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Paralyzed hemidiaphragm

Fangchao Liu, Yanhua Zhang, Janelle Schafer, Guangzhao Mao, Harry G Goshgarian
CONTEXT: Following a spinal cord hemisection at the second cervical segment the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm is paralyzed due to the disruption of the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) axons descending to the ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons (PN). Systemically administered theophylline activates a functionally latent crossed phrenic pathway (CPP) which decussates caudal to the hemisection and activates phrenic motoneurons ipsilateral to the hemisection. The result is return of function to the paralyzed hemidiaphragm...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Junxiang Wen, Yingchao Han, Song Guo, Mingjie Yang, Lijun Li, Guixin Sun, Jun Wang, Fangqiong Hu, Jing Liang, Li Wei, Qi Zhou, Weibin Zhang, Jun Tan
OBJECTIVE Respiratory dysfunction is the leading cause of mortality following upper cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The authors' previous study suggested that vagus nerve (VN) and phrenic nerve (PN) anastomosis could partially improve respiratory function in rabbits that had been subjected to PN transection. As a branch of the VN and a motor fiber-dominated nerve, the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) seems a better choice to anastomose with the PN for respiratory function restoration after upper cervical SCI...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Phillip H Beske, Aaron B Bradford, Katie M Hoffman, Sydney J Mason, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin in the bloodstream, there are no clinically effective treatments to prevent or reverse disease once BoNT has entered the neuron. To address the need for post-symptomatic countermeasures, we designed and developed an in vitro assay based on whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiological monitoring of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in synaptically active murine embryonic stem cell-derived neurons...
June 1, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the "crossed phrenic phenomenon", wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Warawut Sukkasem, Sherine G Moftah, Gregory Kicska, J David Godwin, Sudhakar Pipavath, Eric Stern
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to measure the association between crus atrophy as depicted by computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic diagnosis of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis in patients with suspected diaphragmatic dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patient data was approved by our institutional review board and was HIPPA-compliant. We reviewed 90 patients who had undergone diaphragmatic fluoroscopy; 72 had CT scans available for measurement of crus thickness at the levels of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries and the L1 vertebral body...
November 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Misbah Baqir, Jay H Ryu, Eric J Sorenson, Eric J Olson
We describe the case of a 62-year-old man who presented with shortness of breath that had progressed over several years. He had a history of a paralyzed right hemidiaphragm for at least the previous 10 years. He also reported weakness in his proximal legs and daytime sleepiness. On examination, he was found to have thoracoabdominal paradox when in supine position. Pulmonary function testing revealed severe restriction; arterial blood gas showed chronic respiratory acidosis. Electromyography showed chronic phrenic neuropathy bilaterally, with mild proximal myopathy...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Filipe Nascimento, Ana M Sebastião, Joaquim A Ribeiro
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease leading to neuromuscular transmission impairment. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) function changes with disease stage, but the role of the A(1) receptors (A1Rs) is unknown and may have a functional cross-talk with A2AR. The role of A1R in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS in presymptomatic (4-6 weeks old) and symptomatic (12-14 weeks old) phases was investigated by recording endplate potentials (EPPs), miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs), and quantal content (q...
December 2015: Purinergic Signalling
Filipe Nascimento, Paula A Pousinha, Alexandra M Correia, Rui Gomes, Ana M Sebastião, Joaquim A Ribeiro
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to motor neuron dysfunction resulting in impairment of neuromuscular transmission. A2A adenosine receptors have already been considered as a potential therapeutical target for ALS but their neuromodulatory role at the neuromuscular junction in ALS remains to be clarified. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of A2A receptors on neuromuscular transmission of an animal model of ALS: SOD1(G93A) mice either in the pre-symptomatic (4-6 weeks old) or in the symptomatic (12-14 weeks old) stage...
2014: PloS One
M S Felix, S Bauer, F Darlot, F Muscatelli, A Kastner, P Gauthier, V Matarazzo
After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), patients and animals may exhibit some spontaneous functional recovery which can be partly attributed to remodeling of injured neural circuitry. This post-lesion plasticity implies spinal remodeling but increasing evidences suggest that supraspinal structures contribute also to the functional recovery. Here we tested the hypothesis that partial SCI may activate cell-signaling pathway(s) at the supraspinal level and that this molecular response may contribute to spontaneous recovery...
September 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
Gregor J Kocher, Karl Mauss, Giovanni L Carboni, Beatrix Hoksch, Roland Kuster, Sebastian R Ott, Ralph A Schmid
BACKGROUND: The issue of phrenic nerve preservation during pneumonectomy is still an unanswered question. So far, its direct effect on immediate postoperative pulmonary lung function has never been evaluated in a prospective trial. METHODS: We conducted a prospective crossover study including 10 patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between July 2011 and July 2012. After written informed consent, all consecutive patients who agreed to take part in the study and in whom preservation of the phrenic nerve during operation was possible, were included in the study...
December 2013: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Carlos B Mantilla, Heather M Gransee, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Gary C Sieck
A C2 cervical spinal cord hemisection (SH) interrupts descending inspiratory-related drive to phrenic motoneurons located between C3 and C5 in rats, paralyzing the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm muscle. There is gradual recovery of rhythmic diaphragm muscle activity ipsilateral to cervical spinal cord injury over time, consistent with neuroplasticity and strengthening of spared, contralateral descending premotor input to phrenic motoneurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through the tropomyosin related kinase receptor subtype B (TrkB) plays an important role in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury...
September 2013: Experimental Neurology
Chang-Hwa Jung, Jin-Kyu Choi, Yoosoo Yang, Hyun-Ju Koh, Paul Heo, Kee-Jung Yoon, Sehyun Kim, Won-Seok Park, Hong-Ju Shing, Dae-Hyuk Kweon
CONTEXT: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are popularly used to treat various diseases and for cosmetic purposes. They act by blocking neurotransmission through specific cleavage of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Recently, several polyphenols were shown to interfere with SNARE complex formation by wedging into the hydrophobic core interface, thereby leading to reduced neuroexocytosis. OBJECTIVE: In order to find industrially-viable plant extract that functions like BoNT, 71 methanol extracts of flowers were screened and BoNT-like activity of selected extract was evaluated...
September 2012: Pharmaceutical Biology
Michael Adler, Sharad S Deshpande, James P Apland, Bridget Murray, Andrew Borrell
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) comprise a family of neurotoxic proteins synthesized by anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Each neurotoxin consists of two polypeptide chains: a 100kDa heavy chain, responsible for binding and internalization into the nerve terminal of cholinergic motoneurons and a 50kDa light chain that mediates cleavage of specific synaptic proteins in the host nerve terminal. Exposure to BoNT leads to cessation of voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent acetylcholine (ACh) release, resulting in flaccid paralysis which may be protracted and potentially fatal...
November 2012: Neurochemistry International
Ji Hyeon Lee, Soo-Il Lee, Seung Cheol Lee, So Ron Choi, Won Ji Rhee
BACKGROUND: Partially paralyzed patients may be placed in the risk of pharyngeal dysfunction. Bupivacaine acts as acetylcholine receptor ion channel blocker and may synergistically interact with rocuronium to augment NM blockade. Thus, this study aims to elucidate whether or not, at a therapeutic concentration, bupivacaine by itself may cause NM blockade and reduce an effective concentration of rocuronium. METHODS: Twenty-two left phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms (Male SD rats, 150-250 g) were hung in Krebs solution...
May 2012: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Daniel Mantuani, Arun Nagdev
The ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus is becoming increasingly popular for anesthesia in the management of upper-extremity injuries by emergency physicians. Traditional high-volume injections of local anesthesia will also affect the phrenic nerve, leading to temporary paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm. With direct ultrasound guidance, more precise needle placement allows for lower-volume injections that reduce inadvertent spread of local anesthetic to the phrenic nerve without decreasing the efficacy of onset of time and quality of the block...
November 2012: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
W N Welvaart, M A Paul, H W H van Hees, G J M Stienen, J W M Niessen, F S de Man, G C Sieck, A Vonk-Noordegraaf, C A C Ottenheijm
Recent studies proposed that mechanical inactivity of the human diaphragm during mechanical ventilation rapidly causes diaphragm atrophy and weakness. However, conclusive evidence for the notion that diaphragm weakness is a direct consequence of mechanical inactivity is lacking. To study the effect of hemidiaphragm paralysis on diaphragm muscle fiber function and structure in humans, biopsies were obtained from the paralyzed hemidiaphragm in eight patients with hemidiaphragm paralysis. All patients had unilateral paralysis of known duration, caused by en bloc resection of the phrenic nerve with a tumor...
August 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Matthew R Kaufman, Andrew I Elkwood, Michael I Rose, Tushar Patel, Russell Ashinoff, Adam Saad, Robert Caccavale, Jean-Philippe Bocage, Jeffrey Cole, Aida Soriano, Ed Fein
BACKGROUND: Unilateral phrenic nerve injury often results in symptomatic hemidiaphragm paralysis, and currently few treatment options exist. Reported etiologies include cardiac surgery, neck surgery, chiropractic manipulation, and interscalene nerve blocks. Although diaphragmatic plication has been an option for treatment, the ideal treatment would be restoration of function to the paralyzed hemidiaphragm. The application of peripheral nerve surgery techniques for phrenic nerve injuries has not been adequately evaluated...
July 2011: Chest
Kwaku D Nantwi
Consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) depend on the level and extent of injury. Cervical SCI often results in a compromised respiratory system. Primary treatment of SCI patients with respiratory insufficiency continues to be with mechanical ventilatory support. In an animal model of SCI, an upper cervical spinal cord hemisection paralyzes the hemidiaphragm ipsilateral to the side of injury. However, a latent respiratory motor pathway can be activated to restore respiratory function after injury. In this review, restoration of respiratory activity following systemic administration of theophylline, a respiratory stimulant will be discussed...
November 30, 2009: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Corey J Hilmas, Melissa J Poole, Kathryn Finneran, Matthew G Clark, Patrick T Williams
The ability of galantamine hydrobromide (GAL HBr) treatment to antagonize O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX)-induced lethality, impairment of muscle tension, and electroencephalographic (EEG) changes was assessed in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were challenged with 16.8 microg/kg VX (2LD50). One min after challenge, animals were administered 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate (ATR) and 25 mg/kg pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM). In addition, guinea pigs were given 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 10 mg/kg GAL as a post-exposure treatment immediately prior to ATR and 2-PAM...
October 15, 2009: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Y Huang, H G Goshgarian
Cervical spinal cord hemisection at C2 leads to paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm in rats. Respiratory function of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm can be restored by activating a latent respiratory motor pathway in adult rats. This pathway is called the crossed phrenic pathway and the restored activity in the paralyzed hemidiaphragm is referred to as crossed phrenic activity. The latent neural pathway is not latent in neonatal rats as shown by the spontaneous expression of crossed phrenic activity. However, the anatomy of the pathway in neonatal rats is still unknown...
November 10, 2009: Neuroscience
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