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W P T James, R J Johnson, J R Speakman, D C Wallace, G Frühbeck, P O Iverson, P J Stover
Our understanding of human evolution has improved rapidly over recent decades, facilitated by large-scale cataloguing of genomic variability amongst both modern and archaic humans. It seems clear that the evolution of the ancestors of chimpanzees and hominins separated 7-9 million years ago with some migration out of Africa by the earlier hominins; Homo sapiens slowly emerged as climate change resulted in drier, less forested African conditions. The African populations expanded and evolved in many different conditions with slow mutation and selection rates in the human genome, but with much more rapid mutation occurring in mitochondrial DNA...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Latania K Logan, Rachel L Medernach, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Jared R Rispens, Andrea M Hujer, Nadia K Qureshi, Steven H Marshall, David C Nguyen, Susan D Rudin, Xiaotian Zheng, Sreenivas Konda, Robert A Weinstein, Robert A Bonomo
INTRODUCTION: The pandemic of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-(ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (Ent) is strongly linked to the dissemination of CTX-M-type-ESBL-Ent. We sought to define the epidemiology of infections in children due to an emerging resistance type, CTX-M-9-group-producing-Ent (CTX-M-9-grp-Ent). METHODS: A retrospective matched case-control analysis of children with CTX-M-9-grp-Ent infections who received medical care at three Chicago area hospitals was performed...
February 16, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Sóstenez A Vessaro-Silva, Marcílio Hubner Miranda Neto, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucineia Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Ana Tereza Bittencout Guimarães, Camila Maria Toigo de Oliveira
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a DNA virus that infects different tissues in Bombyx mori at immature stage. Caterpillars become infected after ingesting polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB) present in contaminated mulberry leaves and spread through the body after passing the epithelium of the midgut. As this organ is responsible for digestion, most absorption of nutrients requires an intact epithelium to maintain gastrointestinal physiology. Considering the importance of this organ in the feeding of caterpillars and in the production of quality silk threads, and because it is also the first barrier faced by the BmNPV, the study analyzed details of cytopathological events in the intestinal cells as well as evaluated the action of the antioxidant systems as a response to cellular infection...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jian Zhang, Zi-Qi Zheng, Ya-Wei Yuan, Pan-Pan Zhang, Ying-Qin Li, Ya-Qin Wang, Xin-Ran Tang, Xin Wen, Xiao-Hong Hong, Yuan Lei, Qing-Mei He, Xiao-Jing Yang, Ying Sun, Jun Ma, Na Liu
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic change in carcinogenesis. However, the function and mechanism of DNA methylation dysregulation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still largely unclear. Our previous genome-wide microarray data showed that NFAT1 is one of the most hypermethylated transcription factor genes in NPC tissues. Here, we found that NFAT1 hypermethylation contributes to its down-regulation in NPC. NFAT1 overexpression inhibited cell migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo...
February 14, 2019: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Cong Yuan, Lihong Wang, Long Zhu, Benhui Ran, Xue Xue, Zaizhao Wang
Ubiquitous BPA exposure resulted in DNA methylation errors and oxidative stress. Numerous studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress can lead to changes in DNA methylation levels and supplementation with antioxidants, including N-acetylcysteine (NAC), was able to restore these changes. Our previous study supposed that BPA-induced de novo synthesis of glutathione (GSH) promoted DNA methylation process in Gobiocypris rarus testes. To validate this conjecture and explore the protective effects of NAC on BPA toxicity, the present study was carried out...
February 14, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wenhui Qiu, Hongyan Zhan, Jiaqi Hu, Ting Zhang, Hai Xu, Minghung Wong, Bentuo Xu, Chunmiao Zheng
Bisphenol S (BPS) has been introduced into the industry as a safer alternative to bisphenol A (BPA). The distribution of BPS has recently become an important issue worldwide, but investigations on the toxicity and mechanisms of BPS remain limited. A review of the literature reveals that BPS has widespread presence in environmental media, such as indoor dust, surface water, sediments, and sewage sludge. It has been detected in plants, paper products, some food items, and even in the human body. In addition, compared to BPA, BPS has a lower acute toxicity, similar or less endocrine disruption, similar neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity, and lower reproductive and developmental toxicity...
February 14, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cristina Morsiani, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Aurelia Santoro, Paolo Garagnani, Salvatore Collura, Antonia D'Errico, Magda de Eguileor, Gian Luca Grazi, Matteo Cescon, Claudio Franceschi, Miriam Capri
An appraisal of recent data highlighting aspects inspired by the new Geroscience perspective are here discussed. The main findings are summarized as follows: i) liver has to be considered an immunological organ, and new studies suggest a role for the recently described cells named telocytes; ii) the liver-gut axis represents a crucial connection with environment and life style habits and may influence liver diseases onset; iii) the physiological aging of liver shows relatively modest alterations. Nevertheless, several molecular changes appear to be relevant: a) an increase of microRNA-31-5p; -141-3p; -200c-3p expressions after 60 years of age; b) a remodeling of genome-wide DNA methylation profile evident until 60 years of age and then plateauing; c) changes in transcriptome including the metabolic zones of hepatocyte lobules; d) liver undergoes an accelerated aging in presence of chronic inflammation/liver diseases in a sort of continuum, largely as a consequence of unhealthy life styles and exposure to environmental noxious agents...
February 14, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Om P S Patel, Ashutosh Arun, Pankaj K Singh, Deepika Saini, Sharanbasappa Shrimant Karade, Manish K Chourasia, Rituraj Konwar, Prem P Yadav
A series of new pyranocarbazole derivatives were synthesized via semi-synthetic modification of koenimbine (1a) and koenidine (1b) isolated from the leaves of Murraya koenigii. Among all, compound 3bg displayed significant anti-cancer activity against MDA-MB-231, DU145 and PC3 cell lines with the IC50 values of 3.8, 7.6 and 5.8 μM, respectively. It was also observed that the halogenated-benzyl substitution at N-9 position, C-3 Methyl and C-7 methoxy group on carbazole motif are favoured for anti-cancer activity...
February 7, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Naren Qimuge, Zhaozhao He, Jin Qin, Yunmei Sun, Xiangming Wang, Taiyong Yu, Wuzi Dong, Gongshe Yang, Weijun Pang
Intramuscular fat (IMF), which is modulated by the number and size of intramuscular preadipocytes, plays a key role in pork quality. DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups to specific CpG structures in DNA, is involved in the management of diverse intracellular processes. However, the physiological functions of DNMT3A in proliferation and differentiation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes have not been clearly established. Here, we found that DNMT3A significantly promoted the proliferation, while inhibited the differentiation of intramuscular preadipocytes...
February 14, 2019: Gene
Laura E Yates, Aravind Natarajan, Mingji Li, Margaret Hale, Dominic C Mills, Matthew P DeLisa
Recombineering-based redesign of bacterial genomes by adding, removing or editing large segments of genomic DNA is emerging as a powerful technique for expanding the range of functions that an organism can perform. Here, we describe a glyco-recoding strategy whereby major non-essential polysaccharide gene clusters in K-12 Escherichia coli are replaced with orthogonal glycosylation components for both biosynthesis of heterologous glycan structures and site-specific glycan conjugation to target proteins. Specifically, the native enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) and O-polysaccharide (O-PS) antigen loci were systematically replaced with ∼9-10 kbp of synthetic DNA encoding Campylobacter jejuni enzymes required for asparagine-linked (N-linked) protein glycosylation...
February 14, 2019: Metabolic Engineering
Alastair Davies, Vincenza Conteduca, Amina Zoubeidi, Himisha Beltran
CONTEXT: Recent studies focused on the molecular characterization of metastatic prostate cancer have identified genomic subsets and emerging resistance patterns. Detection of these alterations in patients has potential implications for therapy selection and prognostication. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to review the current landscape of clinical and molecular biomarkers in advanced prostate cancer and understand how they may reflect underlying tumor biology...
February 13, 2019: European Urology Focus
Jessica B Langbaum, Jason Karlawish, J Scott Roberts, Elisabeth M Wood, Angela Bradbury, Nellie High, Trisha L Walsh, David Gordon, Raj Aggarwal, Peter Davis, Carter Stowell, Lane Trisko, Carolyn M Langlois, Eric M Reiman, Pierre N Tariot
INTRODUCTION: Recruitment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention research studies is challenging because of lack of awareness among cognitively healthy adults coupled with the high screen fail rate due to participants not having a genetic risk factor or biomarker evidence of the disease. Participant recruitment registries offer one solution for efficiently and effectively identifying, characterizing, and connecting potential eligible volunteers to studies. METHODS: Individuals aged 55-75 years who live in the United States and self-report not having a diagnosis of cognitive impairment such as MCI or dementia are eligible to join GeneMatch...
February 6, 2019: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Yi Zhang, Zong-Heng Wang, Yi Liu, Yong Chen, Nuo Sun, Marjan Gucek, Fan Zhang, Hong Xu
We have previously proposed that selective inheritance, the limited transmission of damaging mtDNA mutations from mother to offspring, is based on replication competition in Drosophila melanogaster. This model, which stems from our observation that wild-type mitochondria propagate much more vigorously in the fly ovary than mitochondria carrying fitness-impairing mutations, implies that germ cells recognize the fitness of individual mitochondria and selectively boost the propagation of healthy ones. Here, we demonstrate that the protein kinase PINK1 preferentially accumulates on mitochondria enriched for a deleterious mtDNA mutation...
February 1, 2019: Molecular Cell
Peter A Lobue, Manasses Jora, Balasubrahmanyam Addepalli, Patrick A Limbach
Improving our understanding of nucleic acids, both in biological and synthetic applications, remains a bustling area of research for both academic and industrial laboratories. As nucleic acids research evolves, so must the analytical techniques used to characterize nucleic acids. One powerful analytical technique has been coupled liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To date, the most successful chromatographic mode has been ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), in the absence of ion-pair reagents, has been investigated here as an alternative chromatographic approach to the analysis of oligonucleotides...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. A
P M VanRaden, D M Bickhart, J R O'Connell
Whole-genome sequencing studies can identify causative mutations for subsequent use in genomic evaluations. Speed and accuracy of sequence alignment can be improved by accounting for known variant locations during alignment instead of calling the variants after alignment as in previous programs. The new programs Findmap and Findvar were compared with alignment using Burrows-Wheeler alignment (BWA) or SNAP and variant identification using Genome Analysis ToolKit (GATK) or SAMtools. Findmap stores the reference map and any known variant locations while aligning reads and counting reference and alternate alleles for each DNA source...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Filippo Parolini, Nedim Hadzic, Mark Davenport
AIM OF STUDY: CMV-IgM + ve associated biliary atresia (CMV-BA) is a distinct etiological subgroup characterized by older age at presentation and a greater degree of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis, leading to a worse outcome. We report our experience with adjuvant antiviral therapy after Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE). METHODS: Single-center prospective database identification of CMV-IgM + ve associated BA managed between 2003 and 2017. Since 2011, IV ganciclovir (5 mg/kg b...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Kaimei Fan, Wukui Kang, Shuaifeng Qu, Long Li, Baohan Qu, Lihua Lu
A label-free and enzyme-free aptasensor for sensitive assay of acetamiprid has been established using AT-rich double-stranded (ds) DNA-templated copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) as fluorescent probe. In this work, two hairpin DNA, HP1 and HP2, were elaborately designed with AT-rich DNA sequences in their loops. The aptamer of acetamiprid was located at the 3'-terminal of HP1, which was caged in the stem of HP1. Upon the addition of acetamiprid, the aptamer could combine with acetamiprid to form a target/aptamer complex, and thus its free 5'-terminal was released...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Cong-Ying Wen, Ting-Ting Liu, Ling-Ling Wu, Yi-Min Li, Jia-Yi Sun, Jing-Bin Zeng
Nucleic acid isolation and purification are essential steps in molecular biology. Currently-used isolation methods focus on the extraction of all the nucleic acids from crude samples, yet ignore the specific nucleic acids of interest, which may induce the loss of the specific nucleic acids and hinder their analyses. Herein, a magnetic nanospheres (MNs)-based strategy for efficient capture and release of specific nucleic acids is developed. The DNA sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is taken as a model to validate this method...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Zhipeng Shen, Liyong He, Yuting Cao, Feng Hong, Kai Zhang, Futao Hu, Jianyuan Lin, Dazhen Wu, Ning Gan
Simultaneous and sensitive detection of various antibiotic residues in one sample is essential to evaluation of food safety status. Herein, a multiplexed electrochemical aptasensor for multiplex antibiotics detection, with kanamycin (KANA) and ampicillin (AMP) as representative analytes, was designed by using metal ions encoded apoferrtin probes and double stirring bars-assisted target recycling for signal amplification. The encoded probes were prepared by apoferritin loading Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions and labeling with duplex DNAs (aptamers corresponding to KANA and AMP hybrid with its complementary DNA sequence), respectively...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Lumin Wang, Fawei Zhu, Sen Liao, Miao Chen, Yu Qiu Zhu, Qi Liu, Xiaoqing Chen
Facile and cost-effective detection of multiple targets is essential for a variety of applications ranging from life sciences to environmental monitoring. Here, we report a versatile ratiometric fluorescence platform for multiple detection of various targets based on the conjugation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with protonated graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (Pg-C3 N4 NSs). We demonstrate that intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of Pg-C3 N4 NSs is enhanced by conjugating with ssDNA, and thus the oxidation of substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) is promoted in the presence of H2 O2 ...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
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