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Alyssa Izquierdo, Franziska Plessow, Kendra R Becker, Christopher J Mancuso, Meghan Slattery, Helen B Murray, Andrea S Hartmann, Madhusmita Misra, Elizabeth A Lawson, Kamryn T Eddy, Jennifer J Thomas
OBJECTIVE: The majority of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a fat-phobic (FP-AN) presentation in which they explicitly endorse fear of weight gain, but a minority present as non-fat-phobic (NFP-AN). Diagnostic criteria for avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) specifically exclude fear of weight gain. Differential diagnosis between NFP-AN and ARFID can be challenging and explicit endorsements do not necessarily match internal beliefs. METHOD: Ninety-four adolescent females (39 FP-AN, 13 NFP-AN, 10 low-weight ARFID, 32 healthy controls [HC]) completed implicit association tests (IATs) categorizing statements as pro-dieting or non-dieting and true or false (questionnaire-based IAT), and images of female models as underweight or normal-weight and words as positive or negative (picture-based IAT)...
December 31, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Michelle A Mendez, Donna R Miles, Jennifer M Poti, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Barry M Popkin
Background: Recent research suggests that sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been declining among US children aged 2-18 y. However, most studies focused on changes in mean intake, ignore high SSB consumers and do not examine intake among vulnerable groups and, including adolescents, low-income households, and several racial/ethnic minorities. Objective: The aim was to estimate usual SSB intake from NHANES surveys from 2003-2004 to 2013-2014 to examine shifts at both the median and 90th percentile among US children, evaluating the extent to which intake disparities in total SSBs and subtypes have persisted...
December 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Andrea L Courtney, Emma K PeConga, Dylan D Wagner, Kristina M Rapuano
Several public health departments throughout North America have responded to the obesity epidemic by mandating that restaurants publish calories at the point of purchase-with the intention of encouraging healthier food decisions. To help determine whether accompanying calorie information successfully changes a food's appetitive value, this study investigated the influence of calorie information on brain responses to food images. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning, dieting (N = 22) and non-dieting (N = 20) participants viewed pictures of food with and without calorie information and rated their desire to eat the food...
2018: PloS One
Magdalena Czlapka-Matyasik, Marta Lonnie, Lidia Wadolowska, Agnieszka Frelich
Restricted sugar intake is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and may contribute to the prevention of diet-related diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate whether declared sugar restriction is reflected in actual sucrose intake and diet quality of young non-dieting women, with differentiation between the weekend and weekdays. A convenient sample of 192 non-dieting women aged 20⁻30 years old was recruited. The sample was divided into two groups based on each woman's declaration: "restricting sugar" (RS, n = 76) and "not restricting sugar" (nRS, n = 116)...
October 9, 2018: Nutrients
Zlata Bruckauf, Sophie D Walsh
RATIONALE: Despite the public health importance and policy relevance, no cross-national studies using large representative samples of adolescents have examined the relationship between high sugar consumption and involvement in risk behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The current study examines the relationship between high sugar consumption, in the form of sweets and chocolates and non-diet soft drinks, and involvement in peer violence and substance use. It also examines whether any such relationship is moderated by low socio-economic status (SES) and psychological well-being...
November 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Philippine Fassier, Bernard Srour, Bruno Raynard, Laurent Zelek, Patrice Cohen, Patrick Bachmann, Marina Touillaud, Nathalie Druesne-Pecollo, Laura Bellenchombre, Florence Cousson-Gélie, Vanessa Cottet, François Féliu, Sébastien Mas, Mélanie Deschasaux, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Paule Latino-Martel, Mathilde Touvier
Nutrition is often used by cancer survivors as a lever to take charge of their own health. However, some dietary behaviors are not currently recommended for patients without medical supervision. Our study aimed at evaluating weight-loss restrictive diets and fasting practices among cancer survivors of the NutriNet-Santé cohort, as well as related socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. In October 2016, 2,741 cancer survivors had completed a specific questionnaire about their practices. Fasting and non-fasting patients (respectively dieting and non-dieting) were compared using logistic regression models...
July 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Lindsey T Roberts, Lynnel C Goodman, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
Little research has considered how parents' socioeconomic indicators, body mass index (BMI), and dieting status relate to their food parenting. The current study used self-report data from parents of young children to examine group differences on three types of food parenting practices (Structure, Coercive Control, and Autonomy Promotion). Few group differences were found for socioeconomic indicators. However, parent dieting status moderated effects of parent BMI on structure and autonomy promotion. Obese, non-dieting parents reported lower scores on both variables...
July 2018: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Yaser Mokhayeri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Soheila Khodakarim, Hamid Soori
OBJECTIVES: We analyzed dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR), and assessed how well the scores extracted by RRR predicted stroke in comparison to the scores produced by partial least squares and principal component regression models. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were used to extract dietary patterns using the 3 methods, along with 4 response variables: body mass index, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The analyses were based on 5,468 males and females aged 45-84 years who had no clinical cardiovascular disease, using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Hien Ho, Tsunemi Watanabe
The ubiquitous surfactants nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), which are known as endocrine disrupters, have appeared in the lists of restricted chemical substances, monitoring programs, and environmental quality standards of many countries due to their adverse effects. Recent studies have reported alarming levels of NP, as the final metabolite of NPEOs, in Vietnamese urban waters, whilst response to this issue is negligible. With the aim of addressing how the public perceives and expects to avoid the risk of endocrine disrupting surfactants (EDSs), the study tested the hypothesized roles of specific knowledge, general knowledge, and perceived uncertainty using structural equation modelling...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lemen Pan, Guanfeng Yu, Jingyong Huang, Xiangtao Zheng, Yinghua Xu
Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate non-diet amino acid connecting methionine and folate cycles. Elevated total Hcy level in blood, denoted as hyperhomocysteinemia, has emerged as a prevalent and strong risk factor for multiple diseases including atherosclerotic vascular disease in coronary, cerebral, and peripheral vessels. Its detrimental effect on vascular system implies the potential application as an inhibitor of angiogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism is unveiled. Inhibitory effect of Hcy was assessed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced cell proliferation and migration with endothelial cell (EC) culture system...
October 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Angela C Incollingo Rodriguez, Anthony Rodriguez, Lauren C Callahan, Darby Saxbe, A Janet Tomiyama
A total of 67 pairs of female roommates were randomized into a diet condition: (1) both ate normally; (2) one dieted, the other ate normally; and (3) both dieted. Adherence, weight loss, anxiety, depression, disordered eating symptoms, and stress were measured. Dieters lost more weight than non-dieters, but average loss was <1 pound. Pairs where both dieted reported higher anxiety, depression, and disordered eating than one-dieter pairs. Structural equation models revealed an interrelated network of stress, anxiety, depression, and disordered eating...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
Thomas P Johnston, Tatyana A Korolenko, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The poloxamer 407 (P-407) nongenetic, nondiet-induced mouse model of dose-controlled hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis was first introduced in 1992. Dyslipidemia is produced in C57BL/6 mice of either sex after intraperitoneal administration of P-407 that is a polyether-based nonionic surface active agent. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions begin to form after 1 month of repeated P-407 administration and obtain maximum size, numerical density, and human-like pathological features by 4 months. Our laboratory published a review of this model in 2004, although an update would seem both appropriate and timely based on new findings since 2004...
November 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Rakel Fuglsang Johansen, Esben Søndergaard, Lars Peter Sørensen, Anne Grethe Jurik, Søren Nielsen
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of dietary control on VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -TG kinetics and associated metabolic parameters. Twelve overweight/obese men were randomized to a provided 3 day isocaloric diet with fixed macronutrient composition (diet group, n=6) or to their regular unrestricted diet (non-diet group, n=6). VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -TG turnovers were measured twice 2-4 weeks apart, using primed-constant infusion of ex vivo labeled [1-14 C]VLDL1 -TG and [9,10-3 H]VLDL2 -TG. Isocaloric diet intervention lowered the difference in the mean of both VLDL2 -TG secretion and clearance rate (p<0...
August 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Zhen Li, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Orianne Dumas, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Bénédicte Leynaert, Christophe Pison, Nicole Le Moual, Isabelle Romieu, Valérie Siroux, Carlos A Camargo, Rachel Nadif, Raphaëlle Varraso
It has been hypothesised that increased asthma prevalence in westernised countries is associated with changes in lifestyle factors, including a poorer diet. However, little is known regarding the association between diet quality and asthma. In the diet-asthma association, the role of BMI as a potential mediator needs clarification; moreover, potential effect modification by non-diet sources of oxidants, such as smoking, merits investigation. We investigated the association between diet quality and change in asthma symptoms, as well as assessed effect modification by smoking, while accounting for BMI as a potential mediator...
February 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Stuart Leske, Esben Strodl, Xiang-Yu Hou
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of research comparing why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted. A greater understanding of reasons underlying dieting and non-dieting attempts will help to identify target beliefs for interventions to support and motivate adults to attempt whatever approach they are willing and/or able to pursue. We investigated the predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches in Australian adults using predictors that were identified in a previous qualitative study...
February 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
Ling-Ling Zheng, Kai-Wen Deng, An-Cheng Deng, Jie Wu, Jian-Hua Yang, Zhao-Rong Lun, Liang-Hu Qu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play important roles in animals, plants, and viruses. Deep-sequencing technology has been widely adopted in miRNA investigations. However, it is still a big mysterious why nearly all sequencing data contain miRNA sequences from exogenous species, called exo-miRNAs. In this study, we developed a novel platform, exo-miRExplorer, for mining and identifying exo-miRNAs from high-throughput small RNA sequencing experiments which originated from tissues and cell lines of multiple organisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gabrielle Miller, Caitlin Merlo, Zewditu Demissie, Sarah Sliwa, Sohyun Park
Beverages play an important role in the diets of adolescents because they help to maintain hydration and can provide important nutrients, such as calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin C (1). However, some beverages, such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (e.g., soda or pop), provide calories with no beneficial nutrients. Beverage consumption patterns among American youth have changed over time; however, little is known about differences in consumption of various beverages by demographic characteristics such as grade in school, free/reduced price lunch eligibility, and race/ethnicity (2)...
February 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sarah Greer, Myra Cooper
BACKGROUND: The processing of schema-related information is important in the maintenance of specific eating disorder (ED)-related belief systems and psychopathology. To date, most research on differences in the processing of ED schematic information has used interview or self-report questionnaire measures. Dieting is a known risk factor for EDs and dieters have been included in some studies. However, they have not been compared with non-dieters on a novel, objective measure of ED related schema processing...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
Tom Deliens, Rob Van Crombruggen, Sofie Verbruggen, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Benedicte Deforche, Peter Clarys
PURPOSE: This study aimed to provide an overview of available literature on interventions aiming to improve dietary intake among university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Risk of bias was assessed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. RESULTS: Twenty studies were identified, consisting of 12 randomised controlled trials, 1 quasi-experiment and 7 pre-experiments...
October 1, 2016: Appetite
Sophie Cassidy, Josephine Y Chau, Michael Catt, Adrian Bauman, Michael I Trenell
OBJECTIVES: Simultaneously define diet, physical activity, television (TV) viewing, and sleep duration across cardiometabolic disease groups, and investigate clustering of non-diet lifestyle behaviours. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: 22 UK Biobank assessment centres across the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 502,664 adults aged 37-63 years old, 54% women. 4 groups were defined based on disease status; 'No disease' (n=103,993), 'cardiovascular disease' (CVD n=113,469), 'Type 2 diabetes without CVD' (n=4074) and 'Type 2 diabetes + CVD' (n=11,574)...
March 15, 2016: BMJ Open
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