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Microbiome and immunology

Erika Isolauri, Samuli Rautava, Seppo Salminen, Maria Carmen Collado
Recent demonstrations link clinical conditions, phenotypes alternating from inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and allergic diseases to neurodevelopmental disorders, to aberrant gut microbiota composition. This has led to a growing interest in host-microbe crosstalk, characterizing the healthy microbiome and modifying its deviations at an early age. The rationale arises from the recognition of the intimate interrelationship between diet, immune system, and microbiome and the origins of human diseases. Before satisfactory preventive measures can be put in practice, important questions remain to be solved...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Sharon M Donovan
Human milk (HM) contains hundreds of proteins with very diverse functions that likely contribute to the short- and long-term beneficial effects of breastfeeding. These functions include serving as a source of amino acids, improving the bioavailability of micronutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, providing immunologic defense, stimulating intestinal growth and maturation, shaping the microbiome, and enhancing learning and memory. Human milk proteins can be broadly classified into 3 categories: caseins, whey proteins, and mucins, which are present in the milk fat globule membrane...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Leszek Blicharz, Lidia Rudnicka, Zbigniew Samochocki
Atopic dermatitis is a common, recurrent pruritic dermatosis with a complex pathogenesis. It has been associated with disordered patterns of immunological response and impaired epithelial barrier integrity. These features predispose the patients to robust colonization of skin lesions by Staphylococcus aureus . Virulence factors of S. aureus (e.g. superantigens, α- and δ-toxin, protein A) have been shown to exacerbate and perpetuate the course of atopic dermatitis. Novel therapeutic options with potential for restoring natural microbiome composition are being elaborated and may enter clinical practice in the future...
February 2019: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Timothy C Borbet, Martin J Blaser
Why do people develop chronic inflammatory illnesses, such as inflammatory bowel disease and auto-immunity, when they are adults? Is the trigger a recent exposure or may the seeds of the problem have formed much earlier in life? What is the role of genetic susceptibility in such processes?In this issue of Mucosal Immunology, Goethel et al. (Mucosal Immunol. 1, 2019) developed an experimental system in mice to provide at least partial answers to these important questions, in a model relevant to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
March 11, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Nurit P Azouz, Marc E Rothenberg
Gastrointestinal (GI) allergic disease is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of adverse, food antigen-driven, immune-mediated diseases. Although these diseases vary mechanistically, common elements include a breakdown of immunologic tolerance, a biased type 2 immune response, and an impaired mucosal barrier. These pathways are influenced by diverse factors such as diet, infections, exposure to antibiotics and chemicals, GI microbiome composition, and genetic and epigenetic elements. Early childhood has emerged as a critical period when these factors have a dramatic impact on shaping the immune system and therefore triggering or protecting against the onset of GI allergic diseases...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Luz A González-Hernández, Mariana Del Rocio Ruiz-Briseño, Karina Sánchez-Reyes, Monserrat Alvarez-Zavala, Natali Vega-Magaña, Alvaro López-Iñiguez, Julio A Díaz-Ramos, Pedro Martínez-Ayala, R A Soria-Rodriguez, Moises Ramos-Solano, Jaime F Andrade-Villanueva
BACKGROUND: The study of stool microbiota has taken great relevance in the last years, given its role in the maintenance of the intestinal metabolic, physiological, and immunological homeostasis, as well as, its effect over HIV biomarkers levels such as CD4/CD8 ratio, high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), related to poor outcomes (rapid progression to AIDS). Several efforts have been made to characterize the gut microbiome. In HIV infection, most of the studies report the presence of a dysbiotic pattern; however, few of them have made an approach in elderly HIV-positive subjects despite the fact that nowadays this subgroup is rising...
March 7, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anchala Singh, Mahima Mittal
The long-held concept of fetus being nurtured in a sterile environment has been challenged by many recent studies that have identified bacterial communities in meconium, amniotic fluid and the placenta concluding that the microbial colonization of fetal gut begins in utero and continues during the first 2 years of life. This microbial colonization of newborn's gut during prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal period depends on multiple factors, e.g. maternal diet, stress, antibiotic exposure, mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), etc...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hillary L Shane, Carrie M Long, Stacey E Anderson
Chemical allergy can manifest into allergic contact dermatitis and asthma and the importance of skin sensitization in both of these diseases is increasingly being recognized. Given the unique characteristics of chemical allergy, coupled with the distinct immunological microenvironment of the skin research is still unraveling the mechanisms through which sensitization and elicitation occur. This review first describes the features of chemical sensitization and the known steps that must occur to develop a chemical allergy...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Tony J Lam, Yuzhen Ye
CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems naturally found in bacteria and archaea. Prokaryotes use these immune systems to defend against invaders, which include phages, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Relying on the integration of spacers derived from invader sequences (protospacers) into CRISPR loci (forming spacers flanked by repeats), CRISPR-Cas systems are able to store the memory of past immunological encounters. While CRISPR-Cas systems have evolved in response to invading mobile genetic elements, invaders have also developed mechanisms to avoid detection...
February 1, 2019: CRISPR Journal
Brooke A Napier, Marta Andres-Terre, Liliana M Massis, Andrew J Hryckowian, Steven K Higginbottom, Katherine Cumnock, Kerriann M Casey, Bereketeab Haileselassie, Kyler A Lugo, David S Schneider, Justin L Sonnenburg, Denise M Monack
Sepsis is a deleterious immune response to infection that leads to organ failure and is the 11th most common cause of death worldwide. Despite plaguing humanity for thousands of years, the host factors that regulate this immunological response and subsequent sepsis severity and outcome are not fully understood. Here we describe how the Western diet (WD), a diet high in fat and sucrose and low in fiber, found rampant in industrialized countries, leads to worse disease and poorer outcomes in an LPS-driven sepsis model in WD-fed mice compared with mice fed standard fiber-rich chow (SC)...
February 26, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alessia Cimadamore, Marina Scarpelli, Matteo Santoni, Francesco Massari, Francesca Tartari, Roy Cerqueti, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng, Rodolfo Montironi
BACKGROUND: Research of biomarkers in genitourinary tumors goes along with development of complex emerging techniques ranging from next generation sequencing platforms, applied to archival pathology specimens, cytological samples, liquid biopsies, and to patient-derived tumor models. METHOD: This contribution is an update on molecular biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy in genitourinary tumors. The following major topics are dealt with: Immunological biomarkers, including the microbiome, and their potential role and caveats in renal cell carcinoma, bladder and prostate cancers and testicular germ cell tumors; Tissue biomarkers for imaging and therapy, with emphasis on Prostate-specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer; Liquid biomarkers in prostate cancer, including circulating tumor cell isolation and characterization in renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer with emphasis on biomarkers detectable in the urine and testicular germ cell tumors; and Biomarkers and economic sustainability...
February 25, 2019: Current Drug Metabolism
Jing Liu, Tianxiang Li, Hui Wu, Haoze Shi, Jinmei Bai, Wei Zhao, Donghui Jiang, Xiufeng Jiang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and high salt content in modern diet has been particularly implicated in systemic hypertension, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Gut dysbiosis, associated with increased risk of systemic immunological imbalance, plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) on the development of hypertension induced by OSA and high salt diet. In this study, hypertension was modeled in rats by feeding a high salt diet (HSD) for 6 wk and exposuring to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during the sleep cycle...
February 18, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
L W J van den Elsen, S Tims, A M Jones, A Stewart, B Stahl, J Garssen, J Knol, E E Forbes-Blom, B Van't Land
Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, mice were supplemented with the prebiotic milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) as well as a complex mixture of immune modulatory prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) from different stages in early life. Adult mice were vaccinated with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and both development of the gut microbiota and antibody-mediated vaccine responses were followed over time...
February 18, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
Vrishketan Sethi, Gerardo A Vitiello, Deepak Saxena, George Miller, Vikas Dudeja
Our understanding of the microbiome and its role in immunity, cancer initiation, and cancer progression has evolved significantly over the past century. The "germ theory of cancer" was first proposed in the early 20th century, and shortly thereafter the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and later, Fusobacterium nucleatum were implicated in the development of gastric and colorectal cancers respectively. However, with the development of reliable mouse models and affordable sequencing technologies, the most fascinating aspect of the microbiome-cancer relationship, where microbes undermine cancer immune surveillance and indirectly promote oncogenesis, has only recently been described...
February 12, 2019: Gastroenterology
Joby Pulikkan, Agnisrota Mazumder, Tony Grace
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorder with elusive etiology and obscure pathophysiology. Cognitive inabilities, impaired communication, repetitive behavior pattern, and restricted social interaction and communication lead to a debilitating situation in autism. The pattern of co-occurrence of medical comorbidities is most intriguing in autism, compared to any other neurodevelopmental disorders. They have an elevated comorbidity burden among which most frequently are seizures, psychiatric illness, and gastrointestinal disorders...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jianhua Dou, Jinrong Zeng, Kathy Wu, Wenbin Tan, Lihua Gao, Jianyun Lu
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, non-contagious, inflammatory skin disorder characterized by relapsing eczematous lesions. Its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. The current evidence has emerged to show that skin and gut microbiome play critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Skin mircrobiome mainly refers to skin commensal organisms that promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens; while gut microbiome can modulate immunologic, metabolic and neuroendocrine functions...
February 8, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Ornella Sortino, Kathy Huppler Hullsiek, Elizabeth Richards, Adam Rupert, Andrea Schminke, Namo Tetekpor, Mariam Quinones, Rachel Prosser, Tim Schacker, Irini Sereti, Jason V Baker
Lactoferrin modulates mucosal immunity and targets mechanisms contributing to inflammation during HIV disease. A randomized placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial of human recombinant (rh)-lactoferrin was conducted among fifty-four HIV+ participants with viral suppression. Outcomes were tolerability, inflammatory and immunologic measures, and the intestinal microbiome. Median age was 51 years and CD4+ count was 651 cells/mm3. Adherence and adverse events did not differ between rh-lactoferrin and placebo...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jochen Seitz, Stefanie Trinh, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
Growing interest exists in the association of gut bacteria with diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and psychiatric disorders. Gut microbiota influence the fermentation of nutrients, body-weight regulation, gut permeability, hormones, inflammation, immunology, and behavior (gut-brain axis). Regarding anorexia nervosa (AN), altered microbial diversity and taxa abundance were found and associated with depressive, anxious, and eating disorder symptoms. Potential mechanisms involve increased gut permeability, low-grade inflammation, autoantibodies, and reduced brain cell neogenesis and learning...
March 2019: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Masako Toda, Michael Hellwig, Thomas Henle, Stefan Vieths
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Maillard reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and compounds with free amino groups such as proteins and takes place during thermal processing and storage of foods. This review aims to discuss potential effects of dietary MR products on the pathological mechanisms of allergic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the MR leads to modification of proteins with various types of glycation structures, the impact of the MR on the immunogenicity and potential allergenicity of food proteins in many allergenic foods has been assessed...
January 28, 2019: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Feidi Chen, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
Numerous scientific disciplines, including immunology, are now positioned to fully realize the potential of the intestinal microbiome to modulate a wide array of basic processes. Increasingly, microbiota-derived metabolites are being recognized for mediating these effects. Coupled with advances in large scale sequencing and mass spectrometry, research into the microbiota and their metabolites has entered into an era of rapid discovery. Here, we review recent studies that have shown how-specific metabolic products of the microbiome alter properties of the innate immune system that in turn modulate response to infection and immunity...
January 21, 2019: Current Opinion in Immunology
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