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Non Linear

Inga Petersohn, Arli G Zarate-Ortiz, Ana C Cepeda-Lopez, Alida Melse-Boonstra
Developed countries have shown a time trend towards a younger age at menarche (AAM), which is associated with increased risk of later obesity and non-communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess whether a time trend in AAM is associated with disease risk in Mexican women ( n = 30,826), using data from the Mexican National Health Survey (2000). Linear and log binomial regression was used for nutritional and disease outcomes, while Welch⁻ANOVA was used to test for a time trend. AAM (in years) decreased over time ( p < 0...
February 13, 2019: Nutrients
Yuri Kominami, Tatsuya Hayashi, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Hideki Ushio
In healthy cells, proteolysis is orderly executed to maintain basal homeostasis and normal physiology. Dyscontrol in proteolysis under severe stress condition induces cell death, but the dynamics of proteolytic regulation towards the critical phase remain unclear. Teleosts have been suggested an alternative model for the study of proteolysis under severe stress. In this study, horse mackerel ( Trachurus japonicus ) was used and exacerbated under severe stress conditions due to air exposure. Although the complete genome for T...
February 13, 2019: Proteomes
Anna Popczyk, Aouatif Aamoum, Anna Migalska-Zalas, Przemyslaw Płóciennik, Anna Zawadzka, Jaroslaw Mysliwiec, Bouchta Sahraoui
In this paper, we present the third harmonic generation response of Znq₂ (Bis-(8-hydroxyquinolinato)zinc), Cuq₂ (8-Hydroxyquinoline copper(II)), and Alq₃ (Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum) organometallic compounds. An experiment was conducted for s and p polarizations of incident beam, using the Maker fringes technique. The third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) was estimated using the Kubodera and Kobayashi comparative model, on the grounds that presented compounds exhibit high linear absorption of the generated third harmonic wavelength (355 nm)...
February 13, 2019: Nanomaterials
Tianyi Jiang, Ye Tao, Hongyuan Jiang, Weiyu Liu, Yansu Hu, Dewei Tang
In this paper we present a novel microfluidic approach for continuous, rapid and switchable particle concentration, using induced-charge electroosmosis (ICEO) in 3D electrode layouts. Field-effect control on non-linear electroosmosis in the transverse direction greatly facilitates a selective concentration of biological yeast cells from a straight main microchannel into one of the three downstream branch channels in our microfluidic device. For the geometry configuration of 3D driving electrode plates on sidewalls and a 2D planar gate electrode strip on the channel bottom surface, we briefly describe the underlying physics of an ICEO-based particle flow-focusing method, and provide relevant simulation results to show how gate voltage amplitude can be used to guide the motion trajectory of the concentrated particle stream...
February 18, 2019: Micromachines
David Bujnovky, Tomas Maly, Kevin R Ford, Dai Sugimoto, Egon Kunzmann, Mikulas Hank, Frantisek Zahalka
The aim of this study was to determine whether the speed, agility, aerobic and anaerobic capacities of football players varied by playing positions. Elite youth football players ( n = 123, age = 15.7 ± 0.5 years) who played in six different positions, as goalkeepers (GK), full backs (FB), central defenders (CD), wide midfielders (WM), central midfielders (CM), and attackers (AT), were assessed. Multivariate analysis of variances was used to compare the following variables: Linear running sprint for 5 m (S5) and 10 m (S10), flying sprint for 20 m (F20), agility 505 test with turn on the dominant (A505D) and non-dominant leg (A505N), agility K-test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (YYIR1) test and repeat sprint ability (RSA) test...
February 16, 2019: Sports
Xiaofeng Wang, Xiaoming Lou, Zhe Mo, Mingluan Xing, Guangming Mao, Wenming Zhu, Yuanyang Wang, Yuan Chen, Zhifang Wang
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency in pregnant women, defined as a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of less than 150 μg/L, is an important public health issue. To improve their iodine intake, it is important to understand the knowledge and practices regarding iodine. METHODS: A cross-sectional investigation was conducted on 2642 pregnant women during 2016⁻2017 in Zhejiang province, China. A 3-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to record knowledge. The UIC and iodine content in household salt were determined...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Jonas Richter, Robin Steinigeweg
Linear response theory (LRT) is one of the main approaches to the dynamics of quantum many-body systems. However, this approach has limitations and requires, e.g., that the initial state is (i) mixed and (ii) close to equilibrium. In this paper, we discuss these limitations and study the nonequilibrium dynamics for a certain class of properly prepared initial states. Specifically, we consider thermal states of the quantum system in the presence of an additional static force which, however, become nonequilibrium states when this static force is eventually removed...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Clément Zankoc, Duccio Fanelli, Francesco Ginelli, Roberto Livi
We consider a one-dimensional directional array of diffusively coupled oscillators. They are perturbed by the injection of small additive noise, typically orders of magnitude smaller than the oscillation amplitude, and the system is studied in a region of the parameters that would yield deterministic synchronization. Non-normal directed couplings seed a coherent amplification of the perturbation: this latter manifests as a modulation, transversal to the limit cycle, which gains in potency node after node. If the lattice extends long enough, the initial synchrony gets eventually lost, and the system moves toward a nontrivial attractor, which can be analytically characterized as an asymptotic splay state...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Quynh Van Nguyen, Yeon Seok Choi, Sang Kyu Choi, Yeon Woo Jeong, Yong Su Kwon
Conversion technology of solid biomass to liquid fuel, named bio-crude oil, has been researched widely for the production of renewable energy to replace fossil fuel oil. As the result of many admirable researches, fast pyrolysis technology for bio-crude oil production is close to commercialization. However, bio-crude oil has unsatisfactory properties compared to general petroleum oil, for instance, low heating value, high water content, and high viscosity. In this study, pine sawdust (SD) biomass was co-pyrolyzed with waste polystyrene foam (WPSF), which was expected to improve the bio-crude oil quality due to high heating value and non-oxygen composition of polystyrene...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Padraic Monaghan, Seán G Roberts
Languages change due to social, cultural, and cognitive influences. In this paper, we provide an assessment of these cognitive influences on diachronic change in the vocabulary. Previously, tests of stability and change of vocabulary items have been conducted on small sets of words where diachronic change is imputed from cladistics studies. Here, we show for a substantially larger set of words that stability and change in terms of documented borrowings of words into English and into Dutch can be predicted by psycholinguistic properties of words that reflect their representational fidelity...
February 16, 2019: Cognition
Mitzi M Gonzales, Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu, Shruti Sachdeva, Terry G Unterman, Matthew J O'Brien, Linda C Gallo, Gregory A Talavera, Robert C Kaplan, Jianwen Cai, Neil Schneiderman, Rebeca A Espinoza Giacinto, Hector M González, Martha L Daviglus, Melissa Lamar
AIMS: Insulin resistance (IR) adversely impacts memory and executive functioning in non-Hispanic whites without diabetes. Less is known in Hispanics/Latinos, despite the fact that Hispanics/Latinos have higher rates of insulin resistance than non-Hispanic whites. We investigated the association between IR and cognition and its variation by age. METHODS: Data from 5,987 participants 45-74 years old without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos...
February 16, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Ithan D Peltan, Samuel M Brown, Joseph R Bledsoe, Jeffrey Sorensen, Matthew H Samore, Todd L Allen, Catherine L Hough
BACKGROUND: The impact of antibiotic timing on sepsis outcomes remains controversial due to conflicting results in prior studies. This study investigated the association of door-to-antibiotic time with long-term mortality in emergency department (ED) patients with sepsis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included non-trauma adult ED patients with clinical sepsis admitted to four hospitals from 2013 to 2017. Only patients' first eligible encounter was included...
February 16, 2019: Chest
Yu-Jih Su, Tien-Hsing Chen, Chung-Yuan Hsu, Wen-Tsen Chiu, Yu-Sheng Lin, Ching-Chi Chi
CONTEXT: The safety of metformin usage by diabetic psoriasis patients is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the real-world safety of metformin in psoriatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: We used the National Health Insurance Research Database to perform a cohort study. Based on metformin and other anti-diabetic agent prescriptions, we divided all psoriasis patients with T2DM into the metformin group and the non-metformin group...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Man Yang, Ling-Li Lu, Miao Zhao, Jun Liu, Qiu-Lan Li, Qin Li, Peng Xu, Lin Fu, Ling-Min Luo, Jun-Hui He, Wen-Bo Meng, Ping-Guang Lei, Jin-Qiu Yuan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of pre-endoscopy anxiety with discomfort and tolerance in patients undergoing unsedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). METHODS: This is a hospital-based cohort study of 348 patients undergoing routine, non-advanced EGD without sedation. The primary outcomes were discomfort and tolerance. The anxiety before endoscopy was evaluated with a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS). The associations of pre-endoscopy anxiety with the outcomes were evaluated with logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders like age, sex, and body mass index...
2019: PloS One
Jashvant Poeran, Lisa J Mao, Nicole Zubizarreta, Madhu Mazumdar, Bruce Darrow, Nicholas Genes, Joseph Kannry, Paul Francaviglia, Parley D Kennelly, Jayson Whitehorn, Galen Kilroy, Dairon Garcia, David S Mendelson
OBJECTIVE: Clinical decision support (CDS) tools have been shown to reduce inappropriate imaging orders. We hypothesized that CDS may be especially effective for house staff physicians who are prone to overuse of resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our hospital implemented CDS for CT and MRI orders in the emergency department with scores based on the American College of Radiology's Appropriateness Criteria (range, 1-9; higher scores represent more-appropriate orders)...
February 19, 2019: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Arash Bandegan, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Mahroukh Rafii, Paul B Pencharz, Peter Wr Lemon
Despite studies indicating increased protein requirements in endurance-trained (ET) individuals, the Institute of Medicine has concluded, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise" and the controversy regarding exercise effects on protein requirements continues. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement of healthy young ET men (≥1 y training experience) 24h post-exercise (to minimize any acute effects of the previous training session) by measuring the oxidation of ingested L-[1-13 C] phenylalanine to 13 CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein [Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation (IAAO) Technique]...
February 19, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mathieu Hemery, Paul Francois
Numerous biological systems are known to harbour a form of logarithmic behaviour, from Weber's law to bacterial chemotaxis. Such log-response allows for sensitivity to small relative variations of biochemical inputs over a large range of concentration values. Here we use a genetic algorithm to evolve biochemical networks displaying a logarithmic response. A quasi-perfect log-response implemented by the same core network evolves in a convergent way across our different \textit{in silico} replications. The best network is able to fit a logarithm over 4 orders of magnitude with an accuracy of the order of $1\%$...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Maria Grazia Caprio, Marco Di Serafino, Alessia De Feo, Elvira Guerriero, Teresa Perillo, Luigi Barbuto, Norberto Vezzali, Eugenio Rossi, Federica Ferro, Gianfranco Vallone, Cinzia Orazi
Ultrasonography is the first-line imaging modality in the evaluation of the female pelvis in childhood and adolescence, because it is easy to perform, non-invasive and it does not require sedation. The transabdominal approach is preferred in children and adolescents, after filling the bladder to move away the bowel loops from the pelvis. The probe frequency must be adapted to age, thickness of tissues and depth of the structures under examination. High-frequency (4-12 MHz) linear or convex probes are used in newborns; high-frequency linear probes (4-12 MHz) in toddler, convex 5-7...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Ultrasound
Nicholas G Larkins, Armando Teixeira-Pinto, Siah Kim, David P Burgner, Jonathan C Craig
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is increasingly recognized as a disease spanning the entire life course. Continued efforts to refine the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children are highlighted by the recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines, which include lower threshold values than the previous reference standard (Fourth Report). We aimed to determine the population-based prevalence of children exceeding thresholds for hypertension using these two guidelines. We also sought to identify the correlates of blood pressure (BP) among Australian children...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Zhuxiu Qian, Yiwen Xu, Chaofan Zheng, Anping Zhang, Jianqiang Sun
The emissions of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from consumer products have been considered the major to the ubiquitous occurrence of contaminants in indoor environments. Direct contact with dust covering the surface of source materials in a real environment could introduce significant uncertainty. This study investigated the effects of dust coverage on the emissions of four BFRs, including 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, and 10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and hexabromobenzene (HBBZ), from decorative laminate, cotton sound insulation, PVC floor, and carpet...
February 19, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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