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Cheryl Lans
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: There are insufficient safe and effective treatments for chronic pain in pets. In cases such as osteoarthritis there is no commercially available cure and veterinarians use NSAIDs to manage pain. Pet owners may have to plan for a lifetime of plant-based treatment for the conditions that lead to chronic pain in pets. Phytopharmacotherapies have the advantage of being less toxic, cheap or free, readily available, are more likely to be safe for long-term use and have the potential to reset the immune system to normal functioning...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Li Jing, Caglar Gulcehre, John Peurifoy, Yichen Shen, Max Tegmark, Marin Soljacic, Yoshua Bengio
We present a novel recurrent neural network (RNN)-based model that combines the remembering ability of unitary evolution RNNs with the ability of gated RNNs to effectively forget redundant or irrelevant information in its memory. We achieve this by extending restricted orthogonal evolution RNNs with a gating mechanism similar to gated recurrent unit RNNs with a reset gate and an update gate. Our model is able to outperform long short-term memory, gated recurrent units, and vanilla unitary or orthogonal RNNs on several long-term-dependency benchmark tasks...
February 14, 2019: Neural Computation
Wenge Xu, Hai-Ning Liang, Yuxuan Zhao, Tianyu Zhang, D Yu, Diego Monteiro
In this paper, we present a case for text entry using a circular keyboard layout for mobile head-mounted displays (HMDs) that is dwell-free and does not require users to hold a dedicated input device for letter selection. To support the case, we have implemented RingText whose design is based on a circular layout with two concentric circles. The outer circle is subdivided into regions containing letters. Selection is made by using a virtual cursor controlled by the user's head movements-entering a letter region triggers a selection and moving back into the inner circle resets the selection...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Philipp Konrad Zuber, Kristian Schweimer, Paul Rösch, Irina Artsimovitch, Stefan H Knauer
RfaH, member of the NusG/Spt5 family, activates virulence genes in Gram-negative pathogens. RfaH exists in two states, with its C-terminal domain (CTD) folded either as α-helical hairpin or β-barrel. In free RfaH, the α-helical CTD interacts with, and masks the RNA polymerase binding site on, the N-terminal domain, autoinhibiting RfaH and restricting its recruitment to opsDNA sequences. Upon activation, the domains separate and the CTD refolds into the β-barrel, which recruits a ribosome, activating translation...
February 11, 2019: Nature Communications
Colleen Jackson-Cook
One of the traits most consistently seen in females with Turner syndrome is premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). The biological mechanisms underlying the germ cell atresia that leads to infertility in most women with Turner syndrome are unclear. Given that telomeres are important for proper chromosomal pairing and other early steps in meiosis and oogenesis, one can conjecture that perturbations in telomere length and/or function might contribute to the POI associated with Turner syndrome. Also, one can speculate that epigenetic modifications that arise in response to asynapsis, as well as the resetting of the epigenome during embryogenesis, could contribute to monosomy X-related germ cell atresia...
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
P Rouanet, S Gourgou, I Gogenur, D Jayne, A Ulrich, T Rautio, G Spinoglio, N Bouazza, A Moussion, M Gomez Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard of care for rectal cancer, which can be combined with low anterior resection (LAR) in patients with mid-to-low rectal cancer. The narrow pelvic space and difficulties in obtaining adequate exposure make surgery technically challenging. Four techniques are used to perform the surgery: open laparotomy, laparoscopy, robot-assisted surgery, and transanal surgery. Comparative data for these techniques is required to provide clinical data on the surgical management of rectal cancers...
February 10, 2019: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Shahnawaz Imam, R Prathibha, Pervaiz Dar, Khalil Almotah, Ahmed Al-Khudhair, Syed Abdul-Moiz Hasan, Nancy Salim, Talha Naser Jilani, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Juan Carlos Jaume
We have developed a transgenic mouse model of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in which human GAD65 is expressed in pancreatic β-cells, and human MHC-II is expressed on antigen presenting cells. Induced GAD65 antigen presentation activates T-cells, which initiates the downstream events leading to diabetes. In our humanized mice, we have shown downregulation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 A (elF5A), expressed only in actively dividing mammalian cells. In-vivo inhibition of elF5A hypusination by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) inhibitor "GC7" was studied; DHS inhibitor alters the pathophysiology in our mouse model by catalyzing the crucial hypusination and the rate-limiting step of elF5A activation...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Antimo Buonocore, Julianne Skinner, Ziad M Hafed
The oculomotor system integrates a variety of visual signals into appropriate motor plans, but such integration can have widely varying time scales. For example, smooth pursuit eye movements to follow a moving target are slower and longer-lasting than saccadic eye movements, and it has been suggested that initiating a smooth pursuit eye movement involves an obligatory open-loop interval, in which new visual motion signals presumably cannot influence the ensuing motor plan for up to 100 ms after movement initiation...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Francesco Marampon, Silvia Codenotti, Francesca Megiorni, Andrea Del Fattore, Simona Camero, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Claudio Festuccia, Daniela Musio, Francesca De Felice, Valerio Nardone, Anna Natalizia Santoro, Carlo Dominici, Alessandro Fanzani, Luigi Pirtoli, Antonella Fioravanti, Vincenzo Tombolini, Sara Cheleschi, Paolo Tini
PURPOSE: Tumor cells generally exhibit higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, when stressed, tumor cells can undergo a process of 'Redox Resetting' to acquire a new redox balance with stronger antioxidant systems that enable cancer cells to become resistant to radiation therapy (RT). Here, we describe how RT affects the oxidant/antioxidant balance in human embryonal (RD) and alveolar (RH30) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines, investigating on the molecular mechanisms involved...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Alexandra Vinagre, João C Ramos, Clara Rebelo, José Francisco Basto, Ana Messias, Nélia Alberto, Rogério Nogueira
The aim of this research was to compare the pulp temperature (PT) rise induced by four light-emitting diode light-curing units (LED LCUs) (Bluephase 20i, Demi Ultra, SPEC 3, and Valo) in different curing modes. Immediately after extraction, the pulp chamber of 11 premolars was accessed from the palatal cervical third of the crown for insertion of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for temperature measurement and kept in a 37.0° water bath. The teeth were then submitted to a random sequence of curing modes with four irradiations at 30 s intervals...
January 29, 2019: Materials
Roman J Krawetz
While many of intricacies of the mammalian circadian rhythm remain unknown, the role that this physiological clock plays in our everyday lives and within the global ecosystem is clearly evident. However, only recently has the importance of circadian rhythm in cartilage health and joint homeostasis been brought to light. A recent study by Hand and colleagues advances our understanding of these processes further by demonstrating that disruption of circadian clock regulation in mesenchymal cells not only has an impact on the development of joint structures, but on the inflammatory response and on the onset/pathogenesis of arthritis...
January 29, 2019: Arthritis Research & Therapy
William Sedley
Many, or most, tinnitus models rely on increased central gain in the auditory pathway as all or part of the explanation, in that central auditory neurones deprived of their usual sensory input maintain homeostasis by increasing the rate at which they fire in response to any given strength of input, including amplifying spontaneous firing which forms the basis of tinnitus. However, dramatic gain changes occur in response to damage to the auditory periphery, irrespective of whether tinnitus occurs. This article considers gain in its broadest sense, summarises its contributory processes, neural manifestations, behavioural effects, techniques for its measurement, pitfalls in attributing gain changes to tinnitus, a discussion of the minimum evidential requirements to implicate gain as a necessary and/or sufficient basis to explain tinnitus, and the extent of existing evidence in this regard...
January 25, 2019: Neuroscience
Jennifer J Loros
Study of Neurospora, a model system evolutionarily related to animals and sharing a circadian system having nearly identical regulatory architecture to that of animals, has advanced our understanding of all circadian rhythms. Work on the molecular bases of the Oscillator began in Neurospora before any clock genes were cloned and provided the second example of a clock gene, frq, as well as the first direct experimental proof that the core of the Oscillator was built around a transcriptional translational negative feedback loop (TTFL)...
January 27, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
K Ghousiya Begum, A Seshagiri Rao, T K Radhakrishnan
An optimal H2 minimization framework is proposed in this paper for devising a controller of PID in nature, based on a refined IMC filter configuration. The tuning strategy is for controlling time delay system with at least one pole which falls on the right half of the s-plane. An underdamped model based filter is used in place of the unity damping ratio (critically damped) filter available in the literature to improve the reset action. The method has a single adjustable closed loop tuning parameter. Guidelines have been provided for choosing the pertinent tuning parameter based on the sensitivity function...
February 2018: ISA Transactions
Joseph D Monaco, Rose M De Guzman, Hugh T Blair, Kechen Zhang
During spatial navigation, the frequency and timing of spikes from spatial neurons including place cells in hippocampus and grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex are temporally organized by continuous theta oscillations (6-11 Hz). The theta rhythm is regulated by subcortical structures including the medial septum, but it is unclear how spatial information from place cells may reciprocally organize subcortical theta-rhythmic activity. Here we recorded single-unit spiking from a constellation of subcortical and hippocampal sites to study spatial modulation of rhythmic spike timing in rats freely exploring an open environment...
January 25, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Pavel S Smelov, Ivan S Proskurkin, Vladimir K Vanag
Switching between stable oscillatory modes in a network of four Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillators coupled in a ring via unidirectional inhibitory pulsatile coupling with a time delay is analysed computationally and experimentally. There are five stable modes in this network: in-phase, anti-phase, walk, walk reverse, and three-cluster modes. Transitions between the modes are carried out by short external pulses applied to one or several oscillators. We consider three types of switching between the modes: (i) forced switching, when the phases of oscillators of an initial mode reset in such a way that they correspond to the phases of the final mode; internal pulses of the network play no role in this resetting; (ii) "specific" switching, when the phase of only one oscillator is changed by an external perturbation which induces a chain of phase changes in other oscillators due to internal coupling between oscillators; and (iii) multistep switching through intermediate modes, which can be either stable or unstable attractors...
January 23, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
J Requena, A B Alvarez-Palomo, M Codina-Pascual, R Delgado-Morales, S Moran, M Esteller, M Sal, M Juan-Otero, A Boronat Barado, A Consiglio, O Addeleccia Bogle, E Wolvertang, D Ovchinnikov, I Alvarez, D Jaraquemada, J Mezquita-Pla, R Oliva, M J Edel
When considering the clinical applications of autologous cell replacement therapy of human iPSC-derived cells there is a clear need to better understand what the immune response will be before we embark on extensive clinical trials to treat or model human disease. We performed a detailed assessment comparing human fibroblast cell lines (termed F1) reprogrammed into human iPSC and subsequently differentiated back to fibroblast cells (termed F2) or other human iPSC-derived cells including neural stem cells made from either retroviral, episomal or synthetic mRNA cell reprogramming methods...
January 3, 2019: Stem Cells
Muhammad Shahrukh Saleem, Bin Cui, Cheng Song, Yiming Sun, Youdi Gu, Ruiqi Zhang, Muhammad Umer Fayaz, Xiaofeng Zhou, Peter Werner, Stuart S P Parkin, Feng Pan
SrFeOx (SFOx) compound exhibits ionic conduction and oxygen-related phase transformation, having potential applications in solid-oxide fuel cells, smart windows, and memristive devices. The phase transformation in SFOx typically requires thermal annealing process under various pressure conditions, hindering their practical applications. Here we have achieved a reversible phase transition from brownmillerite (BM) to perovskite (PV) in SrFeO2.5 (SFO2.5) film through ionic liquid (IL) gating. The real-time phase transformation is imaged using in-situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy...
January 21, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dáibhid Ó Maoiléidigh, Anthony J Ricci
In the inner ear, the deflection of hair bundles, the sensory organelles of hair cells, activates mechanically-gated channels (MGCs). Hair bundles monitor orientation of the head, its angular and linear acceleration, and detect sound. Force applied to MGCs is shaped by intrinsic hair-bundle properties, by the mechanical load on the bundle, and by the filter imparted by the environment of the hair bundle. Channel gating and adaptation, the ability of the bundle to reset its operating point, contribute to hair-bundle mechanics...
January 17, 2019: Trends in Neurosciences
Cesar A Romero, Oscar A Carretero
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarized the current knowledge of connecting tubule-glomerular feedback (CTGF), a novel mechanism of renal microcirculation regulation that integrates sodium handling in the connecting tubule (CNT) with kidney hemodynamics. RECENT FINDINGS: Connecting tubule-glomerular feedback is a crosstalk communication between the CNT and the afferent arteriole (Af-Art), initiated by sodium chloride through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)...
January 18, 2019: Current Hypertension Reports
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