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greenhouse gases

Jianjun Hu, Dun Li, Duu-Jong Lee, Quanguo Zhang, Wei Wang, Shuheng Zhao, Zhiping Zhang, Chao He
The syngas that is produced from waste biomass often has high levels of CH4 and CO2 , which are greenhouse gases. This investigation presents an integrated gasification and catalytic reforming process with a closed gas loop that can improve quality of syngas from corn straw and mitigate CH4 and CO2 emission. The effects of the support type, reforming temperature, steam-to-biomass (S/B) ratio, and catalyst-to-biomass ratio (C/B) ratio on gas yield and composition were experimentally examined with waste corn straw as the feedstock gasified at 850 °C in the proposed closed-loop apparatus...
February 13, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Clint Cameron, Lindsay B Hutley, Daniel A Friess
Mangrove forests are extremely productive, with rates of growth rivaling some terrestrial tropical rainforests. However, our understanding of the full suite of processes underpinning carbon exchange with the atmosphere and near shore-waters, the allocation of carbon in mangroves, and fluxes of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs) are limited to a handful of studies. This constrains the scientific basis from which to advocate for greater support for and investment in mangrove restoration and conservation. Improving understanding is urgently needed given the on-going landuse pressures mangrove forests face, particularly throughout much of Southeast Asia...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Andy I Nguyen, Ryan K Spencer, Christopher L Anderson, Ronald N Zuckermann
Synthesis of biomimetic multimetallic clusters is sought after for applications such as efficient storage of solar energy and utilization of greenhouse gases. However, synthetic efforts are hampered by a dearth of ligands that are developed for multimetallic clusters due to current limitations in rational design and organic synthesis. Peptoids, a synthetic sequence-defined oligomer, enable a biomimetic strategy to rapidly synthesize and optimize large, multifunctional ligands by structural design and combinatorial screening...
December 21, 2018: Chemical Science
A Macario, P Frontera, S Candamano, F Crea, P De Luca, P L Antonucci
The manuscript deals on the main progress achieved by global scientific research on the development of nanostructured catalysts for dry-reforming reaction. The importance to have a global vision on this topic is strictly related to the most currently and important challenges in the sustainable energy production. In fact, dry-reforming is one of the few known processes in which greenhouse gases are utilized as reactants (methane and carbon dioxide) to produce syngas. Syngas represents the basis for liquid fuel production by Fischer-Tropsch process...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yingjiu Pan, Shuyan Chen, Fengxiang Qiao, Satish V Ukkusuri, Kun Tang
Nowadays, more and more conventional diesel buses are being replaced by new-energy buses in many cities in China. Although new-energy buses are more environmentally friendly compared with traditional diesel buses, they may also generate kinds of greenhouse gases as well as harmful pollutants. Currently, there exist few studies on the emission characteristics of buses with new-energy fuels, especially the liquefied natural gas (LNG) bus. The primary objective of this study is to analyze and estimate the emission rates for LNG bus in real-world driving...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Janaina M Rodrigues, Berta Lasa, Marco Betti, Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaría, Carmen González-Murua, Pedro M Aparicio-Tejo, Daniel Marino
Nitrogen fertilization is a major force in global greenhouse gases emissions and causes environmental contamination through nitrate leaching. The use of nitrification inhibitors has been proven successful to mitigate these effects. However, there is an increasing concern about the undesired effects that their potential persistence in the soil or accumulation in plants may provoke. In this study, we first exposed Lotus japonicus plants to high amounts of 3,4 dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 2-(N-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) succinic acid isomeric mixture (DMPSA) nitrification inhibitors...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Arndt Schimmelmann, Scott A Ensminger, Agnieszka Drobniak, Maria Mastalerz, Giuseppe Etiope, Robert D Jacobi, Christian Frankenberg
Geological hydrocarbon gas seepage is a major global source of atmospheric methane, ethane and propane as greenhouse gases and photochemical pollutants. Natural gas seepage is generally related to faults and associated fracture intensification domains that provide conduits for natural gas from reservoir rocks to migrate upward and enter the atmosphere. In this study, we compare the case of intense gas seepage stemming directly from source rocks, mostly organic-rich fractured black shales in western New York State (NYS) versus areas with rare seepage in the more southern regions of the Appalachian Basin and the Midwest USA...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lijian Leng, Xinwei Xu, Liang Wei, Liangliang Fan, Huajun Huang, Jianan Li, Qian Lu, Jun Li, Wenguang Zhou
Biochar produced from pyrolysis of biomass is a candidate with great potential for climate change mitigation by carbon sequestration and reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in soil. Its potential depends considerably on biochar properties. Biochar stability or biochar C recalcitrance is decisive to its carbon storage/sequestration potential in soil. Three groups of methods including: I) biochar C structure or composition analyses, II) biochar oxidation resistance determination, and III) biochar persistence assessment by incubation & modelling, have been developed for evaluation of biochar stability...
January 24, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Colin Skinner, Andreas Gattinger, Maike Krauss, Hans-Martin Krause, Jochen Mayer, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Paul Mäder
Agricultural practices contribute considerably to emissions of greenhouse gases. So far, knowledge on the impact of organic compared to non-organic farming on soil-derived nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) emissions is limited. We investigated N2 O and CH4 fluxes with manual chambers during 571 days in a grass-clover- silage maize - green manure cropping sequence in the long-term field trial "DOK" in Switzerland. We compared two organic farming systems - biodynamic (BIODYN) and bioorganic (BIOORG) - with two non-organic systems - solely mineral fertilisation (CONMIN) and mixed farming including farmyard manure (CONFYM) - all reflecting Swiss farming practices-together with an unfertilised control (NOFERT)...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Amin Zarea, Hadi Moazed, Mehdi Ahmadmoazzam, Sajede Malekghasemi, Neemat Jaafarzadeh
This study assessed the available status of waste management system in Ahvaz and its impact on the environment, as well as seven other scenarios in order to quantitatively calculate potential environmental impacts by utilizing the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. These scenarios were as follows: scenario 1: landfilling without biogas collection; scenario 2: landfilling with biogas collection; scenario 3: composting and landfilling without biogas collection; scenario 4: recycling and composting; scenario 5: composting and incineration; scenario 6: anaerobic digestion, recycling, and landfilling; scenario 7: anaerobic digestion and incineration...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yanjun Ma, Julie L Zilles, Angela D Kent
Microbial populations provide nitrogen cycling ecosystem services at the nexus of agriculture, environmental quality, and climate change. Denitrification, in particular, impacts socio-environmental systems in both positive and negative ways, through reduction of aquatic and atmospheric nitrogen pollution, but also reduction of soil fertility and production of greenhouse gases. However, denitrification rates are quite variable in time and space, and therefore difficult to model. Microbial ecology is working to improve the predictive ecology of denitrifiers by quantifying and describing the diversity of microbial functional groups...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
Peng-Sheng Wei, Hsuan-Han Chiu, Yin-Chih Hsieh, Da-Lun Yen, Chieh Lee, Yi-Cheng Tsai, Te-Chuan Ting
Absorption coefficient of water vapor proposed to be responsible for an increase in temperature in the troposphere layer with altitude less than 10 km is systematically presented in this work. Since global warming plays an important role in affecting the human life, a confirmative and detailed study of global warming is essentially need. Solar irradiation within short wavelength range can be extinguished from absorption and scattering by the atmosphere, and absorbed and reflected by the Earth's surface. Radiative within high wavelength range from the Earth's surface can be absorbed by atmospheric water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases...
January 2019: Heliyon
Qianqian Shao, Yanyan Ju, Wenjie Guo, Xin Xia, Rongjun Bian, Lianqing Li, Wenjian Li, Xiaoyu Liu, Jufeng Zheng, Genxing Pan
Safe recycling of the growing amounts of municipal sewage sludge containing toxic metals had been critically challenged with the fast urbanization. In this study, we investigated soil amendment of municipal wastewater treatment (MSS) converted biochar for its recycling in agricultural soils. In a field experiment, unpyrolyzed (USS) and pyrolyzed municipal sewage sludge (PSS) was amended at 20 t ha-1 on dry base to a rice paddy before rice plantation, with a control without amendment. Grain yield and emission of non-CO2 potent greenhouse gases were examined as well as topsoil metal mobility and plant uptake determined throughout a rice-wheat rotation year...
February 5, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Saseendran S Anapalli, Daniel K Fisher, Krishna N Reddy, Jason L Krutz, Srinivasa R Pinnamaneni, Ruixiu Sui
Underground aquifers that took millions of years to fill are being depleted due to unsustainable water withdrawals for crop irrigation. Concurrently, atmospheric warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases is enhancing demands for water inputs in agriculture. Accurate information on crop-ecosystem water use efficiencies [EWUE, amount of CO2 removed from the soil-crop-air system per unit of water used in evapotranspiration (ET)] is essential for developing environmentally and economically sustainable water management practices that also help account for CO2 , the most abundant of the greenhouse gases, exchange rates from cropping systems...
January 2, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
José L S Pereira, Silvia Ferreira, Victor Pinheiro, Henrique Trindade
The husbandry of chicken for meat generates high levels of gases, being a serious problem for the health of birds and workers as well as for the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of clinoptilolite as litter additive on the concentrations and emissions of ammonia (NH3 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and methane (CH4 ) from a breeding hen house under Mediterranean climate conditions. Two similar breeding hen houses were selected, and one house was assigned as control whereas the other house was treated with clinoptilolite as a litter additive...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jishao Jiang, Youwei Pan, Xianli Yang, Juan Liu, Haohao Miao, Yuqing Ren, Chunyan Zhang, Guangxuan Yan, Jinghua Lv, Yunbei Li
Reducing the emissions of NH3 and greenhouse gases (GHGs) during composting is essential for improving compost quality and controlling environmental pollution. This paper investigates the effects of pelelith (P) combined with dicyandiamide (DCD) on gaseous emissions and the fungal community diversity during sewage sludge (SS) composting. Results showed that the P and P + DCD treatments decreased the cumulative gaseous emissions by 41% and 22% for NH3 , 21% and 34% for N2 O, and 31.5% and 33.0% for CH4 , respectively...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hang Deng, Catherine A Peters
Underground fractures serve as flow conduits, and they may produce unwanted migration of water and other fluids in the subsurface. An example is the migration and leakage of greenhouse gases in the context of geologic carbon sequestration. This study has generated new understanding about how acids erode carbonate fracture surfaces and the positive feedback between reaction and flow. A two-dimensional reactive transport model was developed and used to investigate the extent to which geochemical factors influence fracture permeability and transmissivity evolution in carbonate rocks...
January 1, 2019: Environmental Engineering Science
Deborah A Martin
Fire is a ubiquitous natural disturbance that affects 3-4% of the Earth's surface each year. It is a tool used by humans for land clearing and burning of agricultural wastes. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) do not explicitly mention fire, though many of the Goals are affected by the beneficial and adverse consequences of fires on ecosystem services. There are at least three compelling reasons to include a fire perspective in the implementation of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals...
December 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Samuel Park, Hemin Lee, Jinhyung Chon
Unmanned aerial vehicles can collect high-resolution and real-time photos while emitting fewer greenhouse gases than ordinary airplanes and therefore are considered economic and environmentally friendly platforms. However, quantitative analyses of the sustainability of using unmanned aerial vehicles for aerial photography based on their performance and technical constraints compared to that of airplanes are lacking. The purpose of this study is to analyze the economically and environmentally appropriate monitoring coverage of unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry according to wing type (such as fixed-wing and rotary-wing types) and desired image resolution (such as 5 cm/pix and 20 cm/pix for the ground sample distance)...
August 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Devin L Maurer, Jacek A Koziel
Technologies for controlling gaseous emissions of livestock is of interest to producers, the public, and regulatory agencies. In our previous lab-scale study, the use of a photocatalytic coating on surfaces subjected to black ultraviolet light reduced emissions of key odorant compounds relevant to the livestock industry. Thus, an on-farm pilot-scale experiment was conducted at a commercial swine barn to evaluate a photocatalytic coating on surfaces subjected to ultraviolet light under field conditions. A flow-through reactor was constructed with a TiO2 -based photocatalytic coating on the interior surfaces and black ultraviolet light fixtures...
January 16, 2019: Chemosphere
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