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ES cells

Jianliang Li, Xiaoping Yu, Qian Liu, Shuangyan Ou, Ke Li, Yi Kong, Hanchun Liu, Yongzhong Ouyang, Ruocai Xu
The study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the occurrence and development of lung adenocarcinoma, and to reveal long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) prognostic factors to identify patients at high risk of disease recurrence or metastasis. Based on extensive RNA sequencing data and clinical survival prognosis information from patients with lung adenocarcinoma, obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus databases, a co‑expression network of lncRNAs with different expression levels was built using weighted correlation network analysis and MetaDE...
March 19, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Luis Augusto Eijy Nagai, Sung-Joon Park, Kenta Nakai
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotes compact chromosomes densely and non-randomly, forming three-dimensional structures. Alterations of the chromatin structures are often associated with diseases. In particular, aggressive cancer development from the disruption of the humoral immune system presents abnormal gene regulation which is accompanied by chromatin reorganizations. How the chromatin structures orchestrate the gene expression regulation is still poorly understood. Herein, we focus on chromatin dynamics in normal and abnormal B cell lymphocytes, and investigate its functional impact on the regulation of gene expression...
March 20, 2019: BMC Medical Genomics
Kun Huang, Beibei Ru, Yang Zhang, Wai-Lung Chan, Sheung-Ching Chow, Jiangwen Zhang, Clive Lo, Wing-Yee Lui
Blood-testis barrier (BTB) and apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) serve as structural supports for germ cell (GC) development. We demonstrated that the Sertoli cell (SC)-specific coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR) knockout (SC-CXADR-/- ), but not the GC-specific knockout, impaired spermatogenesis. An increase in GC apoptosis and premature loss of elongated spermatids were observed in SC-CXADR-/- testes. The BTB function was compromised in SC-CXADR-/- testes with dysregulation of oocludin and zonula occludens-1 expression at the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium...
March 20, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Dong Nyoung Heo, Se-Jun Lee, Raju Timsina, Xiangyun Qiu, Nathan J Castro, Lijie Grace Zhang
Bioelectronic devices enable efficient and effective communication between medical devices and human tissue in order to directly treat patients with various neurological disorders. Due to the mechanical similarity to human tissue, hydrogel-based electronic devices are considered to be promising for biological signal recording and stimulation of living tissues. Here, we report the first three-dimensionally (3D) printable conductive hydrogel that can be photocrosslinked while retaining high electrical conductivity...
June 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Anke Hädrich, Martial Taillefert, Denise M Akob, Rebecca E Cooper, Ulrike Litzba, Friedrich E Wagner, Sandor Nietzsche, Valerian Ciobota, Petra Rösch, Jürgen Popp, Kirsten Küsel
Controlled laboratory experiments were combined with field measurements to better understand the interactions between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and reduced iron in organic-rich peatlands. Addition of peat-derived humic acid extract (HA) to Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1 liquid cultures led to higher cell numbers and up to 1.4 times higher Fe(II) oxidation rates compared to chemical controls. This effect was positively correlated with increasing HA concentrations. Similar Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide mineralogies were formed both abiotically and biotically irrespective of HA amendment, but minerals formed in the presence of ES-1 and HA were smaller...
March 15, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Arturo Canales-Benavides, Yue Zhuo, Andrea M Amitrano, Minsoo Kim, Raul I Hernandez-Aranda, P Scott Carney, Martin Schnell
We present a technically simple implementation of quantitative phase imaging in confocal microscopy based on synthetic optical holography with sinusoidal-phase reference waves. Using a Mirau interference objective and low-amplitude vertical sample vibration with a piezo-controlled stage, we record synthetic holograms on commercial confocal microscopes (Nikon, model: A1R; Zeiss: model: LSM-880), from which quantitative phase images are reconstructed. We demonstrate our technique by stain-free imaging of cervical (HeLa) and ovarian (ES-2) cancer cells and stem cell (mHAT9a) samples...
February 10, 2019: Applied Optics
Tiziana Feola, Alessia Cozzolino, Ilaria Simonelli, Emilia Sbardella, Carlotta Pozza, Elisa Giannetta, Daniele Gianfrilli, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Andrea Lenzi, Andrea M Isidori
INTRODUCTION: Pegvisomant (PEG) in monotherapy or combined with somatostatin analogs (SSAs) is used to control acromegaly, improving metabolism. However, the metabolic changes induced by PEG have not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To address the following questions: Does 1) PEG or 2) the combination of PEG and SSAs affect fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose load (2h-OGTT), insulin levels (FPI), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and β-cell function (HOMA-I and HOMA-β), triglycerides (TGDs), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or body mass index? 3) Are the effects disease-related or drug-related? DATA SOURCES: Indexed databases up to January 2019...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Maryam Farzaneh, Zahra Derakhshan, Jamal Hallajzadeh, Neda Hosseini Sarani, Armin Nejabatdoust, Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam
Stem cells are unspecialized cells and excellent model in developmental biology and a promising approach to the treatment of disease and injury. In the last 30 years, pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells were established from murine and primate sources, and display indefinite replicative potential and the ability to differentiate to all three embryonic germ layers. Despite large efforts in many aspects of rodent and non-rodent pluripotent stem cell culture, a number of diverse challenges remain. Natural and synthetic small molecules (SMs) strategy has the potential to overcome these hurdles...
March 13, 2019: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yi Li, Liesl Matzka, Julie Flahive, Daniel Weber
Epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can be difficult to differentiate from each other in the emergency department (ED) setting. We have previously shown that the anion gap (AG) can help differentiate between ES and PNES in the ED. In this study, we explored whether additionally considering leukocytosis can help better differentiate between ES and PNES. We screened a total of 1354 subjects seen in the ED of a tertiary care medical center; 27 PNES and 27 ES patients were identified based on clinical description and subsequent electroencephalography (EEG)...
March 2019: Epilepsia Open
Dasa Bohaciakova, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Rachel Tsunemoto, Wesley D Gifford, Shawn P Driscoll, Thomas D Glenn, Stephanie Wu, Silvia Marsala, Michael Navarro, Takahiro Tadokoro, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Oleksandr Platoshyn, David Piper, Vickie Sheckler, Dara Ditsworth, Samuel L Pfaff, Martin Marsala
BACKGROUND: A well-characterized method has not yet been established to reproducibly, efficiently, and safely isolate large numbers of clinical-grade multipotent human neural stem cells (hNSCs) from embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Consequently, the transplantation of neurogenic/gliogenic precursors into the CNS for the purpose of cell replacement or neuroprotection in humans with injury or disease has not achieved widespread testing and implementation. METHODS: Here, we establish an approach for the in vitro isolation of a highly expandable population of hNSCs using the manual selection of neural precursors based on their colony morphology (CoMo-NSC)...
March 12, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ming Hu, Li Hong, Cheng Liu, Shasha Hong, Songming He, Min Zhou, Guotao Huang, Qian Chen
Electrical stimulation (ES) therapy has good effects in patients with nervous system injury-related diseases. ES promotes nerve cell regeneration and stimulates Schwann cells to express neurotrophic factors. The incidence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) among elderly people is increasing. Some studies suggest that damage to the pudendal nerve is closely related to the pathogenesis of SUI. It has also been found that pelvic ES can reduce SUI symptoms in a rat model of SUI caused by pudendal nerve injury...
March 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Hirokazu Tanaka, J Luis Espinoza, Ryosuke Fujiwara, Shinya Rai, Yasuyoshi Morita, Takashi Ashida, Yuzuru Kanakura, Itaru Matsumura
Iron overload is the accumulation of excess iron in the body that may occur as a result of various genetic disorders or as a consequence of repeated blood transfusions. The surplus iron is then stored in the liver, pancreas, heart and other organs, which may lead to chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, diabetes and heart disease, respectively. In addition, excessive iron may impair hematopoiesis, although the mechanisms of this deleterious effect is not entirely known. In this study, we found that ferrous ammonium sulfate (FeAS), induced growth arrest and apoptosis in immature hematopoietic cells, which was mediated via reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation of p38MAPK and JNK pathways...
March 8, 2019: Cells
Mateusz Michalski, Anna S Świerzko, Sambor Sawicki, Andrzej Kałużyński, Jolanta Łukasiewicz, Anna Maciejewska, Dariusz Wydra, Maciej Cedzyński
BACKGROUND: Ficolin-3 is a pattern-recognition molecule with the ability to activate the lectin pathway of complement. It is found in lung, liver and blood, but its physiological role is unclear. We have investigated interaction of recombinant ficolin-3 with malignant cells and tissues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cells of various lines of human origin as well as ovarian tissue sections have been studied with the use of flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Recombinant (but not serum-derived) ficolin-3 was found to bind strongly to the ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV-3, OVCAR-3 and ES-2, at concentrations of 2...
January 30, 2019: Immunobiology
Marvin N Peter, Athanasia Warnecke, Uta Reich, Heidi Olze, Agnieszka J Szczepek, Thomas Lenarz, Gerrit Paasche
Patients scheduled for cochlear implantation often retain residual hearing in the low frequencies. Unfortunately, some patients lose their residual hearing following implantation and the reasons for this are not well understood. Evidence suggests that electrotoxicity could be one of the factors responsible for this late adverse effect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) subjected to in vitro electrical stimulation (ES). A stimulation setup was developed to provide defined electrical fields at given points of the chamber...
March 7, 2019: Neurotoxicity Research
Amélie Rezza, Christelle Jacquet, Amélie Le Pillouer, Florian Lafarguette, Charlotte Ruptier, Marion Billandon, Patricia Isnard Petit, Séverine Trouttet, Kader Thiam, Alexandre Fraichard, Yacine Chérifi
The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tool enables accessible and efficient modifications which (re)ignited molecular research in certain species. However, targeted integration of large DNA fragments using CRISPR/Cas9 can still be challenging in numerous models. To systematically compare CRISPR/Cas9's efficiency to classical homologous recombination (cHR) for insertion of large DNA fragments, we thoroughly performed and analyzed 221 experiments targeting 128 loci in mouse ES cells. Although both technologies proved efficient, CRISPR/Cas9 yielded significantly more positive clones as detected by overlapping PCRs...
March 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jeong-A Park, Sangkyu Park, Woo-Youn Park, Myung-Kwan Han, Younghee Lee
Background and Objectives: Embryonic stem (ES) cells have pluripotent ability to differentiate into multiple tissue lineages. SIRT1 is a class III histone deacetylase which modulates chromatin remodeling, gene silencing, cell survival, metabolism, and development. In this study, we examined the effects of SIRT1 inhibitors on the hematopoietic differentiation of mouse ES cells. Methods and Results: Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitors, nicotinamide and splitomicin, during the hematopoietic differentiation of ES cells enhanced the production of hematopoietic progenitors and slightly up-regulated erythroid and myeloid specific gene expression...
February 28, 2019: International Journal of Stem Cells
M Rizwan Siddiqui, Suhail Akhtar, Mohd Shahid, Mohammad Tauseef, Kelli McDonough, Thomas P Shanley
Dysfunctional endothelial cell (EC) barrier and increased lung vascular permeability is a cardinal feature of Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and sepsis that may results in a pathophysiological condition characterized by alveolar flooding, pulmonary edema and subsequent hypoxemia. In lung ECs, activation of Rho associated kinase-1 (ROCK1) phosphorylates myosin light chain (MLC) associated phosphatase at its inhibitory site which favors phosphorylation of MLC, stress fiber formation and hyper-permeability during ALI...
February 27, 2019: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Linxi Li, Baiping Mao, Ming Yan, Siwen Wu, Renshan Ge, Qingquan Lian, C Yan Cheng
In the mammalian testes, such as in rats, the directional alignment of polarized elongating/elongated spermatids, in particular step 17-19 spermatids, across the plane of seminiferous epithelium resembles planar cell polarity (PCP) found in hair cells of the cochlea. It is obvious that spermatid PCP is necessary to support the simultaneous development of maximal number of elongating/elongated spermatids to sustain the daily production of > 50 million sperm per adult rat. Studies have shown that the testis indeed expresses multiple PCP proteins necessary to support spermatid PCP...
February 26, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Mingmin Zhou, Nannan Chen, Jingsong Tian, Jianzhi Zeng, Yunpeng Zhang, Xiaofan Zhang, Jing Guo, Jinghan Sun, Yulong Li, Aike Guo, Yan Li
The GABAergic system serves as a vital negative modulator in cognitive functions, such as learning and memory, while the mechanisms governing this inhibitory system remain to be elucidated. In Drosophila , the GABAergic anterior paired lateral (APL) neurons mediate a negative feedback essential for odor discrimination; however, their activity is suppressed by learning via unknown mechanisms. In aversive olfactory learning, a group of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is activated on electric shock (ES) and modulates the Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body, the center of olfactory learning...
February 22, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tatyana Vagner, Andrew Chin, Javier Mariscal, Serguei Bannykh, David Engman, Dolores Di Vizio
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles that are released by virtually all cells from all living organisms. EVs shuttle biologically active cargo including protein, RNA, and DNA between cells. When shed by cancer cells, they function as potent intercellular messangers with important functional consequences. Cells produce a diverse spectrum of EVs, spanning from small vesicles of 40-150 nm in diameter, to large vesicles up to 10 μm in diameter. While this diversity was initially considered to be purely based on size, it is becoming evident that different classes of EVs, and different populations within one EV class may harbor distinct molecular cargo and play specific functions...
February 22, 2019: Proteomics
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