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Streptococcal group A

Claudio Andaloro, Maria Santagati, Stefania Stefani, Ignazio La Mantia
PURPOSE: Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) causes a recurrent acute pharyngotonsillitis (RAPT) in children. Moreover, the repeated use of antibiotics contributes to its resistance. However, S. Salivarius 24SMB and S. oralis 89a were effective probiotics in other infections. Thus, we decided to evaluate this combination efficacy compared to placebo in RAPT. METHODS: Patients with microbiologically confirmed GABHS were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
February 15, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Robert R Tanz, Elizabeth J Ranniger, Jason L Rippe, Renée L Dietz, Caroline L Oktem, Christine L Lowmiller, Stanford T Shulman
BACKGROUND: Timely, accurate diagnosis of streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis prevents ARF and limits antibiotic overuse. The Illumigene® Group A Streptococcus assay (Meridian Bioscience) is a molecular test for GAS pharyngitis with high sensitivity and specificity. We sought to determine whether the Illumigene test is more likely than throat culture to be positive in patients without pharyngeal symptoms and explore the limits of detection of the test. METHODS: Patients aged 3-17 years were eligible if they had no history of pharyngitis or use of antibiotics within the previous 2 weeks; there were no URI symptoms, sore throat, or fever; and no signs of infection...
February 6, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sadako Yoshizawa, Takayuki Matsumura, Tadayoshi Ikebe, Ryo Ichibayashi, Yuto Fukui, Takahiro Satoh, Takaya Tsubota, Mitsuru Honda, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda, Manabu Ato
OBJECTIVES: β-Hemolytic streptococci occasionally cause severe infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Here, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the production of cytokines and chemokines in patients with STSS to explore its pathogenesis in survivors and fatal cases. METHODS: From January 2013 through August 2015, all culture results from normally sterile sites were prospectively followed and screened for STSS...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Rui Li, Chenghui Liang, Longguang Jiang, Cai Yuan, Mingdong Huang
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) has caused a wide variety of human diseases. Its multifunctional surface dehydrogenase (SDH) is crucial for GAS life cycle. Furthermore, GAS infection into human pharyngeal cells has been previously shown to be mediated by the interaction between SDH and host urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). However, the structural information of SDH remains to be elucidated and there are few detailed studies to characterize its interaction with uPAR. In-depth research on these issues will provide potential targets and strategies for combating GAS...
February 5, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chloé Jamakorzyan, Vanina Meyssonnier, Younes Kerroumi, Benoit Villain, Beate Heym, Luc Lhotellier, Valérie Zeller, Jean-Marc Ziza, Simon Marmor
OBJECTIVE: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of joint replacement surgery. The major pharmacological and surgical treatments required by PJI increase the risk of peri-operative complications in elderly patients. The increase in life expectancy combined with procedural advances make these treatments possible even in the oldest patients. Here, our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of curative PJI treatment in patients <80 years vs. ≥ 80 years...
February 5, 2019: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
André F Faustino, Glauce M Barbosa, Micael Silva, Miguel A R B Castanho, Andrea T Da Poian, Eurico J Cabrita, Nuno C Santos, Fabio C L Almeida, Ivo C Martins
Understanding protein structure and dynamics, which govern key cellular processes, is crucial for basic and applied research. Intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) regions display multifunctionality via alternative transient conformations, being key players in disease mechanisms. IDP regions are abundant, namely in small viruses, allowing a large number of functions out of a small proteome. The relation between protein function and structure is thus now seen from a different perspective: as IDP regions enable transient structural arrangements, each conformer can play different roles within the cell...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alessandra Gamucci, Sara Uccella, Lucia Sciarretta, Maria D'Apruzzo, Maria Grazia Calevo, Maria Margherita Mancardi, Edvige Veneselli, Elisa De Grandis
OBJECTIVES: Whether PANS (pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome) and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection) represent true clinical entities is debated and data for a characteristic phenotype are still controversial. In this study, we aim to characterize clinical, neuropsychological, and biochemical aspects in a sample of PANS and PANDAS patients. METHODS: Patients fulfilling a clinical diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS from 2014 to 2017 were enrolled...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Jessie E Scott, Kewei Li, Laura M Filkins, Bin Zhu, Sherry L Kuchma, Joseph D Schwartzman, George A O'Toole
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease that causes patients to accumulate thick, dehydrated mucus in the lung and develop chronic, polymicrobial infections due to reduced mucociliary clearance. These chronic polymicrobial infections and subsequent decline in lung function are significant factors in the morbidity and mortality of CF. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus spp. are among the most prevalent organisms in the CF lung; the presence of P. aeruginosa correlates with lung function decline and the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG), a subgroup of the viridans streptococci, is associated with exacerbations in patients with CF...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
A M W Chan, W W Y Au, D V K Chao, K Choi, K W Choi, S M Y Choi, Y Chow, C Y M Fan, P L Ho, E M T Hui, K H Kwong, B Y S Kwong, T P Lam, E T K Lam, K W Lau, L Lui, K H L Ng, M C S Wong, T Y Wong, C F Yeung, J H S You, R W H Yung
The Centre for Health Protection of the Department of Health has convened the Advisory Group on Antibiotic Stewardship Programme in Primary Care (the Advisory Group) to formulate guidance notes and strategies for optimising judicious use of antibiotics and enhancing the Antibiotic Stewardship Programme in Primary Care. Acute pharyngitis is one of the most common conditions among out-patients in primary care in Hong Kong. Practical recommendations on the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis are made by the Advisory Group based on the best available clinical evidence, local prevalence of pathogens and associated antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and common local practice...
January 31, 2019: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Nobuhiro Asai, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Any immunological mechanisms induced by influenza virus could cause severe secondary bacterial superinfection such as those by Streptococcus pyogenes [group A streptococcus (GAS)], Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus. Over recent years, the frequency of pleural empyema has increased in children with influenza infection. We present a severe case of acute empyema caused by S.pyogenes after influenza A infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 39-year old woman was diagnosed as influenza A and received oral Oseltamivir 75 mg twice daily for 5 days...
January 28, 2019: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Shunsuke Yamada, Masaki Shibasaki, Kazunori Murase, Takayasu Watanabe, Chihiro Aikawa, Takashi Nozawa, Ichiro Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major human pathogen, which is associated with a wide spectrum of invasive diseases, such as pharyngitis, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). It is hypothesized that differences in GAS pathogenicity are related to the acquisition of diverse bacteriophages (phages). Nevertheless, the GAS genome also harbors clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes, which play an important role in eliminating foreign DNA, including those of phages...
January 28, 2019: BMC Microbiology
Sana S Ahmed, Kasey E Diebold, Jacob M Brandvold, Saadeh S Ewaidah, Stephanie Black, Abimbola Ogundimu, Zhongya Li, Nimalie D Stone, Chris A Van Beneden
Two consecutive outbreaks of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections occurred from 2015-2016 among residents of a Chicago skilled nursing facility. Evaluation of wound care practices proved crucial for identifying transmission factors and implementing prevention measures. We demonstrated shedding of GAS on settle plates during care of a colonized wound.
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Eleni Vergadi, Antonia Manoura, Emmanouil Chatzakis, Emmanouil Karavitakis, Sofia Maraki, Emmanouil Galanakis
Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal disease. However, GBS rates and prevention strategies vary considerably worldwide. Herein, we investigated the burden and epidemiological trends of neonatal GBS infections in our area (Greece) over the last two decades. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study that includes all cases of culture-proven GBS disease in infants <90 days old in the last 22 years. Neonatal GBS incidence was 0.17/1000 live births (95%CI: 0.11-0.21). A significant increase was noted during the second decade (0...
November 6, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Arundhati Rao, Bradley Berg, Theresa Quezada, Robert Fader, Kimberly Walker, Shaowu Tang, Ula Cowen, Dana Duncan, Joanna Sickler
BACKGROUND: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended 2-step rapid antigen detection test (RADT) with confirmatory culture vs the point-of-care (POC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Roche cobas® Liat® Strep A test for detection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) in pediatric patients with pharyngitis, and to investigate the impact of these tests on antibiotic use in a large pediatric clinic. METHODS: This prospective, open-label study was conducted at a single site during fall/winter 2016-2017...
January 16, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
Torri D Metz, Jennifer McKinney, Amanda A Allshouse, Shanna Doucette Knierim, J Christopher Carey, Kent D Heyborne
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal antibiotic exposure may be associated with changes in both early infancy gut microbiota and later childhood obesity. Our objective was to evaluate if group B Streptococcus (GBS) antibiotic prophylaxis is associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in early childhood. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of mother/child dyads in a single hospital system over a 6-year period. All women with term, singleton, vertex, vaginal deliveries who received no antibiotics or received antibiotics only for GBS prophylaxis and whose children had BMIs available at 2-5 years of age were included...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Fiona P Havers, Lauri A Hicks, Jessie R Chung, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Richard K Zimmerman, Lisa A Jackson, Joshua G Petrie, Huong Q McLean, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael L Jackson, Arnold S Monto, Edward A Belongia, Brendan Flannery, Alicia M Fry
Importance: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the syndrome for which antibiotics are most commonly prescribed; viruses for which antibiotics are ineffective cause most ARIs. Objectives: To characterize antibiotic prescribing among outpatients with ARI during influenza season and to identify targets for reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for common ARI diagnoses, including among outpatients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study enrolling outpatients aged 6 months or older with ARI evaluated at outpatient clinics associated with 5 US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network sites during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 influenza seasons...
June 1, 2018: JAMA network open
Yusuke Teratani, Hideharu Hagiya, Toshihiro Koyama, Ayako Ohshima, Yoshito Zamami, Yasuhisa Tatebe, Ken Tasaka, Kazuaki Shinomiya, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Toshiaki Sendo, Shiro Hinotsu, Mitsunobu R Kano
The application and clinical impact of rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in the treatment of acute pharyngitis is unknown in Japan. We aimed to examine the proportions of RADT usage to identify Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) in outpatients with acute pharyngitis and evaluate the association between RADT and antibiotic treatment. We analyzed health insurance claims data from 2013 to 2015. Logistic regression models were used to analyze associated factors with RADT, overall antibiotic prescription, or penicillin use...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Srinivas Acharya Nanduri, Susan Petit, Chad Smelser, Mirasol Apostol, Nisha B Alden, Lee H Harrison, Ruth Lynfield, Paula S Vagnone, Kari Burzlaff, Nancy L Spina, Elizabeth M Dufort, William S Schaffner, Ann R Thomas, Monica M Farley, Jennifer H Jain, Tracy Pondo, Lesley McGee, Bernard W Beall, Stephanie J Schrag
Importance: Invasive disease owing to group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains an important cause of illness and death among infants younger than 90 days in the United States, despite declines in early-onset disease (EOD; with onset at 0-6 days of life) that are attributed to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). Maternal vaccines to prevent infant GBS disease are currently under development. Objective: To describe incidence rates, case characteristics, antimicrobial resistance, and serotype distribution of EOD and late-onset disease (LOD; with onset at 7-89 days of life) in the United States from 2006 to 2015 to inform IAP guidelines and vaccine development...
January 14, 2019: JAMA Pediatrics
Catarina Silva-Costa, Maria J Brito, Sandra I Aguiar, Joana P Lopes, Mário Ramirez, José Melo-Cristino
We evaluated the impact of continued 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) use in the private market (uptake of 61%) in pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease (pIPD) in Portugal (2012-2015). The most frequently detected serotypes were: 3 (n = 32, 13.8%), 14 (n = 23, 9.9%), 1 (n = 23, 9.9%), 7F (n = 15, 6.4%), 19A (n = 13, 5.6%), 6B and 15B/C (both n = 12, 5.2%), and 24F, 10A and 12B (all with n = 10, 4.3%). Taken together, non-PCV13 serotypes were responsible for 42.2% of pIPD with a known serotype...
January 9, 2019: Scientific Reports
Pavel Khramtsov, Maria Kropaneva, Il'ya Byzov, Artem Minin, Alexey Mysik, Valeria Timganova, Maria Bochkova, Mikhail Uimin, Svetlana Zamorina, Anatoly Yermakov, Mikhail Rayev
In this work, we developed and optimized conjugates of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles (Fe@C) with streptavidin and monoclonal antibodies. The conjugation procedure included two stages. First, amino groups were grafted onto the carbon shell to facilitate noncovalent sorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Further, the covalent attachment of proteins to the BSA layer via glutaraldehyde coupling was performed. It was established and confirmed that the synthesis procedure is reproducible and allows preparation of stable conjugates...
January 3, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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