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glucose challenge test

Maximilian Kittel, Peter Findeisen, Beniam Ghebremedhin, Thomas Miethke, Alexander Grundt, Parviz Ahmad-Nejad, Michael Neumaier
Background The increasing number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria provides enormous challenges for choosing an appropriate antibiotic therapy in the early phase of sepsis. While bacterial identification has been greatly accelerated by the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) remains time-consuming. Here, we present a rapid susceptibility testing method for testing Gram-negative bacteria, exemplarily validated for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Deniz Özalp Kızılay, Semra Şen, Betül Ersoy
Objective: In this study we aimed to assess the association between serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters and insulin resistance (IR). Our second aim was evaluate whether hyperuricemia is related with renal injury and cardiovascular risk in obese (OB) and overweight(OW) children. Methods: This study was conducted on 128 OB/OW children and adolescents (ages: 8-18 years), of whom 52 (40%) with SUA elevation (SUA persantile>75), 76 with (60%) normal SUA level (SUAL)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Anne-Charlotte Jarry, Nadir Merah, Fanta Cisse, Florence Cayetanot, Marie-Noëlle Fiamma, Alexandra Willemetz, Dalale Gueddouri, Besma Barka, Philippe Valet, Sandra Guilmeau, André Bado, Johanne Le Beyec, Laurence Bodineau, Maude Le Gall
The gut-brain peptide neuromedin U (NMU) decreases food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance. Here, we characterized NMU as an enteropeptide and determined how it impacts glucose excursion. NMU was expressed predominantly in the proximal small intestine, and its secretion was triggered by ingestion of a mixed meal. Although a single peripheral injection of NMU in C57BL/6NRj mice prevented the rise of glycemia upon an oral but not an intraperitoneal load of glucose, it unexpectedly prevented insulin secretion, only slightly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, and barely reduced intestinal glucose absorption...
February 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Muhammad Amir Khan, John D Walley, Saima Ali, Rebecca King, Shaheer Ellahi Khan, Nida Khan, Faisal Imtiaz Sheikh, Haroon Jehangir Khan
Background: Integrated care for diabetes and associated conditions at primary level health facilities can make care available to a much larger population, especially in rural areas. Aim: This process evaluation was to understand how the authors' integrated care was implemented and experienced by the care providers and patients, and to inform modifications prior to province-wide scale-up. Design & setting: The mixed-method study was conducted as part of a cluster randomised trial on integrated diabetes care at 14 public health facilities...
December 2018: BJGP Open
Wasique Mirza, Muhammad Sabih Saleem, Gaurav Patel, Pravin Chacko, Sandhya Reddy, Renee Schaefer, Richard Jones, Nisha Dheer, Sirish Dharampuri, Ameet Sandhu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to be a major health concern in the Western hemisphere, and the management of type 2 DM (T2DM) is an ongoing challenge for the American healthcare system despite major advances in DM research. T2DM imparts a massive economic burden, and a major challenge in managing T2DM continues to be timely screening. Adults are more likely to visit a dentist than a primary care physician. This study was designed to compare current screening standards recommended by the American Diabetes Association with the use of gingival-crevicular blood and its compatibility with traditional methods using a fingerstick...
November 26, 2018: Curēus
Daniela Pierscianek, Yahya Ahmadipour, Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Laurèl Rauschenbach, Sied Kebir, Martin Glas, Ulrich Sure, Ramazan Jabbarli
High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. During the course of disease, several challenges occur, like measuring tumor burden, monitoring of treatment response, estimating the patient's prognosis, and distinguishing between true progression and pseudo-progression. So far, no blood-based biomarker has been established in the clinical routine to address these challenges. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the present evidence on blood-based biomarkers for HGG...
February 4, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Tingting Tao, Yaqing Wang, Wenwen Chen, Zhongyu Li, Wentao Su, Yaqiong Guo, Pengwei Deng, Jianhua Qin
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived islet cells provide promising resources for diabetes studies, cell replacement treatment and drug screening. Recently, hPSC-derived organoids have represented a new class of in vitro organ models for disease modeling and regenerative medicine. However, rebuilding biomimetic human islet organoids from hPSCs remains challenging. Here, we present a new strategy to engineer human islet organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using an organ-on-a-chip platform combined with stem cell developmental principles...
February 5, 2019: Lab on a Chip
Cynthia J Herrick, Matthew R Keller, Anne M Trolard, Ben P Cooper, Margaret A Olsen, Graham A Colditz
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes increases risk for type 2 diabetes seven-fold, creating a large public health burden in a young population. In the US, there are no large registries for tracking postpartum diabetes screening among women in under-resourced communities who face challenges with access to care after pregnancy. Existing data from Medicaid claims is limited as women often lose this coverage within months of delivery. In this study, we aim to leverage data from electronic health records and administrative claims to better assess postpartum diabetes screening rates among low income women...
February 4, 2019: BMC Public Health
Xiangqian Li, Qi Xu, Chao Li, Jiao Luo, Xiuxue Li, Lijun Wang, Bo Jiang, Dayong Shi
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been considered as a validated biological target for type 2 diabetes treatment, but past endeavors to develop inhibitors of PTP1B into drugs have been unsuccessful. Two challenging aspects are selective inhibition and cell permeability. A structure-based strategy was employed to develop uncharged bromophenols as a new series of PTP1B inhibitors. The most potent compound 22 (LXQ46) inhibited PTP1B with an IC50 value of 0.190 μM, and showed remarkable selectivity over other protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs, 20-200 folds)...
January 25, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Nudrat Noor, Kelly K Ferguson, John D Meeker, Ellen W Seely, Russ Hauser, Tamarra James-Todd, Thomas F McElrath
BACKGROUND: Higher birth weight is an important adverse outcome associated with hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Recent studies suggest that phthalate exposure is associated with elevated glucose levels in pregnant women, with implications for higher birth weight in the offspring. No study to date has investigated the association between prenatal phthalate exposure on infant high birth weight accounting for the range of pregnancy glucose levels. METHODS: A total of 350 women participating in an ongoing pregnancy cohort had data available on urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations at up to four time points across pregnancy...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Edina Hormay, Bettina László, István Szabó, Tamás Ollmann, Bernadett Nagy, László Péczely, Kitti Mintál, Zoltán Karádi
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is interrelated to limbic structures, parts of the central glucose-monitoring (GM) network. GM neurons, postulated to exist here, are hypothesised to participate in regulatory functions, such as the central control of feeding and metabolism. In the present experiments, GM neurons were identified and examined in the ACC by means of the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique. After bilateral ACC microinjection of streptozotocin (STZ), glucose tolerance tests (GTTs), and determination of relevant plasma metabolite concentrations were performed...
January 24, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Richard C Chang, Haiqing Wang, Yudhishtar Bedi, Michael C Golding
BACKGROUND: Although clinical data support an association between paternal alcohol use and deficits in child neurocognitive development, the relationship between paternal drinking and alcohol-induced growth phenotypes remains challenging to define. Using an established mouse model of chronic exposure, previous work by our group has linked preconception paternal alcohol use to sex-specific patterns of fetal growth restriction and placental dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term impact of chronic preconception paternal alcohol use on offspring growth and metabolic programming...
January 22, 2019: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Lutz Vogt, Andreas Thomas, Gert Fritzsche, Peter Heinke, Klaus-Dieter Kohnert, Eckhard Salzsieder
BACKGROUND: The decisive factor in successful intensive insulin therapy is the ability to deliver need-based-adjusted nutrition-independent insulin dosages at the closest possible approximation to the physiological insulin level. Because this basal insulin requirement is strongly influenced by the patient's lifestyle, its subtlety is of great importance. This challenge is very different between patients with type 1 diabetes and those with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, it is more difficult to finetune a basal insulin dosage with intensified conventional insulin therapy (ICT), due to delayed insulin delivery, compared to insulin pump therapy, which provides continuous delivery of small doses of exclusively short-acting insulin...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
E A Horst, S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, C S McCarthy, E J Mayorga, M Al-Qaisi, H A Ramirez, A F Keating, L H Baumgard
Experimental objectives of this study were to characterize the systemic and intracellular metabolic response to continuous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion in mid-lactation Holstein cows (169 ± 20 d in milk; 681 ± 16 kg of body weight). Following 3 d of acclimation, cows were enrolled in 2 experimental periods (P). During P1 (3 d), cows were fed ad libitum and baseline data were collected. In P2 (8 d), cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) saline-infused and pair-fed (CON-PF; i.v. sterile saline at 40 mL/h; n = 5) or (2) LPS-infused and fed ad libitum (LPS-AL; Escherichia coli O55:B5 at 0...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Manju Kumari, Rajni Sharma, Gaurav Pandey, Carolyn M Ecelbarger, Prabhaker Mishra, Swasti Tiwari
The contribution of proximal tubules (PT) to albumin uptake is now well recognized, however, its regulation is understudied area. There are reports suggesting that insulin resistance is associated with the development of albuminuria in nondiabetic individuals. We have previously reported reduced insulin receptor (IR) expression in renal-tubular-epithelial cells, including PT in various models of insulin resistance. However, the effect of a physiological fall in insulin levels and the role for IR in PT in tubular albumin uptake is not clear...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
A Seval Ozgu-Erdinc, Umit Yasemin Sert, Gul Nihal Buyuk, Yaprak Engin-Ustun
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence of low risk pregnant population at a tertiary referral center by different approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using retrospective data between 2007-2017 was conducted. During this period 77227 patients underwent either two step or one step glucose tolerance tests. RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 27 (15-49). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) testing was evaluated in 144,113 women at the initial antenatal care visit which %21 of these were between 92-126 mg/dL...
January 2019: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Carla Nasca, Kathleen Watson, Betty Bigio, Thalia Robakis, Alison Myoraku, Tonita Wroolie, Bruce S McEwen, Natalie Rasgon
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic dysfunction often co-morbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). The paths to development of MDD remain largely unspecified, highlighting a need for identification of risk factors. Here, we tested whether specific subscales of childhood trauma as well as family history of type-2 diabetes (Fam-Hx-Dm2) contribute to the development of metabolic dysfunction and severity of depressive symptoms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a sample of 45 adults suffering from MDD that was well-characterized for insulin resistance and sensitivity as assessed by measures of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) plasma insulin (FPI) levels, body mass index (BMI), weight, homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA), Matsuda index as well as both glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose challenges...
January 10, 2019: Experimental Neurology
Febriyani F R Damanik, Gabriele Spadolini, Joris Rotmans, Silvia Farè, Lorenzo Moroni
Electrospinning provides a simple robust method to manufacture scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Though varieties of materials can be used, optimization and biocompatibility tests are required to provide functional tissue regeneration. Moreover, many studies are limited to 2D electrospun constructs rather than 3D templates due to the production of high density packed fibres, which result in poor cell infiltration. Here, we optimised electrospinning parameters for three different polymers: poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PA) copolymers...
January 11, 2019: Biomaterials Science
Amin M Ussif, Anders Åsberg, Thea Anine Strøm Halden, Espen Nordheim, Anders Hartmann, Trond Jenssen
BACKGROUND: The use of HbA1c ≥6.5% for diagnosis of diabetes has been challenged for post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) also known as new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) due to a low sensitivity early after renal transplantation. PTDM diagnosed with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is highly predictable for long-term patient mortality. HbA1c was introduced for diagnosis based on the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. The utility of HbA1c measures versus glucose criteria has not been widely assessed in stable transplant patients but still HbA1c is widely used in this population...
January 10, 2019: BMC Nephrology
Erdem Sahin, Ilknur Col Madendag, Mefkure Eraslan Sahin, Yusuf Madendag, Gokhan Acmaz, Iptisam Ipek Muderris
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is the most common medical complications of pregnancy. This study aimed to clarify the effect of second-trimester vitamin D deficiency on the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) screening and insulin resistance. A total of 120 pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy at a gestational age of 26-28 weeks were analyzed. Participants were divided into two groups according to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels; vitamin D deficiency, and control groups. For GDM scan, 75 g OGTT was preferred...
January 9, 2019: Gynecological Endocrinology
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