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subtypes parkinson

Katherine Osborne-Crowley, Sophie C Andrews, Izelle Labuschagne, Akshay Nair, Rachael Scahill, David Craufurd, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated an association between emotion recognition and apathy in several neurological conditions involving fronto-striatal pathology, including Parkinson's disease and brain injury. In line with these findings, we aimed to determine whether apathetic participants with early Huntington's disease (HD) were more impaired on an emotion recognition task compared to non-apathetic participants and healthy controls. METHODS: We included 43 participants from the TRACK-HD study who reported apathy on the Problem Behaviours Assessment - short version (PBA-S), 67 participants who reported no apathy, and 107 controls matched for age, sex, and level of education...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Pablo Martinez-Martin, Alexandra M Rizos, John B Wetmore, Angelo Antonini, Per Odin, Suvankar Pal, Rani Sophia, Camille Carroll, Davide Martino, Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, Belinda Kessel, Thomasin Andrews, Dominic Paviour, Claudia Trenkwalder, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
Background: Little research has been conducted regarding the relationship between sleep disorders and different pain types in Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective: To explore the influence of the various pain subtypes experienced by PD patients on sleep. Methods: Three hundred consecutive PD patients were assessed with the PD Sleep Scale-Version 2 (PDSS-2), King's PD Pain Scale (KPPS), King's PD Pain Questionnaire (KPPQ), Visual Analog Scales for Pain (VAS-Pain), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...
January 2019: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
LingYu Zhang, Bei Cao, Yutong Zou, Qian-Qian Wei, RuWei Ou, Bi Zhao, Jing Yang, Ying Wu, HuiFang Shang
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is an important and common symptom in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the potential relationships among frontal lobe function, behavioral changes and quality of life (QoL) in patients with MSA. METHODS: A total of 203 MSA patients were enrolled and evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39 item version (PDQ-39)...
February 5, 2019: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Ernest W Wang, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Eun-Young Lee, Sol De Jesus, Sangam Kanekar, Lan Kong, Xuemei Huang
Previous multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of parkinsonian syndromes have focused primarily on motor-related basal ganglia structures. The present study investigated MRI changes in nonmotor-related limbic structures in 35 Parkinson's disease, 16 multiple system atrophy parkinsonian subtype, 17 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 37 control subjects. Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy, transverse relaxation rate (R2*), quantitative susceptibility mapping, and volume measurements were obtained from the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens (NAc) to examine differences between groups and to test for associations with clinical scores...
January 16, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
Rory Durcan, Louise Wiblin, Rachael A Lawson, Tien K Khoo, Alison J Yarnall, Gordon W Duncan, David J Brooks, Nicola Pavese, David J Burn
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and duration of NMS in prodromal PD has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and duration of prodromal NMS (pNMS) in a cohort of recently diagnosed PD patients. METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence and duration of prodromal NMS in early PD patients (n= 154). NMS were screened for using the Nonmotor Symptom Questionnaire (NMS Quest). We subtracted the duration of the presence of each individual NMS reported from the duration of earliest motor symptom...
January 31, 2019: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Beate Pesch, Swaantje Casjens, Dirk Woitalla, Shalmali Dharmadhikari, David A Edmondson, Maria Angela Samis Zella, Martin Lehnert, Anne Lotz, Lennard Herrmann, Siegfried Muhlack, Peter Kraus, Chien-Lin Yeh, Benjamin Glaubitz, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Ralf Gold, Christoph van Thriel, Thomas Brüning, Lars Tönges, Ulrike Dydak
We took advantage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) as non-invasive methods to quantify brain iron and neurometabolites, which were analyzed along with other predictors of motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Tapping hits, tremor amplitude, and the scores derived from part III of the Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS3 scores) were determined in 35 male PD patients and 35 controls. The iron-sensitive MRI relaxation rate R2* was measured in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra...
January 29, 2019: Cells
Xi Zhang, Jingyuan Chou, Jian Liang, Cao Xiao, Yize Zhao, Harini Sarva, Claire Henchcliffe, Fei Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with diverse clinical manifestations including motor and non-motor signs and symptoms, and emerging biomarkers. We aimed to reveal the heterogeneity of PD to define subtypes and their progression rates using an automated deep learning algorithm on the top of longitudinal clinical records. This study utilizes the data collected from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI), which is a longitudinal cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease...
January 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sara McGuigan, Shou-Han Zhou, Méadhbh B Brosnan, Dominic Thyagarajan, Mark A Bellgrove, Trevor T-J Chong
Disorders of motivation, such as apathy, are common in Parkinson's disease, and a key feature of such disorders is a greater aversion to effort. In humans, the experience of cognitive effort is ubiquitous, and cognitive apathy has traditionally been considered distinct and separable from other subtypes. Surprisingly, however, the neurobiology of cognitive motivation is poorly understood. In particular, although dopamine has a well-characterized role in incentivizing physically effortful behaviour, a critical, unresolved issue is whether its facilitatory role generalizes to other domains...
January 24, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Chunyi Zhou, Weixin Gu, Haichuan Wu, Xiang Yan, Purnima Deshpande, Cheng Xiao, Henry A Lester
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) possesses microcircuits distinguished by subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Although dysfunction of the STN is well-known in Parkinson's disease, there is still little information about whether dopamine differentially modulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to STN neurons expressing different nAChR subtypes. To address this issue, we performed brain slice patch-clamp recordings on STN neurons, while we pharmacologically manipulated dopaminergic inputs...
January 17, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Jessie Adams, Melissa Feuerborn, Joshua A Molina, Alexa R Wilden, Babita Adhikari, Theodore Budden, Stella Y Lee
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders. CLN5 deficiency causes a subtype of NCL, referred to as CLN5 disease. CLN5 is a soluble lysosomal protein with an unclear function in the cell. Increased levels of the autophagy marker protein LC3-II have been reported in several subtypes of NCLs. In this report, we examine whether autophagy is altered in CLN5 disease. We found that the basal level of LC3-II was elevated in both CLN5 disease patient fibroblasts and CLN5-deficient HeLa cells...
January 17, 2019: Scientific Reports
Eduardo De Pablo-Fernández, Andrew J Lees, Janice L Holton, Thomas T Warner
Importance: Clinical subtyping of Parkinson disease at diagnosis is useful in estimating disease course and survival. Severity and rate of progression of neuropathologies are important determinants of clinical Parkinson subtypes. Objective: To provide longitudinal clinical disease-course data and neuropathologic correlation for newly proposed Parkinson disease subtypes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with autopsy-confirmed Parkinson disease who were regularly seen throughout their disease course by hospital specialists in the United Kingdom and donated their brain at death to the Queen Square Brain Bank between January 2009 and December 2017...
January 14, 2019: JAMA Neurology
Victor Spiandor Beretta, Rodrigo Vitório, Paulo Cezar Rocha Dos Santos, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
Different clinical subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) have long been recognized. Recent studies have focused on two PD subtypes: Postural Instability and Gait Difficulty (PIGD) and Tremor Dominant (TD). PIGD patients have greater difficulties in postural control in relation to TD. However, knowledge about the differences in reactive adjustment mechanisms following a perturbation in TD and PIGD is limited. This study aimed to compare reactive postural adjustments under unexpected external perturbation in TD, PIGD, and control group (CG) subjects...
January 9, 2019: Human Movement Science
Aaron W Winter, Ali Salimi, Luis H Ospina, Jonathan C P Roos
Gaucher disease (GD) results from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase activity and the subsequent accumulation of the enzyme's metabolites, principally glucosylsphingosine and glucosylceramide. There are three principal forms: Type I, which is the most common, is usually considered non-neuronopathic. Type II, III and IIIc manifest earlier and have neurological sequelae due to markedly reduced enzyme activity. Gaucher's can be associated with ophthalmological sequelae but these have not been systematically reviewed...
January 5, 2019: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Sergi Ferré, Manuel Díaz-Ríos, John D Salamone, Rui Daniel Prediger
Recent studies on interactions between striatal adenosine and dopamine and one of its main targets, the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor (A2AR-D2R) heteromer, have provided a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the psychostimulant effects of caffeine and have brought forward new data on the mechanisms of operation of classical orthosteric ligands within G protein-coupled receptor heteromers. The striatal A2AR-D2R heteromer has a tetrameric structure and forms part of a signaling complex that includes a Gs and a Gi protein and the effector adenyl cyclase (subtype AC5)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of caffeine and adenosine research
Tilo Kunath, Ammar Natalwala, Claire Chan, Yixi Chen, Benjamin Stecher, Martin Taylor, Sadaquate Khan, Miratul M K Muqit
Parkinson's is a heterogeneous, complex condition. Stratification of Parkinson's subtypes will be essential to identify those that will benefit most from a cell replacement therapy. Fetal mesencephalic grafts can alleviate motor symptoms in some Parkinson's patients. However, on-going synucleinopathy results in the grafts eventually developing Lewy bodies, and they begin to fail. We propose that Parkinson's patients with PARKIN mutations may benefit most from a cell replacement therapy because (i) they often lack synucleinopathy, and (ii) their neurodegeneration is often confined to the nigrostriatal pathway...
December 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Elke Kalbe, Dag Aarsland, Ann-Kristin Folkerts
 Today, meta-analyses demonstrate that cognitive training is safe and effective to enhance vulnerable cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), so that cognitive interventions can be regarded as a promising approach to treat or even prevent cognitive dysfunction in PD. However, many research gaps exist. Thus, this article aims to identify relevant research topics with regard to cognitive interventions in PD patients for the next 20 years. The most important to do's include the development of (non-digital and digital, maybe also artificial intelligence based) standardized cognitive interventions for PD patients in different cognitive stages and the conduct of large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in these groups, also considering different patient profiles (e...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Alberto J Espay, Anthony E Lang
Parkinson disease has been considered for practical purposes a heterogeneous clinico-pathological entity. The operational definition requires clinical ascertainment of a levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with no "atypical" features, and pathological criteria based on the finding, usually at postmortem, of aggregates of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. The underlying assumption has been that a molecular-biological disorder, targetable for disease modification as a whole, underlies this clinico-pathologic, convergent model of disease...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Daniela Berg, Ronald B Postuma
The field of prodromal PD is still in its infancy, and at the cusp of major advances. This article summarizes where we are, and most importantly where we need to go in order for the promise of prodromal PD to be realized. In the immediate future, the criteria need to be updated with additional markers and disseminated broadly. In the near future, they need to better incorporate changes in likelihood ratio with age and sex, combine markers in novel ways using big data approaches, identify subtypes, and incorporate better higher-specificity markers as they are discovered...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Seok Jong Chung, Yeong-Hun Park, Hyuk Jin Yun, Hunki Kwon, Han Soo Yoo, Young H Sohn, Jong-Min Lee, Phil Hyu Lee
BACKGROUND: To clarify whether subtyping of amnestic and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is clinically relevant in Parkinson's disease (PD) by analyzing patterns of neuroimaging and longitudinal cognitive changes. METHODS: We performed comparative analyses of cortical thickness, hippocampal volume, white matter integrity, and resting-state functional connectivity between the patients with de novo PD with amnestic MCI (PD-aMCI; n = 50) and nonamnestic MCI (PD-naMCI; n = 50) subtypes...
December 18, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Bruk Getachew, Antonei B Csoka, Michael Aschner, Yousef Tizabi
Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are trace elements that are essential for proper growth and physiological functions as both play critical role in a variety of enzymatic reactions. At high concentrations, however, they can be toxic and cause neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson-like syndromes. Nicotine, on the other hand, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects against various endogenous or exogenous toxins that selectively damage the dopaminergic cells. These cells include neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells which express significant dopaminergic activity...
December 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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