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Grace Yim, Wenliang Wang, Andrew C Pawlowski, Gerard D Wright
Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) include clinically important drugs used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram positive pathogens. These antibiotics are specialized metabolites produced by several genera of actinomycetes bacteria. While many GPAs are highly chemically modified, A47934 is a relatively unadorned GPA lacking sugar or acyl modifications, common to other members of the class, but which is chlorinated at three distinct sites. The biosynthesis of A47934 is encoded by a 68 kb gene cluster in Streptomyces toyocaensis NRRL 15009...
October 1, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Selim Mosbahi, Dushaj Stak, Isaac Gravestock, Jakob M Burgstaller, Johann Steurer, Friedrich Eckstein, Enrico Ferrari, Denis A Berdajs
This systemic review of the literature and meta-analysis examined the current state of the evidence in long-term outcomes for and/or against aortic valve reimplantation (RAV) versus composite valve graft (CVG) intervention in patients with an acute type A dissection. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the baseline characteristics of patients across studies. A random-effects metaregression was performed across study arms with logit-transformed proportions weighted by the study size for each of these outcomes...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Jakob M Burgstaller, Ulrike Held, Selim Mosbahi, Dushaj Stak, Johann Steurer, Friedrich Eckstein, Denis A Berdajs
This systemic review of the literature and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the current state of the evidence for and against reimplantation of the aortic valve (RAV) versus the composite valve graft (CVG) intervention in patients with Marfan syndrome. Random effects meta-regression was performed across the study arms with logit-transformed proportions of in-hospital deaths as an outcome measure when possible. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P-values. Other outcomes are summarized with medians, interquartile ranges (IQR) and ranges and the numbers of patients at risk...
September 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Helen Quirk, Cris Glazebrook, Holly Blake
BACKGROUND: This study describes the development and feasibility evaluation of a physical activity intervention for children with type 1 diabetes called 'Steps to Active Kids with Diabetes' (STAK-D). It aims to explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and study design. METHODS: Thirteen children aged 9-11 years and their parents were recruited from one paediatric diabetes clinic. A process evaluation was conducted alongside a two-arm randomised feasibility trial, including assessment of rate of recruitment, adherence, retention, data completion and burden, implementation fidelity and adverse events...
February 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Rafael Augusto Castro Santiago Brandão, Warley Carvalho da Silva Martins, Aluízio Augusto Arantes, Sebastião Nataniel Silva Gusmão, Gilles Perrin, Cédric Barrey
BACKGROUND: Titanium and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants have been used in spinal surgery with low rejection rates. Compared to titanium, PEEK has many advantages, including a density more similar to that of bone, radiolucency, and a lack of artifacts in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of PEEK cages as an alternative to titanium for bone fusion after fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. We also propose a classification to the impaction index...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
Xuesong Guo, Naim Kapucu
Disaster resettlement, as a mitigation and preparedness measure, entails significant economic, physical, and social impacts, which continue to challenge understanding of recovery from major events, especially regarding the extent of the context and environmental efforts to rebuild livelihoods. Based on a case study of Qinling Mountains, China, this research investigates the effects of disaster resettlement from a livelihoods perspective. Methodologically, it proposes a framework that combines the pressure-state-response framework and the sustainable livelihoods approach, and it employs a structural equation model to examine how specific factors affect disaster resettlement...
April 2018: Disasters
Rajat Khosla, Joya Banerjee, Doris Chou, Lale Say, Susana T Fried
Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF...
May 12, 2017: Reproductive Health
Tabata P Cardoso, Larissa A de Sá, Priscila Dos S Bury, Sair M Chavez-Pacheco, Marcio V B Dias
Glycopeptides are an important class of antibiotics used in the treatment of several infections, including those caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptides are biosynthesized by a Non Ribosomal Peptide Synthase (NRPS) and the resulting peptide precursors are decorated by several tailoring enzymes, such as halogenases and glycosyltransferases. These enzymes are important targets of protein engineering to produce new derivatives of known antibiotics. Herein we show the production of two putative halogenases, denominated StaI and StaK, involved in the biosynthesis of the glycopeptide A47,934 in Streptomyces toyocaensis NRRL 15,009...
April 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Holly Blake, Helen Quirk, Paul Leighton, Tabitha Randell, James Greening, Boliang Guo, Cris Glazebrook
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has important health benefits for children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), yet children and their parents face barriers to participation such as lack of self-efficacy or concerns around hypoglycaemia. Multimedia interventions are useful for educating children about their health and demonstrate potential to improve children's health-related self-efficacy, but few paediatric clinics offer web-based resources as part of routine care. The Steps to Active Kids with Diabetes (STAK-D) programme is an online intervention grounded in psychological theory (social cognitive theory) and informed by extensive preliminary research...
December 8, 2016: Trials
Brandon R Peterson, Tom C DeRoche, Aaron R Huber, William W Shields
The use of dietary supplements (DS) is common in the active duty population, often without physician knowledge or approval. DS have been associated with drug-induced liver injury, with rare cases resulting in liver failure or death. We report five cases of transient drug-induced liver injury temporally associated with the use of a total of six DS in active duty service members. All patients presented with elevated serum bilirubin and liver-associated enzymes: three patients had a cholestatic liver enzyme pattern, one had a hepatocellular pattern, and one had a mixed pattern...
October 2013: Military Medicine
Lorna McWilliams, Kapil Sayal, Cris Glazebrook
OBJECTIVE: There is a link between the symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and overweight in children. Less is known about the factors which might influence this relationship, such as physical and sedentary activity levels or exercise self-efficacy. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between the symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and risk factors for adult obesity in a sample of children with barriers to exercise. DESIGN: Children aged 9-11 years were recruited from 24 primary schools that participated in the Steps to Active Kids (STAK) physical activity intervention study...
2013: BMJ Open
Cris Glazebrook, Martin J Batty, Nivette Mullan, Ian Macdonald, Dilip Nathan, Kapil Sayal, Alan Smyth, Min Yang, Boliang Guo, Chris Hollis
BACKGROUND: Low levels of physical activity in children have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, but many children lack confidence in relation to exercise (exercise self-efficacy). Factors which can impact on confidence include a chronic health condition such as asthma, poor motor skills and being overweight. Increasing levels of physical activity have obvious benefits for children with asthma and children who are overweight, but few activity interventions with children specifically target children with low exercise self-efficacy (ESE)...
2011: BMC Public Health
Richard Bergholz, Thomas Staks, Klaus Rüther
BACKGROUND: ZK 200775 is an antagonist at the alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor and had earned attention as a possible neuroprotective agent in cerebral ischemia. Probands receiving the agent within phase I trials reported on an alteration of visual perception. In this trial, the effects of ZK 200775 on the visual system were analyzed in detail. METHODOLOGY: In a randomised controlled trial we examined eyes and vision before and after the intravenous administration of two different doses of ZK 200775 and placebo...
August 12, 2010: PloS One
Rahul K Dhanda, Philip R Reilly
Newborn screening raises many ethical and legal concerns, from the bioethics issues commonly faced with genetic testing and the practice of informed consent to the classical medical ethics questions that surround resource allocation. This mandatory, state-based healthcare intervention has not met with the resistance that one might have anticipated, yet it is still not integrated into society to its full potential. While there is room for newborn screening programs to improve on the technical, ethical, and legal fronts, this should not discourage policymakers, physicians, scientists, and other stak-holders from learning from the successful aspects of its implementation and applying these lessons to other, related technologies...
August 2003: Pediatric Annals
Hiroyasu Onaka, Shin-ichi Taniguchi, Yasuhiro Igarashi, Tamotsu Furumai
Staurosporine is a representative member of indolocarbazole antibiotics. The entire staurosporine biosynthetic and regulatory gene cluster spanning 20-kb was cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274 and sequenced. The gene cluster consists of 14 ORFs and the amino acid sequence homology search revealed that it contains three genes, staO, staD, and staP, coding for the enzymes involved in the indolocarbazole aglycone biosynthesis, two genes, staG and staN, for the bond formation between the aglycone and deoxysugar, eight genes, staA, staB, staE, staJ, staI, staK, staMA, and staMB, for the deoxysugar biosynthesis and one gene, staR is a transcriptional regulator...
December 2002: Journal of Antibiotics
R Schlief, T Staks, M Mahler, M Rufer, T Fritzsch, W Seifert
A new monosaccharide microparticle based echocardiographic contrast agent (SH U 508) was injected intravenously into five healthy male volunteers following which the heart was imaged in an apical four-chamber view. Volumes of 2, 4, 8, and 16 mL of SH U 508 were incrementally injected into each volunteer. Concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg microparticles per mL of suspension were used in five successive examinations. Left heart opacification of diagnostic value was obtained during the whole cardiac cycle with concentrations of 300 and 400 mg/mL...
January 1990: Echocardiography
C Günther, A Kecskes, T Staks, U Täuber
Six healthy, elderly volunteers received three topical treatments with Advantan lotion containing 0.1% of methylprednisolone aceponate (MPA, CAS 86401-95-8) on intact, inflamed and stripped skin in a consecutive fashion at weekly intervals. The lotion (O/W emulsion) containing 14C-MPA (specific radioactivity 1.8 MBq/mg MPA) was applied in an area dose of 5 mg lotion/cm2 on a marked area of 100 cm2 on the back for 24 h. Inflammation was caused by UV-B irradiation at 3 MED 6 h prior to the treatment with the test preparation...
January 1998: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology
M Bollow, M Taupitz, B Hamm, T Staks, K J Wolf, H J Weinmann
The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of contrast enhancement in bile ducts and the gallbladder (GB) after injection of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-DTPA (Gd-EOB-DTPA). In a clinical phase-I study, MR imaging at 1.5T was performed in 16 healthy volunteers with four different doses of Gd-EOB-DTPA (10, 25, 50, and 100 micro;mol/kg b. w., four volunteers per dosage). The study protocol comprised a heavily T1-weighted fast multiplanar gradient-echo (GE) sequence before and at increasing intervals for up to 360 min after injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA...
1997: European Radiology
W Kuhnz, A Baumann, T Staks, L Dibbelt, R Knuppen, G Jütting
The pharmacokinetics of gestodene (GEST) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined in 14 healthy women (age 18 to 32 years) during a treatment period of three months with a new tri-step combination oral contraceptive (Milvane). Prior to this treatment period, the same women received a single administration of a coated tablet containing 0.1 mg GEST together with 0.03 mg EE2. There was a wash-out phase of one week between both treatments. Following single dose administration, a mean terminal half-life of 18 h was observed for GEST...
October 1993: Contraception
W Kuhnz, T Staks, G Jütting
The pharmacokinetics of cyproterone acetate (CPA) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined in 15 healthy women (age 19 to 34 years), following single dose administration of a combination oral contraceptive, containing 2.0 mg CPA together with 0.035 mg EE2 (Diane-35R). After a wash-out period of one week, the same preparation was administered during a treatment period of three months. After single dose administration, maximum concentrations of CPA in the serum were 15.2 +/- 6.6 ng/ml. Post maximum drug levels declined biphasically with half-lives of 0...
December 1993: Contraception
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