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biomechanical risk

Richard Connell, Bruce Paton, Ross Milne
Background: The risk of reinjury and other sequelae following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) remains high. Lack of knowledge regarding factors contributing to these risks limits our ability to develop sensitive return to play (RTP) tests. Using a running task, we evaluate whether fatigue induces alterations in foot progression angle (FPA), a proposed biomechanical risk factor and could be used to enhance RTP test sensitivity. Method: Transverse plane foot kinematics (FPA) were assessed for 18 post-ACLR subjects during a treadmill running task, before and after a generalised lower limb fatigue protocol...
2019: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Lan Li, Xianfeng Yang, Longfei Yang, Kaijia Zhang, Jianping Shi, Liya Zhu, Huixin Liang, Xingsong Wang, Qing Jiang
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the degenerative medial meniscus and traumatic lesions on the biomechanical behavior of the knee. An elaborate three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the total knee joint containing bones, articular cartilages, main ligaments, and menisci was developed from a combination of magnetic resonance images and computed tomography. Three types of meniscus tears were employed to represent the degenerative and traumatic lesions. The stress and meniscus extrusion of healthy and injured knees were investigated under the posture of static stance...
2019: American Journal of Translational Research
Andrew S Bernhardson, Zachary S Aman, Nicholas N DePhillipo, Grant J Dornan, Hunter W Storaci, Alex W Brady, Gilberto Nakama, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: A flattened posterior tibial slope may cause excessive unwanted stress on the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction graft and place patients at risk for PCL reconstruction graft failure. To date, there is a paucity of biomechanical studies evaluating the effect of posterior tibial slope on the loading properties of single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) PCL grafts. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of sagittal plane tibial slope on PCL reconstruction graft force at varying slopes and knee flexion angles for SB and DB PCL reconstructions...
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
James W A Fletcher, Markus Windolf, Leonard Grünwald, R Geoff Richards, Boyko Gueorguiev, Peter Varga
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the effect of screw length on predictions of fixation failure in three-part proximal humeral fractures using a finite element-based osteosynthesis modelling toolkit. METHODS: A mal-reduced unstable three-part AO/OTA 11-B3.2 fracture with medial comminution was simulated in forty-two digitally processed proximal humeri covering a spectrum of bone densities and fixed with the PHILOS plate using three distal and six proximal locking screws...
March 20, 2019: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Erna V Ivarsdottir, Stefania Benonisdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Patrick Sulem, Asmundur Oddsson, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Snaedis Kristmundsdottir, Gudny A Arnadottir, Gudmundur Thorgeirsson, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Gunnar M Zoega, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Fridbert Jonasson, Hilma Holm, Kari Stefansson
The corneal endothelium is vital for transparency and proper hydration of the cornea. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study of corneal endothelial cell density (cells/mm2 ), coefficient of cell size variation (CV), percentage of hexagonal cells (HEX) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in 6,125 Icelanders and find associations at 10 loci, including 7 novel. We assess the effects of these variants on various ocular biomechanics such as corneal hysteresis (CH), as well as eye diseases such as glaucoma and corneal dystrophies...
March 20, 2019: Nature Communications
Kwan Su Kang, Trinh Ngoc Tien, Myung Chul Lee, Kwon-Yong Lee, Bongju Kim, Dohyung Lim
This study was performed to determine whether metal block augmentation is suitable for large uncontained bone defect via evaluations of differences in biomechanical characteristics among the configurations of metal block augmentations for medium or large uncontained bone defects in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of the proximal tibia with revision TKA were developed and analyzed considering the configurations of the metal block augmentations for medium and large uncontained bone defects...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Andrea Ravidà, Shayan Barootchi, Aaeshah Alkanderi, Lorenzo Tavelli, Fernando Suárez-López Del Amo
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio over survival rate, marginal bone loss, and prosthetic complications of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central) and manual searches for clinical trials with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were performed. Clinical and anatomical C/I ratios were obtained. Regression models were created to assess for potential correlation between C/I ratio (anatomical and clinical) and survival rate, marginal bone loss, or prosthetic complications...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Chiara Palmisano, Gregor Brandt, Nicoló Gabriele Pozzi, Alice Leporini, Virginia Maltese, Andrea Canessa, Jens Volkmann, Gianni Pezzoli, Carlo Albino Frigo, Ioannis Ugo Isaias
BACKGROUND: Falls are one of the main concerns in people with Parkinson's disease, leading to poor quality of life and increased mortality. The sit-to-walk movement is the most frequent postural transition task during daily life and is highly demanding in terms of balance maintenance and muscular strength. METHODS: With the aim of identifying biomechanical variables of high risk of falling, we investigated the sit-to-walk task performed by 9 Parkinson's disease patients with at least one fall episode in the six months preceding this study, 15 Parkinson's disease patients without previous falls, and 20 healthy controls...
March 5, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
Patrick Ziegler, Hans-Peter Kaps, Stephanie Goerke, Gauri Tendulkar, Alfred Buck Sen, Andreas Nuessler, Werner Schmoelz
BACKGROUND: Total disc replacement is a possible treatment alternative for patients with degenerative disc disease, especially in the cervical spine. The aim is to restore the physiological flexibility and biomechanical behavior. A new approach based on these requirements is the novel nucleus prosthesis made of knitted titanium wires. METHODS: The biomechanical functionalities of eight human cervical (C4-C7) spine segments were investigated. The range of motion was quantified using an ultra-sound based motion analysis system...
March 5, 2019: Clinical Biomechanics
Nathalia Costa, Paul W Hodges, Manuela L Ferreira, Joanna Makovey, Jenny Setchell
OBJECTIVE: For many, low back pain (LBP) is a lifelong condition with symptoms varying over time. Previous studies have investigated long-term risk factors and triggers for onset of LBP. No study has examined causes for less distinct fluctuations of symptoms, such as "flares," which individuals with LBP identify as a significant and worrisome part of LBP. As little is known about what triggers this type of fluctuation, we aimed to investigate individuals' perspectives on LBP flare triggers...
March 19, 2019: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Robert Tisherman, Kevin Wilson, Alexandra Horvath, Kevin Byrne, Joseph De Groot, Volker Musahl
PURPOSE: Allografts are frequently use for ligamentous reconstruction at the knee. In the United States, tissue donation and distribution are highly regulated processes with thorough oversight from private and government entities. Allograft is widely available in the United States and allograft procurement is a large industry with varying procurement, sterilization, processing, and distribution procedures. It is important to understand allograft regulation and processing which may affect graft mechanical properties and biological graft integration...
March 19, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Yong-Gon Koh, Ji-Hoon Nam, Hyun-Seok Chung, Hwa-Yong Lee, Ho-Joong Kim, Hyo-Jeoung Kim, Kyoung-Tak Kang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate the primary differences in trochlear morphology between men and women utilizing three-dimensional magnetic resonance image reconstruction of the femoral trochlea. METHODS: Differences in anthropometric femoral trochlea data of 975 patients (825 women, 150 men) were evaluated. The following morphological parameters were measured at three flexion angles (15°, 30°, and 45°) of the femoral trochlea: the sulcus angle, condylar height, and the trochlear groove orientation and mediolateral groove position...
March 16, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Ajay Shah, Jeffrey Kay, Muzammil Memon, Ryan P Coughlin, Nicole Simunovic, Shane J Nho, Olufemi R Ayeni
PURPOSE: To perform a systematic review that assesses the current literature on suture anchor placement for the purpose of identifying factors that lead to suture anchor perforation and techniques that reduce the likelihood of complications. It was hypothesized that suture anchor placement in hip arthroscopy would generally be safe, with the exception of the complications of articular cartilage violation and psoas tunnel perforation. Perioperative factors, related to patient, surgeon, and technical variables, may influence the safety of suture anchor insertion...
March 13, 2019: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
J J Hannigan, Christine D Pollard
BACKGROUND: A recent study suggested that maximal running shoes may increase the impact force and loading rate of the vertical ground-reaction force during running. It is currently unknown whether runners will adapt to decrease the impact force and loading rate over time. PURPOSE: To compare the vertical ground-reaction force and ankle kinematics between maximal and traditional shoes before and after a 6-week acclimation period to the maximal shoe. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
March 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Yolanda van Vugt, James Stinear, T Claire Davies, Yanxin Zhang
Individuals with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) are often impaired in their ability to control posture as a result of the neurological and musculoskeletal implications of their condition. This research aimed to assess postural stability during gait in a group of adults with HSP. Ten individuals with HSP and 10 healthy controls underwent computerized gait analysis while walking barefoot along a 10-m track. Two biomechanics methods were used to assess stability: the center of pressure and center of mass separation (COP-COM) method, and the extrapolated center of mass (XCOM) method...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Yan Li, Kuan Wang, Lejun Wang, Tongbo Chang, Shengnian Zhang, Wenxin Niu
This study aimed to analyze the biomechanical response of the knee cartilage and meniscus to a typical Tai Chi (TC) movement, brush-knee and twist-step (BKTS). Kinematic and kinetic data was recorded while an experienced TC practitioner performed normal walking, jogging and BKTS. The kinetic data were then imported into a validated finite element model of the knee joint to examine the biomechanical response of the articular cartilage and meniscus. Compared with walking and jogging, the BKTS movement showed a greater increase in the range of motion (ROM) of the knee...
January 30, 2019: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Koji Akimoto, Nobuyasu Ochiai, Eiko Hashimoto, Yasuhito Sasaki, Daisuke Nojima, Daisuke Kajiwara, Yusuke Matsuura, Yu Sasaki, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takehiro Kijima, Seiji Ohtori
BACKGROUND: Massive rotator cuff tears have a high rate of re-injury because of severe fatty infiltration. Our data showed that injuries proximal to the suprascapular nerve may be one cause of massive rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using a rat model, how brachial plexus injury associated with a massive rotator cuff tear influences healing of the rotator cuff repair. METHODS: Seventy Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: rotator cuff tear with BP injury (DT group) (n = 28), rotator cuff tear without brachial plexus injury (T group) (n = 28), and a sham-operated group (n = 14)...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
B Horsak, C Schwab, A Baca, S Greber-Platzer, A Kreissl, S Nehrer, M Keilani, R Crevenna, A Kranzl, B Wondrasch
BACKGROUND: Research highlights the detrimental effects of obesity on gait biomechanics and the accompanied risk of lower-extremity skeletal malalignments, increased joint stress, pain and discomfort. Individuals with obesity typically show increased knee valgus angles combined with an increased step width. Accompanying muscular dysfunctions impede their ability to compensate for these alterations, especially in the frontal plane. To date, no studies are available, which evaluated the potential effects of an exercise program (EP) in reducing these unfavorable biomechanical changes...
February 27, 2019: Gait & Posture
Jennie A Jackson, David Olsson, Alex Burdorf, Laura Punnett, Bengt Järvholm, Jens Wahlström
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to assess the association between occupational biomechanical exposure and the occurrence of radial nerve entrapment (RNE) in construction workers over a 13-year follow-up period. METHODS: A cohort of 229 707 male construction workers who participated in a national occupational health surveillance programme (1971-1993) was examined prospectively (2001-2013) for RNE. Height, weight, age, smoking status and job title (construction trade) were obtained on health examination...
March 8, 2019: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Allison L Clouthier, Colin R Smith, Michael F Vignos, Darryl G Thelen, Kevin J Deluzio, Michael J Rainbow
Articular geometry in the knee varies widely among people which has implications for risk of injury and pathology. The goals of this work were to develop a framework to systematically vary geometry in a multibody knee model and to use this framework to investigate the effect of morphological features on dynamic knee kinematics and contact mechanics. A statistical shape model of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints was created from magnetic resonance images of 14 asymptomatic knees. The shape model was then used to generate 37 unique multibody knee models based on -3 to +3 standard deviations of the scores for the first six principal components identified...
March 5, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
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