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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879250/the-case-for-the-use-of-patient-and-caregiver-perception-of-change-assessments-in-rare-disease-clinical-trials-a-methodologic-overview
#1
Marielle G Contesse, James E Valentine, Tracy E Wall, Mindy G Leffler
INTRODUCTION: The traditional model of evaluating treatments based primarily on primary outcome measures has stumbled in its application to rare disease. Rare disease clinical trials face the methodological challenges of small, heterogeneous patient populations and relatively few validated, disease-specific outcome measures. Incorporating qualitative research into rare disease clinical trials may help sponsors, regulators, payers, and prescribers to better understand the real-world and patient-specific impact of a potential therapy...
March 16, 2019: Advances in Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879240/utilization-of-the-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-system-to-dissect-neuroinflammatory-and-neuropharmacological-mechanisms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jie Luo, Piyush Padhi, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Gary Zenitsky, Qian Wang, Auriel A Willette, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Chronic and debilitating neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), impose an immense medical, emotional, and economic burden on patients and society. Due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors, the etiology of PD remains elusive. However, the cumulative evidence emerging from clinical and experimental research over the last several decades has identified mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and dysregulated protein degradation as the main drivers of PD neurodegeneration...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879236/divergent-responses-of-bacterial-activity-structure-and-co-occurrence-patterns-to-long-term-unbalanced-fertilization-without-nitrogen-phosphorus-or-potassium-in-a-cultivated-vertisol
#3
Lei Ma, Bingzi Zhao, Zhibin Guo, Daozhong Wang, Dandan Li, Jisheng Xu, Zengqiang Li, Jiabao Zhang
Unbalanced fertilization lacking nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or potassium (K) is a worldwide phenomenon; however, whether they affect bacterial community composition and intraspecific interactions in a similar pattern and how they affect bacterial activity are not systematically compared. Soils under different kinds of unbalanced fertilization in a 21-year field experiment were collected to investigate the variation in dehydrogenase activity (DHA), bacterial community diversity, structure, composition, and possible interactions...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879228/transcutaneous-transmission-of-photobiomodulation-light-to-the-spinal-canal-of-dog-as-measured-from-cadaver-dogs-using-a-multi-channel-intra-spinal-probe
#4
Daqing Piao, Lara A Sypniewski, Danielle Dugat, Christian Bailey, Daniel J Burba, Luis DeTaboada
The target level photobiomodulation (PBM) irradiances along the thoracic to lumbar segment of the interior spinal canal in six cadaver dogs resulting from surface illumination at 980 nm were measured. Following a lateral hemi-laminectomy, a flexible probe fabricated on a plastic tubular substrate of 6.325 mm diameter incorporating nine miniature photodetectors was embedded in the thoracic to lumbar segment of the spinal canal. Intra-spinal irradiances at the nine photodetector sites, spanning an approximate 8 cm length caudal to T13, were measured for various applied powers of continuous wave (CW) surface illumination at 980 nm with a maximal power of 10 W corresponding to a surface irradiance of 3...
March 16, 2019: Lasers in Medical Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879216/the-description-and-definition-of-emergency-department-pharmacist-practitioners-in-the-united-kingdom-the-endpaper-study
#5
D Greenwood, M P Tully, S Martin, D Steinke
Background Due to a shortage of emergency department doctors and nurses, hospitals have started to employ pharmacists who have additional clinical skills, known as Emergency Department Pharmacist Practitioners, to help deliver services. Objective To describe, compare and define the Emergency Department Pharmacist Practitioner role. Setting UK emergency departments. Method Using a purpose developed questionnaire hosted on a tablet computer, Emergency Department Pharmacist Practitioners were asked to report their contribution to patient care and the wider emergency department over 10 work days...
March 16, 2019: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879202/effects-of-nop-related-ligands-in-nonhuman-primates
#6
Norikazu Kiguchi, Mei-Chuan Ko
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor-related ligands have been demonstrated in preclinical studies for several therapeutic applications. This article highlights (1) how nonhuman primates (NHP) were used to facilitate the development and application of positron emission tomography tracers in humans; (2) effects of an endogenous NOP ligand, nociceptin/orphanin FQ, and its interaction with mu opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonists; and (3) promising functional profiles of NOP-related agonists in NHP as analgesics and treatment for substance use disorders...
March 17, 2019: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879148/clinical-assessment-of-the-gnas-mutation-status-in-patients-with-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas
#7
REVIEW
Takao Ohtsuka, Takahiro Tomosugi, Ryuichiro Kimura, So Nakamura, Yoshihiro Miyasaka, Kohei Nakata, Yasuhisa Mori, Makiko Morita, Nobuhiro Torata, Koji Shindo, Kenoki Ohuchida, Masafumi Nakamura
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is characterized by cystic dilation of the pancreatic duct, caused by mucin hypersecretion, with slow progression via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence mechanism. Mutation of GNAS at codon 201 is found exclusively in IPMNs, occurring at a rate of 41-75%. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have demonstrated that GNAS mutation might play a role in the transformation of IPMNs after the appearance of neoplastic cells, rather than in the tumorigenesis of IPMNs...
March 16, 2019: Surgery Today
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879145/positional-orientating-co-immobilization-of-bienzyme-cpo-gox-on-mesoporous-tio-2-thin-film-for-efficient-cascade-reaction
#8
Fengqin Gao, Mancheng Hu, Shuni Li, Quanguo Zhai, Yucheng Jiang
A multitude of industrial processes are catalyzed by two or more enzymes working together in a cascade way. However, designing efficient enzymatic cascade reactions is still a challenge. In this work, a TiO2 thin film with mesoporous pores was prepared and used as carrier for co-immobilization of chloroperoxidase (CPO) and glucose peroxidase (GOx). By adjusting the dosage of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the ratio of the two enzymes, CPO and GOx were well distributed and positional orientated to their own appropriate pores to form an ordered "occupation" based on a "feet in right shoes" effect...
March 16, 2019: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879142/interplay-of-phosphorus-doses-cyanobacterial-inoculation-and-elevated-carbon-dioxide-on-yield-and-phosphorus-dynamics-in-cowpea
#9
Sumit Kumar Dey, B Chakrabarti, T J Purakayastha, Radha Prasanna, R Mittal, S D Singh, H Pathak
Phosphorus (P) demand is likely to increase especially in legumes to harness greater benefits of nitrogen fixation under elevated CO2 condition. In the following study, seed yield and seed P uptake in cowpea increased by 26.8% and 20.9%, respectively, under elevated CO2 level. With an increase in phosphorus dose up to 12 mg kg-1 , seed yield enhanced from 2.6 to 5.4 g plant-1 . P application and cyanobacterial inoculation increased the microbial activity of soil, leading to increased availability of P. Under elevated CO2 condition, microbial activity, measured as dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase activities showed stimulation...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879130/current-accuracy-of-surface-matching-compared-to-adhesive-markers-in-patient-to-image-registration
#10
Mireli A Mongen, Peter W A Willems
OBJECT: In the past, the accuracy of surface matching has been shown to be disappointing. We aimed to determine whether this had improved over the years by assessing application accuracy of current navigation systems, using either surface matching or point-pair matching. METHODS: Eleven patients, scheduled for intracranial surgery, were included in this study after a power analysis had shown this small number to be sufficient. Prior to surgery, one additional fiducial marker was placed on the scalp, the "target marker," where the entry point of surgery was to be expected...
March 16, 2019: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879117/a-mathematical-model-of-dielectrophoretic-data-to-connect-measurements-with-cell-properties
#11
Shannon Huey Hilton, Mark A Hayes
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) brings about the high-resolution separations of cells and other bioparticles arising from very subtle differences in their properties. However, an unanticipated limitation has arisen: difficulty in assignment of specific biological features which vary between two cell populations. This hampers the ability to interpret the significance of the variations. To realize the opportunities made possible by dielectrophoresis, the data and the diversity of structures found in cells and bioparticles must be linked...
March 16, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879114/application-of-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-libs-coupled-with-pca-for-rapid-classification-of-soil-samples-in-geothermal-areas
#12
Sitangshu Chatterjee, Manjeet Singh, Bishnu Prasad Biswal, Uday Kumar Sinha, Suraj Patbhaje, Arnab Sarkar
The Manuguru geothermal area, located in the Telangana state, is one of the least explored geothermal fields in India. In this study, characterization of the soil samples is carried out by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with analytical spectral-dependent principal component analysis. A total of 20 soil samples were collected both from near the thermal discharges as well as away from the thermal manifestations. LIBS spectra were recorded for all the collected soil samples and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to easily identify the emission lines majorly responsible for variety classification of the soil samples...
March 16, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879112/elemental-analysis-and-imaging-of-sunscreen-fingermarks-by-x-ray-fluorescence
#13
Ling-Na Zheng, Rong-Liang Ma, Qian Li, Yuan-Bo Sang, Hai-Long Wang, Bing Wang, Qi-Qi Yan, Dong-Liang Chen, Meng Wang, Wei-Yue Feng, Yu-Liang Zhao
Chemical composition in fingermarks could provide useful information for forensic studies and applications. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of analysis and imaging of fingermarks via elements by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and commercial X-ray fluorescence (XRF). As a proof of concept, we chose four brands of sunscreens to make fingermarks on different substrates, including plastic film, glass, paper, and silicon wafer. We obtained an evident image of fingermarks via zinc and titanium by XRF methods...
March 16, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879097/genome-wide-snp-discovery-for-development-of-high-density-genetic-map-and-qtl-mapping-of-ascochyta-blight-resistance-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l
#14
Amit Deokar, Mandeep Sagi, Bunyamin Tar'an
A high-density linkage map of chickpea using 3430 SNPs was constructed and used to identify QTLs and candidate genes for ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea. Chickpea cultivation in temperate conditions is highly vulnerable to ascochyta blight infection. Cultivation of resistant cultivars in combination with fungicide application within an informed disease management package is the most effective method to control ascochyta blight in chickpeas. Identifying new sources of resistance is critical for continued improvement in ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea...
March 16, 2019: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879090/coupling-ssdna-recombineering-with-crispr-cas9-for-escherichia-coli-dnag-mutations
#15
Jing Li, Jian Sun, Xinyue Gao, Zhixin Wu, Guangdong Shang
Homologous recombination-based recombineering is a widely used DNA cloning and modification technique; recombineering efficiency improvement would be helpful for high-throughput DNA manipulation. Escherichia coli primase DnaG variants, such as DnaG Q576A and DnaG K580A, increase the recombineering efficiency via impairment of the interaction between primase and the replisome and boost the loading of more ssDNA on the replication fork. Bacterial adaptive immunity origin CRISPR-Cas9 is emerging as a powerful genome editing strategy...
March 16, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879086/feasibility-and-normal-ranges-of-arterial-intima-media-thickness-and-stiffness-in-2-year-old-children-a-pilot-study
#16
Bing Zhao, Fay H Johnston, Marita Dalton, Kazuaki Negishi
INTRODUCTION: In adults, noninvasive assessments of vascular function have been established. However, little is known about the applicability and reference values of these techniques among children < 6 years old and none ≤ 2. We aimed to determine the feasibility of conducting noninvasive vascular assessments in 2-year-old children and the normal range of results in this age group. METHODS: Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and abdominal aorta IMT (aaIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), arterial diameter change, stiffness index (β), and distensibility were assessed in 2-year-old children...
March 16, 2019: Pediatric Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879072/mxa-is-a-clinically-applicable-biomarker-for-type-i-interferon-activation-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-systemic-sclerosis
#17
Erika Huijser, Cornelia G van Helden-Meeuwsen, Noortje Groot, Iris L A Bodewes, M Javad Wahadat, Marco W J Schreurs, Paul L A van Daele, Virgil A S H Dalm, Jan A M van Laar, P Martin van Hagen, Matti Waris, Sylvia Kamphuis, Marjan A Versnel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2019: Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879009/copd-rethinking-patient-management-how-to-approach-a-challenging-patient-group-successfully
#18
REVIEW
Berthold H Jany, Robert Bals, Heike Buhr-Schinner, Michael Dreher, A Rembert Koczulla, Luitgard Jany, Andreas Meyer, Winfried Randerath
In comparison to other chronically ill people, patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have many additional difficulties to face and conquer. Due to the contribution of avoidable causes of their illness ("smokers' lung"), society holds people with COPD responsible for their disease, which in return often leads to stigmatization and social isolation. In addition, COPD patients commonly belong to a less privileged social class, own a low socioeconomic status, and lower education...
March 15, 2019: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879007/comparison-between-operative-and-non-operative-treatment-of-the-medial-collateral-ligament-histological-and-ultrastructural-findings-during-early-healing-in-the-epiligament-tissue-in-a-rat-knee-model
#19
Georgi P Georgiev, Georgi Kotov, Alexandar Iliev, Plamen Kinov, Jordanka Angelova, Boycho Landzhov
The medial collateral ligament of the knee joint is one of the most commonly injured ligaments of the knee. Recent data have shown that the thin layer of connective tissue covering the ligament, known as the epiligament, is essential for its nutrition and normal function, as well as its healing after injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the changes in the epiligament of the medial collateral ligament which occurred during operative and non-operative treatment throughout the first month after injury...
March 15, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878993/healthy-migrant-effect-in-the-swedish-context-a-register-based-longitudinal-cohort-study
#20
Magnus Helgesson, Bo Johansson, Tobias Nordquist, Eva Vingård, Magnus Svartengren
OBJECTIVES: Studies have found a 'healthy-migrant effect' (HME) among arriving migrants, that is, a better health status compared with others in the home country, but also in comparison with the population in the host country. The aims were to investigate whether the HME hypothesis is applicable to the Swedish context, that is, if health outcomes differed between a group of mainly labour migrants (Western migrants) and a group of mainly refugee/family reunion migrants (non-Western migrants) compared with the native Swedish population, and if there were any correlations between labour market attachment (LMA) and these health outcomes...
March 15, 2019: BMJ Open
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