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Sequential memory

Li Jing, Caglar Gulcehre, John Peurifoy, Yichen Shen, Max Tegmark, Marin Soljacic, Yoshua Bengio
We present a novel recurrent neural network (RNN)-based model that combines the remembering ability of unitary evolution RNNs with the ability of gated RNNs to effectively forget redundant or irrelevant information in its memory. We achieve this by extending restricted orthogonal evolution RNNs with a gating mechanism similar to gated recurrent unit RNNs with a reset gate and an update gate. Our model is able to outperform long short-term memory, gated recurrent units, and vanilla unitary or orthogonal RNNs on several long-term-dependency benchmark tasks...
February 14, 2019: Neural Computation
Ruoxuan Cui, Manhua Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder with progressive impairment of memory and other mental functions. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) have been widely used as an important imaging modality of brain for AD diagnosis and monitoring the disease progression. The longitudinal analysis of sequential MRIs is important to model and measure the progression of the disease along the time axis for more accurate diagnosis. Most existing methods extracted the features capturing the morphological abnormalities of brain and their longitudinal changes using MRIs and then designed a classifier to discriminate different groups...
January 26, 2019: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Michel Jourdan, Hugues de Boussac, Elena Viziteu, Alboukadel Kassambara, Jérôme Moreaux
Plasma cells (PCs) secrete large amounts of antibodies and develop from B cells that have been activated. PCs are rare cells located in the bone marrow or mucosa and ensure humoral immunity. Due to their low frequency and location, the study of PCs is difficult in human. We reported a B to PC in vitro differentiation model using selected combinations of cytokines and activation molecules that allow to reproduce the sequential cell differentiation occurring in vivo. In this in vitro model, memory B cells (MBCs) will differentiate into pre-plasmablasts (prePBs), plasmablasts (PBs), early PCs and finally, into long-lived PCs, with a phenotype close to their counterparts in healthy individuals...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
David Clewett, Sarah DuBrow, Lila Davachi
Our daily lives unfold continuously, yet when we reflect on the past, we remember those experiences as distinct and cohesive events. To understand this phenomenon, early investigations focused on how and when individuals perceive natural breakpoints, or boundaries, in ongoing experience. More recent research has examined how these boundaries modulate brain mechanisms that support long-term episodic memory. This work has revealed that a complex interplay between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex promotes the integration and separation of sequential information to help organize our experiences into mnemonic events...
February 7, 2019: Hippocampus
Matthias Pfender, Ping Wang, Hitoshi Sumiya, Shinobu Onoda, Wen Yang, Durga Bhaktavatsala Rao Dasari, Philipp Neumann, Xin-Yu Pan, Junichi Isoya, Ren-Bao Liu, Jörg Wrachtrup
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of single spins have recently been detected by quantum sensors. However, the spectral resolution has been limited by the sensor's relaxation to a few kHz at room temperature. This can be improved by using quantum memories, at the expense of sensitivity. In contrast, classical signals can be measured with exceptional spectral resolution by using continuous measurement techniques, without compromising sensitivity. When applied to single-spin NMR, it is critical to overcome the impact of back action inherent of quantum measurement...
February 5, 2019: Nature Communications
Kate E Hoy, Susan McQueen, David Elliot, Sally Herring, Jerome J Maller, Paul B Fitzgerald
Depression following a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is common and difficult to treat using standard approaches. The current study investigated, for the first time, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the treatment of post TBI depression. We specifically assessed the safety, tolerability and efficacy of TMS in this patient population. We also explored cognitive outcomes. 21 patients with a current episode of major depression subsequent to a TBI participated in a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of rTMS...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Neurotrauma
Yonghan Park, Kang-Jun Baeg, Choongik Kim
Solution-processed non-volatile organic transistor memory devices are fabricated employing semiconductor blends of p-channel 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-PEN) and n-channel poly{[ N, N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]- alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-2T); N2200) on polystyrene-brush as a polymer electret. Electret-based memory characteristics are significantly changed depending on the frontier molecular orbitals of the active semiconductors, because the charge trapping efficiency is mainly determined by energy barrier to transfer electrons and holes from active channel to electret layer...
February 1, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Y Saeki, K Ishiyama, N Ishida, Y Tanaka, H Ohdan
We previously demonstrated the pivotal role of natural killer (NK) cells in islet graft loss during the early phase after intraportal syngeneic islet transplantation (IT). Liver-resident DX5- NK cells were reported to possess memory-like properties, distinguishing them from conventional DX5+ NK cells. Here, we investigated the impact of primary IT-induced liver DX5- NK cells on the engraftment of secondary-transplanted islets in mice. The culture of liver NK cells isolated from naive mice with TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-lβ, mimicking instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, led to significantly increased DX5- NK cell percentage among total liver NK cells...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kwangjin Yoon, Du Yong Kim, Young-Chul Yoon, Moongu Jeon
With recent advances in object detection, the tracking-by-detection method has become mainstream for multi-object tracking in computer vision. The tracking-by-detection scheme necessarily has to resolve a problem of data association between existing tracks and newly received detections at each frame. In this paper, we propose a new deep neural network (DNN) architecture that can solve the data association problem with a variable number of both tracks and detections including false positives. The proposed network consists of two parts: encoder and decoder...
January 29, 2019: Sensors
Brian Mathias, William J Gehring, Caroline Palmer
Elements in speech and music unfold sequentially over time. To produce sentences and melodies quickly and accurately, individuals must plan upcoming sequence events, as well as monitor outcomes via auditory feedback. We investigated the neural correlates of sequential planning and monitoring processes by manipulating auditory feedback during music performance. Pianists performed isochronous melodies from memory at an initially cued rate while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Pitch feedback was occasionally altered to match either an immediately upcoming Near-Future pitch (next sequence event) or a more distant Far-Future pitch (two events ahead of the current event)...
January 28, 2019: Brain Sciences
Emanuel Strieder, Christoph Aigner, Gabriele Petautschnig, Sebastian Horn, Marco Marcon, Michael Schwenn, Oliver Zeman, Pablo Castillo, Roman Wan-Wendner, Konrad Bergmeister
Iron based shape memory alloys (Fe-SMA) have recently been used as active flexural strengthening material for reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Fe-SMAs are characterized by a shape memory effect (SME) which allows the recovery of previously induced plastic deformations through heating. If these deformations are restrained a recovery stress is generated by the SME. This recovery stress can be used to prestress a SMA applied as a strengthening material. This paper investigates the performance and the load deformation behavior of RC beams strengthened with mechanical end anchored unbonded Fe-SMA strips activated by sequentially infrared heating...
January 22, 2019: Materials
Jason P Gallivan, Craig S Chapman, Daniel J Gale, J Randall Flanagan, Jody C Culham
The primate visual system contains myriad feedback projections from higher- to lower-order cortical areas, an architecture that has been implicated in the top-down modulation of early visual areas during working memory and attention. Here we tested the hypothesis that these feedback projections also modulate early visual cortical activity during the planning of visually guided actions. We show, across three separate human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving object-directed movements, that information related to the motor effector to be used (i...
January 21, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
A Emin Orhan, Wei Ji Ma
Sequential and persistent activity models are two prominent models of short-term memory in neural circuits. In persistent activity models, memories are represented in persistent or nearly persistent activity patterns across a population of neurons, whereas in sequential models, memories are represented dynamically by a sequential activity pattern across the population. Experimentalrep evidence for both models has been reported previously. However, it has been unclear under what conditions these two qualitatively different types of solutions emerge in neural circuits...
January 21, 2019: Nature Neuroscience
Brian Daly, Thomas S Moody, Allen J M Huxley, Chaoyi Yao, Benjamin Schazmann, Andre Alves-Areias, John F Malone, H Q Nimal Gunaratne, Peter Nockemann, A Prasanna de Silva
Molecular-logic based computation (MLBC) has grown by accumulating many examples of combinational logic gates and a few sequential variants. In spite of many inspirations being available in biology, there are virtually no examples of MLBC in chemistry where sequential and combinational operations are integrated. Here we report a simple alcohol-ketone redox interconversion which switches a macrocycle between a large or small cavity, with erect aromatic walls which create a deep hydrophobic space or with collapsed walls respectively...
January 21, 2019: Nature Communications
Ihor Lubashevsky
The paper is devoted to the relationship between psychophysics and physics of mind. The basic trends in psychophysics development are briefly discussed with special attention focused on Teghtsoonian's hypotheses. These hypotheses pose the concept of the universality of inner psychophysics and enable us to speak about psychological space as an individual object with its own properties. Turning to the two-component description of human behavior I. Lubashevsky (2017) [9] the notion of mental space is formulated and human perception of external stimuli is treated as the emergence of the corresponding images in the mental space...
January 7, 2019: Physics of Life Reviews
Woojin Park, Tae Hyeon Kim, Jae Hyeon Nam, Hye Yeon Jang, Yusin Pak, Jung-Wook Min, Joho Yun, Byungjin Cho
In this study, we demonstrate a transistor-type ZnO nanowire (NW) memory device based on the surface defect states of a rough ZnO NW, which is obtained by introducing facile H2O2 solution treatment. The surface defect states of the ZnO NW are validated by photoluminescence characterization. A memory device based on the rough ZnO NW exhibits clearly separated bi-stable states (ON and OFF states). A significant current fluctuation does not exist during repetitive endurance cycling test. Stable memory retention characteristics are also achieved at a high temperature of 85 °C and at room temperature...
January 17, 2019: Nanotechnology
Satoshi Tamada, Taro Iguchi, Minoru Kato, Sayaka Yasuda, Takeshi Yamasaki, Tatsuya Nakatani
This retrospective study compared the outcomes of sequential therapy using sunitinib followed by axitinib or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (everolimus or temsirolimus). Among 234 patients treated with molecular-targeted drugs for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, we selected 137 patients treated with sunitinib as the first-line therapy. We then compared patients treated with axitinib (n = 52) or mTOR inhibitors (n = 31), as the second-line treatment, and investigated the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)...
December 11, 2018: Oncotarget
Bharath Dandala, Venkata Joopudi, Murthy Devarakonda
BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE: Adverse drug events (ADEs) occur in approximately 2-5% of hospitalized patients, often resulting in poor outcomes or even death. Extraction of ADEs from clinical narratives can accelerate and automate pharmacovigilance. Using state-of-the-art deep-learning neural networks to jointly model concept and relation extraction, we achieved the highest integrated task score in the 2018 Medication and Adverse Drug Event (MADE) 1.0 challenge. METHODS: We used a combined bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) and conditional random fields (CRF) neural network to detect medical entities relevant to ADEs and a combined BiLSTM and attention network to determine relations, including the adverse drug reaction relation between medication and sign or symptom entities...
January 16, 2019: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Guangyu Robert Yang, Madhura R Joglekar, H Francis Song, William T Newsome, Xiao-Jing Wang
The brain has the ability to flexibly perform many tasks, but the underlying mechanism cannot be elucidated in traditional experimental and modeling studies designed for one task at a time. Here, we trained single network models to perform 20 cognitive tasks that depend on working memory, decision making, categorization, and inhibitory control. We found that after training, recurrent units can develop into clusters that are functionally specialized for different cognitive processes, and we introduce a simple yet effective measure to quantify relationships between single-unit neural representations of tasks...
January 14, 2019: Nature Neuroscience
Ting-Ting Yeh, Ku-Chou Chang, Ching-Yi Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of a sequential combination of aerobic exercise and cognitive training on cognitive function and other health-related outcomes in stroke survivors with cognitive decline. DESIGN: Intervention study and randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Hospital-based rehabilitation units. PARTICIPANTS: Stroke survivors with cognitive decline were randomized to sequential combination training (SEQ; n = 15) or an active control (CON; n = 15) group...
January 9, 2019: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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