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Psychiatric medicine

Preethi Pansari Agarwal, Narayana Manjunatha, Guru S Gowda, M N Girish Kumar, Neelaveni Shanthaveeranna, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Suresh Bada Math
Background: Tele-medicine helps to provide clinical care comparable to in-person treatment in various clinical settings. It is a novel system of healthcare delivery in both low-resource settings and sites where adequate medical care continues to pose greatest challenge like in prison's in India and worldwide. Aim: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients from Central Prisons, having received collaborative Tele-Neuropsychiatric Care. Methodology: Psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery specialists provided tele-neuropsychiatry consultation through Specialist-Doctor-Patient model as part of the state-run program for the two central prisons from July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Sarah Wakefield, Manish Aligeti, Vivekananda Rachamallu, Regina Baronia, Ram Aynampudi, Ankit Parmar, Phyllis Peterson, Kanak Masodkar
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drug use in children has doubled from 2001 to 2007 with concomitant increase in obesity. Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication use is associated with weight gain, metabolic derangements, and blood sugar and lipid abnormalities in children. The American Psychiatric Association and the American Diabetes Association have recommended metabolic monitoring guidelines for patients using SGA. STUDY QUESTION: The study objective was to investigate and compare metabolic monitoring for SGA medications in psychiatry (PSY), and pediatrics and family medicine [primary care providers (PCP)] outpatient clinics of a university medical center...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Therapeutics
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, K Roseberry, K C Soe, J Rogers, F Khan, T Jones, S Judd, M A McCormick, A R Wessel, A Williams, S M Kurian, F A White
We endeavored to identify objective blood biomarkers for pain, a subjective sensation with a biological basis, using a stepwise discovery, prioritization, validation, and testing in independent cohorts design. We studied psychiatric patients, a high risk group for co-morbid pain disorders and increased perception of pain. For discovery, we used a powerful within-subject longitudinal design. We were successful in identifying blood gene expression biomarkers that were predictive of pain state, and of future emergency department (ED) visits for pain, more so when personalized by gender and diagnosis...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Lauren Z Atkinson, Lucy Colbourne, Alexander Smith, Catherine H Harmer, Anna C Nobre, Jennifer Rendell, Helen Jones, Christopher Hinds, Arne Mould, Elizabeth M Tunbridge, Andrea Cipriani, John R Geddes, Kate E A Saunders, Paul J Harrison
BACKGROUND: The discovery that voltage-gated calcium channel genes such as CACNA1C are part of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders has rekindled interest in the therapeutic potential of L-type calcium channel (LTCC) antagonists. These drugs, licensed to treat hypertension and angina, have previously been used in bipolar disorder, but without clear results. Neither is much known about the broader effects of these drugs on the brain and behaviour. METHODS: The Oxford study of Calcium channel Antagonism, Cognition, Mood instability and Sleep (OxCaMS) is a high-intensity randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental medicine study on the effect of the LTCC antagonist nicardipine in healthy young adults with mood instability...
February 12, 2019: Trials
Marije L van der Lee, Melanie P J Schellekens
Since Descartes introduced dualism, body and mind have been seen as separate entities. The latent disease model, the view that symptoms are caused by an underlying disease, was possible within the dualistic paradigm. This paradigm, although successful in some aspects of medicine, is also assumed to underlie psychiatric disorders. As an alternative to the latent disease model, the network approach conceptualizes disorders as complex networks of causally connected symptoms. It offers a new way of understanding psychiatric disorders by directing attention away from the underlying cause and towards the symptoms and their functional interconnectedness, making the distinction between mental and physical symptoms obsolete...
February 12, 2019: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Rowena M A Packer, Sarah L Hobbs, Emily J Blackwell
Epilepsy is a common, complex and often challenging neurological disorder to treat in the dog, with 20-30% of dogs resistant to conventional medical therapies, and associated with cognitive and behavioral comorbidities and early death. Behavioral interventions are an emerging area of focus in the adjunctive treatment of drug-resistant human epilepsy patients, with studies indicating positive effects of a variety of interventions including relaxation-based techniques and behavioral therapy interventions. Behavioral interventions have the potential not only to improve seizure control, but also improve behavioral comorbidities and general quality of life in this hard to treat patient group...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Nandita Hazari, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric illness and significant research has been ongoing to understand its neurobiological basis. Neuroimaging studies right from the 1980s have revealed significant differences between OCD patients and healthy controls. Initial imaging findings showing hyperactivity in the prefrontal cortex (mainly orbitofrontal cortex), anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus led to the postulation of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) model for the neurobiology of OCD...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Jasmine Turna, William Simpson, Beth Patterson, Philippe Lucas, Michael Van Ameringen
Cannabis is commonly used recreationally for its euphoric and relaxing effects, while its medical use is permitted in several jurisdictions. With only low-quality evidence suggesting anxiolytic effects of cannabis and strong public sentiment surrounding such purported effects, the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of cannabis for medicinal purposes (CMP) use for anxiety symptoms. An online survey was disseminated to CMP users registered with a Canadian licensed producer. Respondents completed demographic and validated self-report questionnaires (GAD-7, PHQ-9, MINI-SPIN, and panic disorder/agoraphobia DSM-5 criteria)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Saho Wada, Ryoichi Sadahiro, Yutaka J Matsuoka, Yosuke Uchitomi, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Ken Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety and postoperative delirium affect both short- and long-term prognoses in patients with cancer; therefore, these conditions require early prevention and treatment. However, no standard preventive or therapeutic methods have been established for them. Yokukansan, a Japanese herbal medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety, causes relatively few adverse drug reactions and effectively improves the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia...
February 8, 2019: Trials
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Background: Although originally marketed as safe alternatives to the habit-forming benzodiazepines, growing numbers of zaleplon, zolpidem, and zopiclone ('Z-drugs') clinical concerns relating to their potential of abuse, dependence and withdrawal have been reported overtime.  We aimed here at assessing these issues analysing datasets of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) provided by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) through the EudraVigilance (EV) system. Methods: Analysing the ADR databases of each Z-drug, descriptive analyses have been performed on cases, and Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRRs) computed...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Schaub Annette, Falkai Peter
The Sixth Kraepelin Symposium was held at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU Munich in October 2018, covering reports from 12 working groups (Keith H. Nuechterlein, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles; Kim T. Mueser, Ph.D., Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Boston University, U.S.A.; Dominic Dwyer, Ph.D, Hospital LMU, Munich; David Fowler, Ph.D. University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K.; Martin Hautzinger, Ph.D., University of Tübingen; Nikolaos Koutsouleris, M...
February 5, 2019: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Eric Racine, Matthew Sample
Common understandings of neuroethics, that is, of its distinctive nature, are premised on two distinct sets of claims: (1) neuroscience can change views about the nature of ethics itself and neuroethics is dedicated to reaping such an understanding of ethics, and (2) neuroscience poses challenges distinct from other areas of medicine and science and neuroethics tackles those issues. Critiques have rightfully challenged both claims, stressing how the first may lead to problematic forms of reductionism whereas the second relies on debatable assumptions about the nature of bioethics specialization and development...
October 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Janet Krska, Sarah A Corlett, Barbra Katusiime
From the patient perspective, medicine burden is more than the number of medicines, or the complexity of medicine regimens they need to manage. Relationships between the number of medicines, regimen complexity and patient perception of medicine burden are under-researched. This cross-sectional study measured regimen complexity and determined how this and patient perceived burden are affected by the therapeutic group. Regimen complexity was measured in patients presenting prescriptions to six community pharmacies in South-East England...
February 2, 2019: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Gary Cheung, Alex Bailey, Douglas Subau, Adrián Martínez-Ruiz
Psychiatry of old age is a psychiatric subspecialty that has been developed in many countries since the 1950s as an attempt to improve the care of older adults with mental health disorders. Psychiatry of old age specialist training programs were subsequently established to develop a medical workforce that has the required competencies to work in this subspecialty. This article describes the psychiatry of old age specialist training programs in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and Mexico. These training programs have varying durations, ranging from 1 to 3 years...
December 20, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Juliana Höfer, Falk Hoffmann, Inge Kamp-Becker, Charlotte Küpper, Luise Poustka, Stefan Roepke, Veit Roessner, Sanna Stroth, Nicole Wolff, Christian J Bachmann
BACKGROUND: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used both in the general population and for the treatment of somatic and psychiatric disorders. Studies on CAM use among patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have so far only focused on children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of CAM use among adults with ASD. METHODS: A questionnaire survey concerning current and lifetime use of CAM was distributed to adults with ASD between November 2015 and June 2016...
February 1, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Basant K Tiwary
Biological complex systems are composed of numerous components that interact within and across different scales. The ever-increasing generation of high-throughput biomedical data has given us an opportunity to develop a quantitative model of nonlinear biological systems having implications in health and diseases. Multidimensional molecular data can be modeled using various statistical methods at different scales of biological organization, such as genome, transcriptome and proteome. I will discuss recent advances in the application of computational medicine in complex diseases such as network-based studies, genome-scale metabolic modeling, kinetic modeling and support vector machines with specific examples in the field of cancer, psychiatric disorders and type 2 diabetes...
January 30, 2019: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Carlos De Las Cuevas, Mariano Motuca, Trino Baptista, Alejandro G Villasante-Tezanos, Jose de Leon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether or not cultural differences influence beliefs about the necessity of taking prescribed psychiatric drugs and concern about their adverse effects in psychiatric outpatients in Spain, Argentina, and Venezuela. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,372 adult psychiatric outpatients using 2,438 psychotropic drugs and was designed to assess outpatients' beliefs about their prescribed medication. Patients completed sociodemographic, clinical questionnaires, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire Specific Scale and registered scores ranging from 1 to 5 on each of two subscales: concern and necessity...
January 30, 2019: Human Psychopharmacology
Katja Koelkebeck, Britta Brouwer, Helmut Ahrens, Jan-Carl Becker, Markus Weih, Bernhard Marschall, Volker Arolt, Patricia Ohrmann
BACKGROUND: Medical education in the discipline of psychiatry and psychotherapy at the University of Münster was traditionally focused on the transfer of knowledge via lectures. According to the current guidelines, the medical curriculum was modified as from the winter semester 2016/2017 to be more competency-based and the changes were evaluated. OBJECTIVE: Lectures and seminars were reduced to achieve a better linkage between theoretical and practical knowledge...
January 29, 2019: Der Nervenarzt
Virginia M Conley, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Katie Halbmaier, Lisa Shaw
BACKGROUND: Programs for assertive community treatment (PACT) serve persons with severe mental illness who have been unsuccessful with traditional outpatient services. Many PACT clients struggle to obtain symptom relief with medications that often have poor efficacy and undesired side effects, which can result in nonadherence, relapse, and increased health care utilization with associated costs. OBJECTIVE: This quality improvement project aimed to improve client and PACT program outcomes by incorporating pharmacogenomic testing into the psychopharmacological decision-making process...
January 28, 2019: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
J J Carballo, C Llorente, L Kehrmann, I Flamarique, A Zuddas, D Purper-Ouakil, P J Hoekstra, D Coghill, U M E Schulze, R W Dittmann, J K Buitelaar, J Castro-Fornieles, K Lievesley, Paramala Santosh, C Arango
Suicidality in childhood and adolescence is of increasing concern. The aim of this paper was to review the published literature identifying key psychosocial risk factors for suicidality in the paediatric population. A systematic two-step search was carried out following the PRISMA statement guidelines, using the terms 'suicidality, suicide, and self-harm' combined with terms 'infant, child, adolescent' according to the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health classification of ages...
January 25, 2019: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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