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Air pollution policy

C Nick Hewitt, Kirsti Ashworth, A Rob MacKenzie
As evidence for the devastating impacts of air pollution on human health continues to increase, improving urban air quality has become one of the most pressing tasks facing policy makers world-wide. Increasingly, and very often on the basis of conflicting and/or weak evidence, the introduction of green infrastructure (GI) is seen as a win-win solution to urban air pollution, reducing ground-level concentrations without imposing restrictions on traffic and other polluting activities. The impact of GI on air quality is highly context dependent, with models suggesting that GI can improve urban air quality in some situations, but be ineffective or even detrimental in others...
March 16, 2019: Ambio
Anna Font, Lionel Guiseppin, Marta Blangiardo, Véronique Ghersi, Gary W Fuller
Paris and London are Europe's two megacities and both experience poor air quality with systemic breaches of the NO2 limit value. Policy initiatives have been taken to address this: some European-wide (e.g. Euro emission standards); others local (e.g. Low Emission Zone, LEZ). Trends in NOX , NO2 and particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 ) for 2005-2016 in background and roadside locations; and trends in traffic increments were calculated in both cities to address their impact. Trends in traffic counts and the distribution in Euro standards for diesel vehicles were also evaluated...
January 14, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Andrew Caplin, Masoud Ghandehari, Chris Lim, Paul Glimcher, George Thurston
Awareness of the human health impacts of exposure to air pollution is growing rapidly. For example, it has become evident that the adverse health effects of air pollution are more pronounced in disadvantaged populations. Policymakers in many jurisdictions have responded to this evidence by enacting initiatives that lead to lower concentrations of air pollutants, such as urban traffic restrictions. In this review, we focus on the interplay between advances in environmental exposure assessment and developments in policy...
March 15, 2019: Nature Communications
S Bhuvaneshwari, Hiroshan Hettiarachchi, Jay N Meegoda
India, the second largest agro-based economy with year-round crop cultivation, generates a large amount of agricultural waste, including crop residues. In the absence of adequate sustainable management practices, approximately 92 seems a very small number of metric tons of crop waste is burned every year in India, causing excessive particulate matter emissions and air pollution. Crop residue burning has become a major environmental problem causing health issues as well as contributing to global warming. Composting, biochar production and mechanization are a few effective sustainable techniques that can help to curtail the issue while retaining the nutrients present in the crop residue in the soil...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xiaodan Han, Huajiao Li, Qian Liu, Fuzhen Liu, Asma Arif
Regional haze pollution has frequently occurred in China over the past several years, and this haze has hindered the development of the economy and harmed the health of people in China. Currently, several studies have analyzed the impact of different influencing factors on haze. However, few studies have comprehensively analyzed the influential factors of haze from different perspectives. In this paper, we utilized global and local regression models to explore the main influential factors on air quality index (AQI) in China from global and local perspectives...
March 3, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Joseph Y Abrams, Mitchel Klein, Lucas R F Henneman, Stefanie E Sarnat, Howard H Chang, Matthew J Strickland, James A Mulholland, Armistead G Russell, Paige E Tolbert
BACKGROUND: Air pollution control policies resulting from the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were aimed at reducing pollutant emissions, ambient concentrations, and ultimately adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: As part of a comprehensive air pollution accountability study, we used a counterfactual study design to estimate the impact of mobile source and electricity generation control policies on health outcomes in the Atlanta, GA, metropolitan area from 1999 to 2013...
March 8, 2019: Environment International
Wan-Mei Song, Yi Liu, Jin-Yue Liu, Ning-Ning Tao, Yi-Fan Li, Yao Liu, Liu-Xin Wang, Huai-Chen Li
The health effects of short-term exposure to air pollutants on respiratory deaths and its modifiers such as meteorological indexes have been widely investigated. However, most of the previous studies are limited to single pollutants or total respiratory deaths, and their findings are inconsistent.To comprehensively examine the short-term effects of air pollutants on daily respiratory mortality.Our analysis included 16,931 nonaccidental respiratory deaths (except lung cancer and tuberculosis) among older adults (>65 years) from 2011 to 2017 in Jinan, China...
March 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bilal Shouket, Khalid Zaman, Abdelmohsen A Nassani, Abdullah Mohammed Aldakhil, Muhammad Moinuddin Qazi Abro
The objective of the study is to examine the impact of air-railways transportation on environmental degradation in the form of high mass carbon emission, natural resource depletion and forest depletion in the context of Pakistan by using an annual time series data from 1975 to 2016. The results show that railway passengers carried increases carbon emissions while air-railways transportation and travel services degrade environment in the form of natural resource depletion. The study verified "pollution haven hypothesis" where trade liberalization policies increases carbon emissions; however, "population genius" principle is hold where population growth conserve natural resources and environment through affluence and technology...
March 9, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qingwei Xu, Kaili Xu
To effectively control air pollution, it is necessary to obtain a preliminary assessment of air quality. The purpose of this study was to introduce a cloud model method in air pollution assessment. First, the standard cloud models of air pollution indicators were obtained, and the calculating process of numerical characteristics employed by the standard cloud model was explained. Second, the levels of air pollution indicators were presented based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of cloud models, which realized the uncertainty conversion between qualitative concepts and their corresponding quantitative values, as well as taking the fuzziness and randomness into account...
September 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Xiaoyan Ma, Hailing Jia, Tong Sha, Junlin An, Rong Tian
By employing the air pollution data including particular matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants (SO2 , NO2 , CO, and O3 ) measured over 130 cities in China from April 2014 to March 2015, the spatial and seasonal variations of air pollution are analyzed. The 9 representative regions including Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH), Yangze River Delta (YRD), central China (CC), Sichuan Basin (SB), northeast China (NEC), northwest China (NWC), Pearl River Delta (PRD), Yungui Plateau (YP), and Tibet, are chose to quantify the conditions of PM and gaseous pollution...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Shuai Liu, Fei Fan, Jianqing Zhang
City sizes are rapidly expanding, and urban air pollution is a serious challenge in China. PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) is the primary pollutant of urban pollution. This study aimed to examine the correlations between PM2.5 and city size. In this paper, using the panel data of 278 cities in China from 2007 to 2016, we constructed a static and dynamic panel model based on the STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) analytical framework. We found that there was a significantly inverted N-shaped correlation between PM2...
February 28, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ke Gui, Huizheng Che, Yaqiang Wang, Hong Wang, Lei Zhang, Hujia Zhao, Yu Zheng, Tianze Sun, Xiaoye Zhang
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) pollution in Eastern China (EC) has raised concerns due to its adverse effects on air quality, climate, and human health. This study investigated the long-term variation trend in satellite-derived PM2.5 concentrations and how it was related to pollutant emissions and meteorological parameters over EC and seven regions of interest (ROIs) during 1998-2016. Over EC, the annual mean PM2.5 increased before 2006 due to the enhanced emissions of primary PM2.5 , NOx and SO2 , but decreased with the reduced SO2 emissions after 2006 evidently in response to China's clean air policies...
April 2019: Environmental Pollution
Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga, Mikolaj Maga, Agnieszka Wachsmann, Maciej K Janik, Olga Chrzastek-Janik, Mateusz Bajkowski, Lukasz Partyka, Mateusz Koziej
BACKGROUND: While European air quality policies reduce ambient carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in general, there are still areas affected by high environmental CO exposure from transportation, industry and burning low-quality fossil fuels. We investigated, how these CO amounts might influence exhaled CO measurements used to monitor the smoking status of healthy subjects. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of healthy adults living in areas of high air pollution (N = 742) and low air pollution (N = 197) in Poland...
February 22, 2019: Environmental Research
Samiah Alam, Justin J Lang, Aaron M Drucker, Carolyn Gotay, Nicole Kozloff, Kedar Mate, Scott B Patten, Heather M Orpana, Ashkan Afshin, Leah E Cahill
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the risk factors contributing to disease burden is critical for determining research priorities and informing national health policy. We aimed to identify the risk factor trends in Canada. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study (1990-2016), we conducted an analysis of country-level estimates for Canada to assess the burden of diseases and injuries attributable to risk factors. For both 1990 and 2016, metabolic, environmental and behavioural risk factors were ranked according to their contribution to disability-adjusted life years (healthy years of life lost), total deaths and years lived with disability...
January 2019: CMAJ Open
Sydney G O'Connor, Rima Habre, Theresa M Bastain, Claudia M Toledo-Corral, Frank D Gilliland, Sandrah P Eckel, Jane Cabison, Christine H Naya, Shohreh F Farzan, Daniel Chu, Thomas A Chavez, Carrie V Breton, Genevieve F Dunton
BACKGROUND: Disproportionately high rates of maternal overweight and obesity among the Hispanic population before, during, and after pregnancy pose serious health concerns for both mothers (e.g., preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, weight retention) and children (e.g., elevated lifelong obesity risk). A growing body of evidence implicates environmental exposures (e.g., air pollution, metals) and social stressors (e.g., poverty, violence) in contributing to obesity-related biobehavioral processes, such as physical activity, dietary intake, perceived stress, and cortisol regulation...
February 28, 2019: BMC Public Health
Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Farhad Taghizadeh, Sanaz Hamzehali, Sonia Ghaffari, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Sadegh Niazi, Ehsan Abouee Mehrizi, Masoud Moradi, Hasan Pasalari, Hossein Arfaeinia
Despite increasingly growth in waterpipe smoking in Tehran, so far no study has been conducted on the air quality of the waterpipe and cigarette cafés. Thirty-six cafés were selected and the concentration of three pollutants including formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and nicotine were measured in both indoor and outdoor air of cafés two times (week-day and weekend's session). Air sampling was performed for 180 min for each pollutant. It was observed that the concentration of pollutants inside the cafés was higher during weekend session (with a higher number of "active waterpipe heads") compared with findings during the week-day sessions...
February 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
Hsiang-He Lee, Oussama Iraqui, Chien Wang
Aerosols emitted from fossil fuel burning can cause air quality and human health issues. In this sensitivity study, we examine the impact of fossil fuel aerosols on air quality in Southeast Asia under five different hypothetical fuel consumption scenarios. These scenarios reflect air pollutant outcomes of implementations of certain idealized policies in the power generation, industry, and residential sectors. Analyses based on comparison among the modeling results from these scenarios reveal the sectors that should be targeted by air pollution mitigation policy...
February 25, 2019: Scientific Reports
Thomas Clasen, Kirk R Smith
BACKGROUND: Research often suffers from overspecialization, a practice nurtured in academia and reinforced by funders. Indeed, investigators in household air pollution (HAP) and water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH), working in poor parts of the world, rarely interact despite having similar training and using similar methods to evaluate interventions in the same vulnerable populations. Disappointing results from recent trials of improved cookstoves and traditional approaches to WaSH suggest the need for alternative approaches...
February 2019: Environmental Health Perspectives
Qing Wang, Jiaonan Wang, Jinhui Zhou, Jie Ban, Tiantian Li
BACKGROUND: Air pollution and its adverse effects on public health remain a considerable problem in China, where policies have been implemented to improve the situation. We aimed to estimate the disease burden associated with particulate matter (PM)2·5 across China for 2020 and 2030 to identify the populations and regions most at risk, quantify the health benefits of air quality improvement targets, and determine the effect of population growth and ageing on this disease burden. METHODS: In this modelling study, we investigated premature deaths associated with PM2·5 across China on the basis of air quality scenarios proposed by the expert group involved in the formulation of the 13th Five-Year Plan for Eco-Environmental Protection and population scenarios based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change...
February 2019: Lancet. Planetary Health
Yu Jin Kim, In Gyu Song, Kyoung-Nam Kim, Min Sun Kim, Sung-Hoon Chung, Yong-Sung Choi, Chong-Woo Bae
Air pollution has become a global concern due to its association with numerous health effects. We aimed to assess associations between birth outcomes in Korea, such as preterm births and birth weight in term infants, and particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10 ). Records from 1,742,183 single births in 2010⁻2013 were evaluated. Mean PM10 concentrations during pregnancy were calculated and matched to birth data by registered regions. We analyzed the frequency of birth outcomes between groups using WHO criteria for PM10 concentrations with effect sizes estimated using multivariate logistic regression...
February 21, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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