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retrotransposons, invasive insects

Alexander Suh, Christopher C Witt, Juliana Menger, Keren R Sadanandan, Lars Podsiadlowski, Michael Gerth, Anne Weigert, Jimmy A McGuire, Joann Mudge, Scott V Edwards, Frank E Rheindt
Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83-99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes...
2016: Nature Communications
Marie Fablet, Emmanuelle Lerat, Rita Rebollo, Béatrice Horard, Nelly Burlet, Sonia Martinez, Emilie Brasset, Eric Gilson, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira
Combining genome sequence analysis and functional analysis, we show that some full-length copies of tirant are present in heterochromatic regions in Drosophila simulans and that when tested in vitro, these copies have a functional promoter. However, when inserted in heterochromatic regions, tirant copies are inactive in vivo, and only transcription of euchromatic copies can be detected. Thus, our data indicate that the localization of the element is a hallmark of its activity in vivo and raise the question of genomic invasions by transposable elements and the importance of their genomic integration sites...
May 2009: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
D Hermsmeier, U Schittko, I T Baldwin
Plants respond to herbivore attack with a dramatic functional reorganization that involves the activation of direct and indirect defenses and tolerance, which in turn make large demands on primary metabolism. Here we provide the first characterization of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs after insect attack in a model plant-herbivore system: Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats.-Manduca sexta. We used mRNA differential display to characterize one-twentieth of the insect-responsive transcriptome of N...
February 2001: Plant Physiology
A Pélisson, L Teysset, F Chalvet, A Kim, N Prud'homme, C Terzian, A Bucheton
The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified so far in invertebrates. According to phylogenetic data, gypsy belongs to the same group as the Ty3 class of LTR-retrotransposons, which suggests that retroviruses evolved from this kind of retroelements before the radiation of vertebrates. There are other invertebrate retroelements that are also likely to be endogenous retroviruses because they share with gypsy some structural and functional retroviral-like characteristics. Gypsy is controlled by a Drosophila gene called flamenco, the restrictive alleles of which maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state...
1997: Genetica
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