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Working memory capacity

Andrés A González-Garrido, Geisa B Gallardo-Moreno, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez
Several executive functions decline with the development of type-1 diabetes (T1D), particularly working memory (WM). In adults, WM ensures efficient cognitive processing by focusing on task-relevant information while suppressing distractors. It has been well documented that WM can be influenced by emotional stimuli, which may facilitate the retention of information, interfere with uptake, or even affect its capacity. We evaluated the effect of T1D on visual WM processing using emotional faces as stimuli, in young patients with satisfactory clinical evolution, and matched controls without T1D...
February 6, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Christopher N Wahlheim, Timothy R Alexander, Michael J Kane
We examined the effects of interpolated retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) on list isolation in dual-list free recall and whether individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) moderated those effects. Ninety-seven subjects completed study-test trials that included two study lists separated by either an exemplar generation task (LTM retrieval) or a two-back task (STM retrieval). Subjects then completed an externalized free recall task that allowed for the examination of response accessibility and monitoring...
February 6, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Mengnuo Dai, Yanju Li, Shuoqiu Gan, Feng Du
The reliability of estimations of working memory capacity has not been thoroughly examined. The present study examined the test-retest reliability for working memory capacity as estimated in a lateralized change detection task, which is frequently used in studies involving electroencephalography. The test-retest correlations between K values for each set size in the two tests varied from 0.502 to 0.757, with test-retest correlations rising as set size increased. The results indicate that individual visual working memory capacity can be reliably estimated in a change detection task...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ahmed A Metwally, Philip S Yu, Derek Reiman, Yang Dai, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
Food allergy is usually difficult to diagnose in early life, and the inability to diagnose patients with atopic diseases at an early age may lead to severe complications. Numerous studies have suggested an association between the infant gut microbiome and development of allergy. In this work, we investigated the capacity of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks to predict food allergies in early life (0-3 years) from subjects' longitudinal gut microbiome profiles. Using the DIABIMMUNE dataset, we show an increase in predictive power using our model compared to Hidden Markov Model, Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, and LASSO regression...
February 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Florie Monier, Sylvie Droit-Volet
The aim of the present study was to examine both the development of sensorimotor synchronization in children in the age range from 5 to 8 years and the involvement of motor and cognitive capacities. Children performed a spontaneous motor tempo task and a synchronization-continuation task using an external auditory stimulus presented at three different inter-stimulus intervals: 500, 700, and 900 ms. Their motor and cognitive abilities (short-term memory, working memory, and attention) were also assessed with various neuropsychological tests...
February 4, 2019: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Jerker Rönnberg, Emil Holmer, Mary Rudner
OBJECTIVE: The current update of the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model evaluates the predictive and postdictive aspects of speech understanding and communication. DESIGN: The aspects scrutinised concern: (1) Signal distortion and working memory capacity (WMC), (2) WMC and early attention mechanisms, (3) WMC and use of phonological and semantic information, (4) hearing loss, WMC and long-term memory (LTM), (5) WMC and effort, and (6) the ELU model and sign language...
February 3, 2019: International Journal of Audiology
Ariel N James, Scott H Fraundorf, Eun-Kyung Lee, Duane G Watson
There remains little consensus about whether there exist meaningful individual differences in syntactic processing and, if so, what explains them. We argue that this partially reflects the fact that few psycholinguistic studies of individual differences include multiple constructs, multiple measures per construct, or tests for reliable measures. Here, we replicated three major syntactic phenomena in the psycholinguistic literature: use of verb distributional statistics, difficulty of object-versus subject-extracted relative clauses, and resolution of relative clause attachment ambiguities...
October 2018: Journal of Memory and Language
Preeti Sunderaraman, Stephanie Cosentino, Karen Lindgren, Angela James, Maria T Schultheis
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Financial Capacity (FC) is known to be impaired in the acute and subacute stages of brain injury. The current study sought to examine FC in the context of chronic, moderate to severe acquired brain injury (CABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: The Financial Competence Assessment Inventory (FCAI), developed in Australia, was adapted to examine the integrity of FC in an American sample. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Healthy comparison (HC) participants were recruited from the community, whereas participants with CABI were recruited from a community-based rehabilitation center...
February 3, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Martin Sarter, Cindy Lustig
Cholinergic signaling in the cortex involves fast or transient signaling as well as a relatively slower neuromodulatory component. These two components of cholinergic activity mediate separate yet interacting aspects of cue detection and attentional control. The transient component appears to support the activation of cue-associated task or response sets, whereas the slower modulatory component stabilizes task-set and context representations, therefore potentially facilitating top-down control. Evidence from humans expressing genetic variants of the choline transporter as well as from patients with degenerating cholinergic systems supports the hypothesis that attentional control capacities depend on levels of cholinergic neuromodulation...
January 4, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychology
Lucia Vincenzetti, Cristina Leoni, Michele Chirichella, Ivo Kwee, Silvia Monticelli
In mammals, the 5'-methylcytosine (5mC) modification in the genomic DNA contributes to the dynamic control of gene expression. 5mC erasure is required for the activation of developmental programs and occurs either by passive dilution through DNA replication, or by enzymatic oxidation of the methyl mark to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which can persist as such or undergo further oxidation and enzymatic removal. The relative contribution of each mechanism to epigenetic control in dynamic biological systems still remains a compelling question...
January 30, 2019: European Journal of Immunology
Monika Bender, Vincenzo Romei, Paul Sauseng
Recent research suggests alteration of visual working memory capacity by modulation of parietal theta frequency via transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). However, it remains to be clarified whether this effect is partly driven by co-stimulation of prefrontal cortex and subcortical structures. It was hypothesized that focal tACS over the parietal lobe without additional prefrontal or subcortical stimulation should lead to similar effects as reported in the literature. Healthy, young participants were tested on a visual working memory paradigm while receiving either focal parietal tACS at 4 Hz, at 7 Hz or sham stimulation...
January 29, 2019: Brain Topography
Nicola Michielli, U Rajendra Acharya, Filippo Molinari
Automated evaluation of a subject's neurocognitive performance (NCP) is a relevant topic in neurological and clinical studies. NCP represents the mental/cognitive human capacity in performing a specific task. It is difficult to develop the study protocols as the subject's NCP changes in a known predictable way. Sleep is time-varying NCP and can be used to develop novel NCP techniques. Accurate analysis and interpretation of human sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is needed for proper NCP assessment...
January 19, 2019: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Rosyl S Somai, Martijn J Schut, Stefan Van der Stigchel
We use visual working memory (VWM) to maintain the visual features of objects in our world. Although the capacity of VWM is limited, it is unlikely that this limit will pose a problem in daily life, as visual information can be supplemented with input from our external visual world by using eye movements. In the current study, we influenced the trade-off between eye movements and VWM utilization by introducing a cost to a saccade. Higher costs were created by adding a delay in stimulus availability to a copying task...
January 3, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Steven Paul Woods, Victoria M Kordovski, Savanna M Tierney, Michelle A Babicz
OBJECTIVE: Over the last 20 years, the Internet has become a fundamental means by which many people with neurocognitive disorders manage their activities of daily living (e.g. shopping) and engage in health behaviors (e.g. appointment scheduling). The aim of this review is to summarize the emerging literature on the neuropsychology of performance-based tasks of Internet navigation skills (INS) as measures of everyday functioning. METHOD: We performed a structured, qualitative review of the extant literature on INS using PRISMA guidelines...
January 24, 2019: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Laura Lazo, Iris Valdes, Gerardo Guillén, Lisset Hermida, Lázaro Gil
Dengue fever remains a health problem worldwide. Although the vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur, Dengvaxia®, has been registered in several countries, the results following the immunization of thousands of people suggest an increased risk in non-immune persons and children younger than 9 years old. No other vaccine is registered so far, therefore the development of a safe and effective dengue vaccine continues to be a priority for the World Health Organization and the scientific community. Areas covered: This work reviews the main structural and antigenic properties of the capsid protein of dengue virus, along with the results of studies performed to assess the immunogenicity and protective capacity of vaccine candidates based on this viral protein in animals...
January 24, 2019: Expert Review of Vaccines
Jose Arturo Santisteban, Thomas G Brown, Marie Claude Ouimet, Reut Gruber
BACKGROUND: Twenty-eight per cent (28%) of adults sleep at least 1 hour less than they consider optimal, yet the effects of such cumulative mild partial sleep deprivation on cognitive functions are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine how cumulative mild partial sleep deprivation over 6 nights can impact working memory, sustained attention, response inhibition, and decision making. METHODS: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted to determine the impact of sleep restriction (elimination of 1 hour of sleep relative to the baseline habitual sleep duration) vs placebo (exposure to a lamp with no known therapeutic effect) on cognitive performance...
February 2019: Sleep Health
Stephen Rhodes, Agnieszka J Jaroslawska, Jason M Doherty, Clément Belletier, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Nelson Cowan, Valérie Camos, Pierre Barrouillet, Robert H Logie
There is a theoretical disagreement in the working memory literature, with some proposing that the storage and processing of information rely on distinct parts of the cognitive system and others who posit that they rely, to some extent, on a shared attentional capacity. This debate is mirrored in the literature on working memory and aging, where there have been mixed findings on the ability of older adults to perform simultaneous storage and processing tasks. We assess the overlap between storage and processing and how this changes with age using a procedure in which both tasks have been carefully adjusted to produce comparable levels of single-task performance across a sample (N = 164) of participants aged 18-81...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
C W E M Quaedflieg, H Stoffregen, I Sebalo, T Smeets
Acute stress has been found to impair goal-directed instrumental behaviour, a cognitively flexible behaviour that requires cognitive control. The current study aimed to investigate the role of individual differences in baseline and stress-induced changes in working memory (WM) on the shift to less goal-directed responding under stress. To this end, 112 healthy participants performed an instrumental learning task. In phase 1, participants learned instrumental actions that were associated with two different food rewards...
January 18, 2019: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Choi Yeung Andy Tse, Hong Paul Lee, Ka Shing Kevin Chan, Boades Veronica Edgar, Alison Wilkinson-Smith, Wing Him Elvis Lai
Sleep disturbance and executive dysfunction have been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorder. While the positive impacts of physical activity on sleep quality and cognition are documented in children with typical development, similar studies in children with autism spectrum disorder are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of physical activity on sleep quality and cognition in children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 40 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (mean age = 9...
January 20, 2019: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Dennis Dimond, Rebecca Perry, Giuseppe Iaria, Signe Bray
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is an important cognitive capacity that varies across the healthy adult population and is affected in several neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been suggested that neuroanatomy places limits on this capacity through a map architecture that creates competition for cortical space. This suggestion has been supported by the finding that primary visual (V1) gray matter volume (GMV) is positively associated with VSTM capacity. However, evidence from neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the dorsal visual stream is more broadly vulnerable and atypical volumes of other map-containing regions may therefore play a role...
December 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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