominis' represents a new member of the Flavobacteriaceae detected in 16S rRNA gene surveys of people from South-East Asia, Africa and Australia. It frequently colonizes the infant nasopharynx at high proportional abundance, and we demonstrate its presence in 42 % of nasopharyngeal swabs from 12-month-old children in the Maela refugee camp in Thailand. The species, a Gram-negative bacillus, has not yet been cultured, but the cells can be identified in mixed samples by fluorescent hybridization...
February 5, 2019: Microbial Genomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719089/evaluation-of-skin-colonisation-and-placement-of-vascular-access-device-exit-sites-escape-study
#19
Nancy L Moureau, Nicole Marsh, Li Zhang, Michelle J Bauer, Emily Larsen, Gabor Mihala, Amanda Corley, India Lye, Marie Cooke, Claire M Rickard
Background: Skin microorganisms may contribute to the development of vascular access device (VAD) infections. Baseline skin microorganism type and quantity vary between body sites, yet there is little evidence to inform choice of VAD site selection. Objective: To compare microorganisms present at different body sites used for VAD insertions and understand the effect of transparent dressings on skin microflora. Methods: The ESCAPE observational study consisted of three phases: (1) skin swabs of four sites (mid-neck, base neck, chest, upper arm) from 48 hospital patients; (2) skin swabs of five body sites (mid-neck, base neck, chest, upper arm, lower arm) from 10 healthy volunteers; and (3) paired skin swabs (n = 72) under and outside of transparent dressings from 36 hospital patients (16 mid/base neck, 10 chest, upper arm)...
January 2019: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714300/field-compatible-protocol-for-detecting-tetracyclines-with-bioluminescent-bioreporters-without-pipetting-steps
#20
Johanna Muurinen, Avinash Pasupulate, Juha Lappalainen, Marko Virta
Whole-cell bioreporters are living organisms and thus using them for detecting environmental contaminants would reflect biological effects of these pollutants. However, bioreporters are not widely used in field studies. Many of the bioreporter field protocols are suitable for liquid samples or include pipetting steps, which is a demanding task outside the laboratory. We present a bioreporter protocol without pipetting or sample type requirements. The protocol utilizes polyester swabs, commonly used in cleanroom technology...
February 3, 2019: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
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