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Cyanide poisoning

Johnette Peñas, Vikki Carr de Los Reyes, Ma Nemia Sucaldito, Denisse Lou Manalili, Herdie Hizon, Rio Magpantay
Objective: On 2 October 2015, the Event-Based Surveillance and Response Unit of the Department of Health (DOH), Philippines received a report of foodborne illness cases in Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur. A team from DOH was sent to conduct an investigation to identify the implicated source and determine risk factors. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done. A suspect case was defined as a previously well individual in Compound A, Santa Cruz who developed abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, diarrhoea or vomiting on either 1 or 2 October 2015...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Dinelia Rivera-Burgos, Michael C Babin, Jillian M Staugler, Thomas Vinci, Mark R Perry
Cyanides are highly toxic compounds that have been used as weapons of terrorism throughout history. Cyanide (CN) is acutely toxic by all routes of administration; however, inhalation is the main exposure route. To adequately test effective countermeasures against inhalational CN threats, robust and well-characterized animal models are needed. This paper describes the initial development of a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) exposure swine model for documenting the physiological effects and toxicological profile during and after HCN inhalation exposure...
February 13, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Jianing Wei, Wenbo Shao, Minmin Cao, Jin Ge, Pengcheng Yang, Li Chen, Xianhui Wang, Le Kang
Many aggregating animals use aposematic signals to advertise their toxicity to predators. However, the coordination between aposematic signals and toxins is poorly understood. Here, we reveal that phenylacetonitrile (PAN) acts as an olfactory aposematic signal and precursor of hypertoxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to protect gregarious locusts from predation. We found that PAN biosynthesis from phenylalanine is catalyzed by CYP305M2 , a novel gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme in gregarious locusts. The RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of CYP305M2 increases the vulnerability of gregarious locusts to bird predation...
January 2019: Science Advances
Tara B Hendry-Hofer, Patrick C Ng, Alyssa E Witeof, Sari B Mahon, Matthew Brenner, Gerry R Boss, Vikhyat S Bebarta
Cyanide, a metabolic poison, is a rising chemial threat and ingestion is the most common route of exposure. Terrorist organizations have threatened to attack the USA and international food and water supplies. The toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of oral cyanide are unique, resulting in high-dose exposures, severe symptoms, and slower onset of symptoms. There are no FDA-approved therapies tested for oral cyanide ingestions and no approved intramuscular or oral therapies, which would be valuable in mass casualty settings...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Joseph K Maddry, Eric M Ball, Daniel B Cox, Kathleen M Flarity, Vikhyat S Bebarta
Introduction: The U.S. Air Force utilizes specialized Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) for transporting "stabilized" patients. Given the drawdown of military forces from various areas of operation, recent CCATT operations have increasingly involved the evacuation of unstable and incompletely resuscitated patients from far forward, austere locations. This brief report describes unique cases representative of the evolving CCATT mission and provides future direction for changes in doctrine and educational requirements in preparation for en route combat casualty care...
December 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Tahir Dalkiran, Yasar Kandur, Mustafa Ozaslan, Can Acipayam, Seref Olgar
Cyanide (CN) is one among the most potent and rapidly acting lethal poisons, and it may cause death unless immediately diagnosed and treated. We report an unusual case of pediatric CN poisoning after ingestion of apricot kernels containing amygdalin, who survived with antidotal therapy and hemodialysis. A 3-year-old girl presented with respiratory distress and coma following tonic-clonic convulsions after ingestion of 3 apricot kernels. She had severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.91, bicarbonate [HCO3] 5.6 mEq/L, base excess -26...
November 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Harpreet Kaur, Palwinder Singh
Cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX) containing binuclear heme a3 -Cu B centre (BNC) mechanises the process of electron transfer in the last phase of cellular respiration. The molecular modelling based structural analysis of CcOX - heme a3 -Cu B complex was performed and the disturbance to this complex under cyanide poisoning conditions was investigated. Taking into consideration the results of molecular docking studies, new chemical entities were developed for clipping cyanide from the enzyme and restoring its normal function...
October 25, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Patrick C Ng, Tara B Hendry-Hofer, Alyssa E Witeof, Matthew Brenner, Sari B Mahon, Gerry R Boss, Vikhyat S Bebarta
Cyanide is a readily available and potentially lethal substance. Oral exposure can result in larger doses, compared with other routes. Currently, there are no antidotes specific for use in the treatment of oral cyanide poisoning, and studies cannot be done in humans. We report on a new large animal model of oral cyanide toxicity to evaluate potential antidotes. Six female swine ( Sus scrofa ; weight, 45 to 55 kg) were anesthetized, intubated, and instrumented. Animals received a KCN bolus of either 5 or 8 mg/kg delivered via orogastric tube...
October 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Rahul Bhattacharya, Niranjan L Gujar, Deo Kumar, Jebin Jacob John
Cyanogens are widely used in industries and their toxicity is mainly due to cyanogenesis. The antidotes for cyanide are usually instituted for the management of cyanogen poisoning. The present study reports the protective efficacy of 14 carbonyl compounds and their metabolites, and nutrients (1.0 g/kg; oral; +5 min) against acute oral toxicity of acetonitrile (ATCN), acrylonitrile (ACN), malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), succinonitrile (SCN), and potassium ferricyanide (PFCN) in rats...
September 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Jangwoen Lee, Gary Rockwood, Brian Logue, Erica Manandhar, Ilona Petrikovics, Changhoon Han, Vik Bebarta, Sari B Mahon, Tanya Burney, Matthew Brenner
INTRODUCTION: Cyanide (CN) poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current CN exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is capable of reacting with CN to form the less toxic thiocyanate with high efficiency, even without the sulfurtransferase rhodanese. We investigated a soluble DMTS formulation with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification which could be delivered via intramuscular (IM) injection in a mass casualty situation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
K Ntemiri, V Saravia, C Angelidis, K Baxevani, M Probonas, E Kret, Y Mertzanis, Y Iliopoulos, L Georgiadis, D Skartsi, D Vavylis, A Manolopoulos, P Michalopoulou, S M Xirouchakis
The present study describes the use of poison baits against so-called pest species in Greece and explores various aspects of this illegal practice. Data were collected from 2000 to 2016, and a total of 1015 poisoning incidents in rural areas causing the death of 3248 animals were examined. In 58.7% of investigated cases, the motives remained unknown; in the remaining cases, human-wildlife conflicts and retaliatory actions among stakeholders (e.g., hunters vs. livestock breeders) were found to be the main reasons for poison bait use...
July 25, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Morten Hedetoft, Peter Polzik, Niels Vidiendal Olsen, Ole Hyldegaard
Purpose: Experiments have shown that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy reduces cyanide-induced cerebral distress. The exact mechanism behind HBO2's neuroprotective effect is unknown, but has been proposed to be mediated by an increased neuronal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, which may compete with cyanide for the active site of cytochrome oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We hypothesized that the ameliorating effect of HBO2 is caused by an increased bioavailability of NO, which can be attenuated by injection of the selective neuronal NO synthase inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, preceding the HBO2 procedure...
May 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Gabriella Roda, Sebastiano Arnoldi, Michele Dei Cas, Valeria Ottaviano, Eleonora Casagni, Fausto Tregambe, Giacomo Luca Visconti, Fiorenza Farè, Rino Froldi, Veniero Gambaro
A man was found dead in a hotel located near Rome (Italy). The man was still holding a syringe attached to a butterfly needle inserted in his left forearm vein. The syringe contained a cloudy pinkish fluid. In the hotel room the Police found a broken propofol glass vial plus four sealed ones, an opened NaCl plastic vial and six more still sealed, and a number of packed smaller disposable syringes and needles. An opened plastic bottle containing a white crystalline powder labeled as potassium cyanide was also found...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Daniel Okitundu, Dieudonne Mumba, Michael J Boivin, Thorkild Tylleskär, Desire Tshala-Katumbay
Epidemics of neurodegenerative diseases putatively caused by food toxins have been reported in the tropics with no clear understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. These diseases include the disease named Konzo that has been well documented in sub-Sahara Africa, mostly among children and women of childbearing age. Outbreaks of Konzo have occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Tanzania, Central African Republic, Angola, Cameroun, and most recently in Zambia. The main clinical picture consists of a symmetrical, permanent and irreversible spastic paraparesis (motor neuron disease) with no signs of sensory or genitourinary impairments...
July 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Florian Oswald, Michaela Zwick, Ola Omar, Ernst N Hotz, Anke Neumann
Cyanide is a minor constituent of crude syngas whose content depends on the feedstock and gasification procedure. It is a known poison to metal catalysts and inhibits iron-containing enzymes like carbon monoxide dehydrogenase of acetogenic organisms. Therefore, it is considered a component that has to be removed from the gas stream prior to use in chemical synthesis or syngas fermentation. We show that the growth rate and maximum biomass concentration of Clostridium ljungdahlii are unaffected by cyanide at concentrations of up to 1...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Patrick Y Sips, Xu Shi, Gabriel Musso, Anjali K Nath, Yanbin Zhao, Jason Nielson, Jordan Morningstar, Amy E Kelly, Brittney Mikell, Eva Buys, Vikhyat Bebarta, Jared Rutter, V Jo Davisson, Sari Mahon, Matthew Brenner, Gerry R Boss, Randall T Peterson, Robert E Gerszten, Calum A MacRae
Cyanide is a potent toxic agent, and the few available antidotes are not amenable to rapid deployment in mass exposures. As a result, there are ongoing efforts to exploit different animal models to identify novel countermeasures. We have created a pipeline that combines high-throughput screening in zebrafish with subsequent validation in two mammalian small animal models as well as a porcine large animal model. We found that zebrafish embryos in the first 3 days post fertilization (dpf) are highly resistant to cyanide, becoming progressively more sensitive thereafter...
2018: PloS One
Vani Jaswal, Jeyanthi Palanivelu, Ramalingam C
Conventional and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is popularly used due to side-effects and failure of approved methods, for diseases like Epilepsy and Cancer. Amygdalin, a cyanogenic diglycoside is commonly administered for cancer with other CAM therapies like vitamins and seeds of fruits like apricots and bitter almonds, due to its ability to hydrolyse to hydrogen cyanide (HCN), benzaldehyde and glucose. Over the years, several cases of cyanide toxicity on ingestion have been documented. In-vitro and in-vivo studies using various doses and modes of administration, like IV administration studies that showed no HCN formation, point to the role played by the gut microbiota for the commonly seen poisoning on consumption...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Mengning Ding, Guangyan Zhong, Zipeng Zhao, Zhihong Huang, Mufan Li, Hui-Ying Shiu, Yuan Liu, Imran Shakir, Yu Huang, Xiangfeng Duan
The development of future sustainable energy technologies relies critically on our understanding of electrocatalytic reactions occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces, and the identification of key reaction promoters and inhibitors. Here we present a systematic in situ nanoelectronic measurement of anionic surface adsorptions (sulfates, halides, and cyanides) on ultrathin platinum nanowires during active electrochemical processes, probing their competitive adsorption behavior with oxygenated species and correlating them to the electrokinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)...
May 23, 2018: ACS Central Science
Ratish R Nair, M Raju, Kalyanashis Jana, Dhrubajyoti Mondal, E Suresh, Bishwajit Ganguly, Pabitra B Chatterjee
A series of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded zwitterionic compartmental ligands HL1-HL4, containing a pendent diamine arm that is monoprotonated and an aldehyde functionality at two different ortho-positions of a 4-halophenoxide, is reported herein. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) provides persuasive evidence for the identification of this class of proton-transferred zwitterions at room temperature. The solid-state photoluminescent nature of these zwitterions remains intact in aqueous and organic solutions...
July 25, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Annick Judenherc-HaouzI, Takashi Sonobe, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Philippe Haouzi
This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or H2 S solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
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