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Unsaturated fatty acids

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771734/unsaturated-fatty-acids-from-flaxseed-oil-and-exercise-modulate-gpr120-but-not-gpr40-in-the-liver-of-obese-mice-a-new-anti-inflammatory-approach
#1
Rafael Calais Gaspar, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Mariana Pereira Bessi, Marcella Neves Dátilo, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Patrícia Brito Rodrigues, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Gustavo Aparecido Santos, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra
GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770405/disruption-of-quorum-sensing-and-virulence-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia-by-a-structural-analogue-of-the-cis-2-dodecenoic-acid-signal
#2
Chaoyu Cui, Shihao Song, Chunxi Yang, Xiuyun Sun, Yutong Huang, Kang Li, Shuo Zhao, Yongliang Zhang, Yinyue Deng
Quorum sensing (QS) signals are widely used by bacterial pathogens to control biological functions and virulence in response to changes in cell population densities. Burkholderia cenocepacia employs a molecular mechanism in which the cis -2-dodecenoic acid (named <u>B</u> urkholderia <u> d </u> iffusible <u> s </u> ignal <u> f </u> actor, abbreviated as BDSF) QS system regulates N -acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal production and virulence by modulating intracellular levels of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP)...
February 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768620/effects-of-increased-space-allowance-on-animal-welfare-meat-and-ham-quality-of-heavy-pigs-slaughtered-at-160kg
#3
Eleonora Nannoni, Giovanna Martelli, Giulia Rubini, Luca Sardi
Sixty barrows (Body Weight-BW- range: 23.9-160 kg) were allotted to two experimental groups (6 pens of 5 pigs each): the control group was kept at a space allowance of 1m2/head; the second group was kept at 1.3m2/head. Behaviour, growth parameters, carcass and meat quality were assessed, as well as fat and cured ham quality. Results showed that pigs raised at 1.3m2/head spent more time laying (particularly in lateral recumbency, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) compared to pigs kept at lower space allowance...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767883/role-of-internal-lipids-in-hair-health
#4
Jennifer M Marsh, Shane Whitaker, Tim Felts, William Shearouse, Mike Vatter, Arto Määttä, Matthew Thompson, Timothy J Hawkins
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids make up 85% of the total hair lipid content and are found in the cuticle and cortical cell membrane complex. Although these lipids only make up 2-6% of the hair's overall weight, they play a crucial role in keeping hair healthy, influencing shine, feel, manageability, and strength. The objective of this work was to understand the mechanisms of how these lipids are lost on exposure to external stressors, such as chemical treatments, washing, and UV exposure and to understand how their loss impacts hair strength...
September 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765794/five-genomic-regions-have-a-major-impact-on-fat-composition-in-iberian-pigs
#5
R N Pena, J L Noguera, M J García-Santana, E González, J F Tejeda, R Ros-Freixedes, N Ibáñez-Escriche
The adipogenic nature of the Iberian pig defines many quality attributes of its fresh meat and dry-cured products. The distinct varieties of Iberian pig exhibit great variability in the genetic parameters for fat deposition and composition in muscle. The aim of this work is to identify common and distinct genomic regions related to fatty acid composition in Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado Iberian varieties and their reciprocal crosses through a diallelic experiment. In this study, we performed GWAS using a high density SNP array on 382 pigs with the multimarker regression Bayes B method implemented in GenSel...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764880/double-bonds-of-unsaturated-fatty-acids-differentially-regulate-mitochondrial-cardiolipin-remodeling
#6
Hsiu-Chi Ting, Li-Tzu Chen, Jo-Yu Chen, Yi-Li Huang, Rui-Cheng Xin, Jui-Fen Chan, Yuan-Hao Howard Hsu
BACKGROUND: Supplemented fatty acids can incorporate into cardiolipin (CL) and affect its remodeling. The change in CL species may alter the mitochondrial membrane composition, potentially disturbing the mitochondrial structure and function during inflammation. METHOD: To investigate the effect of the unsaturation of fatty acids on CL, we supplemented macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells with 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid (OA, 18:1), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2), α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3), γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3), and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4)...
February 14, 2019: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763684/crocus-sativus-by-products-as-sources-of-bioactive-extracts-pharmacological-and-toxicological-focus-on-anthers
#7
Giuseppe Chichiriccò, Claudio Ferrante, Luigi Menghini, Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Luigi Brunetti, Simonetta Di Simone, Maurizio Ronci, Pierpaolo Piccone, Barbara Lanza, Stefania Cesa, Annamaria Poma, Giulia Vecchiotti, Giustino Orlando
Multiple studies revealed the potential application of high quality saffron byproducts as cheap sources of bioactive compounds endowed with antioxidant activity. In the present study, we analyzed the total fatty acids of the anthers, and explored the pharmacological and toxicological potential of anthers, by evaluating genotoxic and protective effects in multiple cell lines, brine shrimps and isolated rat tissues. The phytochemical analyses showed that anthers are rich in long chain fatty acids most of which are unsaturated (80...
February 11, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762914/gut-microbiota-signatures-and-lipids-metabolism-profiles-by-exposure-to-polyene-phosphatidylcholine
#8
Haining Yu, Zhen Yu, Haiyong Huang, Peng Li, Qiu Tang, Xique Wang, Shengrong Shen
The aim of the study was to address the causality links and identify specific features of the gut microbiota signatures contributing to host lipids metabolism in the presence or absence of polyene phosphatidylcholine (PPC) administration, and evaluate potential risk of PPC consumption. About 20 C57BL/6J mice were randomly allocated into two groups, normal diet group (CK) and PPC administration group (205.2 mg/kg). Compared with CK group, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids were increased and the saturated fatty acids were decreased in PPC group...
February 14, 2019: BioFactors
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760667/systematic-analysis-of-selective-bactericidal-activity-of-fatty-acids-against-staphylococcus-aureus-with-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-and-minimum-bactericidal-concentration
#9
Takamasa Watanabe, Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Maki Miura, Hiroyuki Konno, Shigekazu Yano, Yoshimune Nonomura
Bacterial flora on the skin surface contains Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) which causes rough skin and atopic dermatitis and enhances innate immunity, respectively. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated for six saturated fatty acids and two unsaturated fatty acids against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The antimicrobial behavior in the liquid medium was categorized into three groups. The first was the selective antibacterial activity group comprising myristic acid (C14:0 fatty acid), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid) and preferentially displayed antimicrobial activity for S...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Oleo Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759790/aromatic-profile-physicochemical-and-sensory-traits-of-dry-fermented-sausages-produced-without-nitrites-using-pork-from-kr%C3%A5-kopolje-pig-reared-in-organic-and-conventional-husbandry
#10
Martin Škrlep, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, Nina Batorek-Lukač, Urška Tomažin, Mónica Flores
Dry-fermented sausages were produced in a traditional way, without addition of nitrites and starter cultures, from meat of an autochthonous breed (Krškopolje pig) raised either in a conventional indoor or organic husbandry system. Physicochemical and sensory analyses were performed at the end of processing to characterize their quality. Dry-fermented sausages from organic pork retained more moisture, which resulted in higher water activity and softer texture (instrumental and sensory). They were more oxidized (higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), in agreement with more unsaturated fatty acid profile, a higher score for rancid taste, and a higher relative abundance of volatiles from lipid β-oxidation...
February 12, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758959/association-genetics-identifies-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-related-to-kernel-oil-content-and-quality-in-camellia-oleifera
#11
Ping Lin, Hengfu Yin, Chao Yan, Xiaohua Yao, Kailiang Wang
Camellia oleifera, as an important non-wood tree species for seed oil in China, has received enormous attentions owing to its high unsaturated fatty acid contents benefited to human health. It is necessary to examine allelic diversity of key genes which are associated with oil production in C. oleifera cultivars with a large variation of fatty acid compositions. In this study, we performed the association analysis between four key genes (two CoSAD and two Cofad2) coding fatty acid desaturases and traits including oil content and fatty acid composition...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758424/central-role-of-obesity-in-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-risk
#12
José Carlos de Lima Júnior, Alexandre Moura-Assis, Riobaldo M Cintra, Thiago Quinaglia, Lício A Velloso, Andrei C Sposito
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of mortality in the contemporary world. The critical role of the endothelial cells (EC) in vascular homeostasis, the metabolic changes that take place when the cell is activated, and the elements involved in these processes have been widely explored over the past years. Obesity and its impact, promoting a rise in blood levels of free fatty acids (FAs) are often associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality. However, the mechanisms that promote cardiovascular structural changes and adaptive changes in the ECs, particularly in the context of obesity, are little known...
January 2019: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756119/factors-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-reviews
#13
M Rochoy, V Rivas, E Chazard, E Decarpentry, G Saudemont, P-A Hazard, F Puisieux, S Gautier, R Bordet
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a frequent pathology, with a poor prognosis, for which no curative treatment is available in 2018. AD prevention is an important issue, and is an important research topic. In this manuscript, we have synthesized the literature reviews and meta-analyses relating to modifiable risk factors associated with AD. Smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity, depression, head trauma, heart failure, bleeding and ischemic strokes, sleep apnea syndrome appeared to be associated with an increased risk of AD...
2019: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753966/analysis-of-the-molecular-basis-of-fruit-cracking-susceptibility-in-litchi-chinensis-cv-baitangying-by-transcriptome-and-quantitative-proteome-profiling
#14
Jugang Wang, Xiaomin Gao, Zhiling Ma, Jing Chen, Yanan Liu
Fruit cracking is a serious problem in Litchi chinensis cv. Baitangying orchards, but few advances have been made in understanding the molecular basis of cracking susceptibility in 'Baitangying'. In this work, we conducted transcriptome and quantitative proteome analyses of the pericarps of three kinds of litchi: noncracking 'Feizixiao' (cracking-resistant cultivar, F), noncracking 'Baitangying' (B), and cracking 'Baitangying' (CB). A total of 101 genes and 14 proteins with the same regulatory changes were found to overlap between CB vs...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30743076/gaba-mediated-reduction-of-arsenite-toxicity-in-rice-seedling-through-modulation-of-fatty-acids-stress-responsive-amino-acids-and-polyamines-biosynthesis
#15
Navin Kumar, Ambedkar Gautam, Arvind Kumar Dubey, Ruma Ranjan, Ashutosh Pandey, Babita Kumari, Gayatri Singh, Sachin Mandotra, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Saripella Srikrishna, Venkatesh Dutta, Shekhar Mallick
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a free amino acid, which helps to counteract biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In the present study, two concentrations of GABA, i.e., 0.5 mM and 1 mM were applied to examine the tolerance of rice seedlings against As(III) (25 µM) toxicity, through the modulations of fatty acids (FAs), stress responsive amino acids (AAs) and polyamines (PAs) biosynthesis. Exogenous GABA (0.5 mM) application significantly reduced the H2 O2 and TBARS levels and recovered the growth parameters against As(III) stressed rice seedlings...
February 8, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742892/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-elongase-elovl5-and-fatty-acyl-desaturase-fads2-in-sciaenid-nibea-diacanthus-lacep%C3%A3-de-1802
#16
Weiguang Zou, Zhideng Lin, Yisheng Huang, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Xiaobo Wen
In the present paper, we investigated the molecular cloning and functional characterization of elongase of very long chain fatty acid (elovl) and fatty acyl desaturase (fads) genes in a marine teleost, Nibea diacanthus. The elongase cDNA sequence encoded a polypeptide of 294 amino acids exhibiting Elovl5 activity, which effectively elongated both C18 (18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:3n-6) and C20 (20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. The desaturase cDNA sequence specified a polypeptide of 445 amino acids indicating Δ6 desaturation activity, which coul converted C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 to C18:3n-6 and C18:4n-3, respectively...
February 8, 2019: Gene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738675/activation-of-liver-x-receptor-promotes-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells-via-modulation-of-srebp1-expression
#17
H F Xu, J Luo, X Y Zhang, J Li, M Bionaz
In bovine mammary tissue and cells, liver X receptor (LXR) regulates lipid synthesis mainly via transactivation of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). In the present work, we investigated the role of LXR in controlling lipid synthesis via transactivation of SREBP1 in goat primary mammary cells (GMEC). The GMEC were treated with a synthetic agonist of LXR, T0901317, and transactivation and transcription of SREBP1, expression of lipogenic genes, and fatty acid profiling and triacylglycerol (TAG) content of the cells were measured...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735855/group-via-phospholipase-a2-deficiency-in-mice-chronically-fed-with-high-fat-diet-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-by-correcting-a-defect-of-phospholipid-remodeling
#18
Ann-Christin Otto, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Xingya Zhu, Sabine Tuma-Kellner, Simone Staffer, Alexandra Ganzha, Gerhard Liebisch, Walee Chamulitrat
A defect of hepatic remodeling of phospholipids (PL) is seen in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NASH) indicating pivotal role of PL metabolism in this disease. The deletion of group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPla2β) protects ob/ob mice from hepatic steatosis (BBAlip 1861, 2016, 440-461), however its role in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH is still elusive. Here, wild-type and iPla2β-null mice were subjected to chronic feeding with HFD for 6 months. We showed that protection was observed in iPla2β-null mice with an attenuation of diet-induced body and liver-weight gains, liver enzymes, serum free fatty acids as well as hepatic TG and steatosis scores...
February 5, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724245/the-maillard-reaction-products-as-food-born-antioxidant-and-antibrowning-agents-in-model-and-real-food-systems
#19
REVIEW
Majid Nooshkam, Mehdi Varidi, Moein Bashash
Food products containing lipids, especially unsaturated fatty acids, are prone to oxidation reactions, which lead to the formation of off-flavor, due to side-reaction products that potentially have toxic effects and reduce shelf-life. The Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are widely produced in foods containing reducing sugars and amino-bearing compounds during thermal processing and storage. MRPs possess excellent antioxidant ability in many food products, through chelation of metal ions, breakdown of radical chains and hydrogen peroxide, and scavenging of reactive oxygen species...
March 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724220/investigation-of-oil-distribution-in-spray-dried-chia-seed-oil-microcapsules-using-synchrotron-ftir-microspectroscopy
#20
Yakindra Prasad Timilsena, Jitraporn Vongsvivut, Mark J Tobin, Raju Adhikari, Colin Barrow, Benu Adhikari
In this study, chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced using three types of shell materials, including chia seed protein (CPI), chia seed gum (CSG) and CPI-CSG complex coacervates. Synchrotron-Fourier transform infrared (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of shell materials on the distribution of CSO both on the surface and in the interior of the solid microcapsules. S-FTIR measurements were carried out in macroscopic attenuated total reflection (macro ATR) and transmission modes, to determine the surface lipid and the encapsulated lipid fractions, respectively...
March 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
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