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D Pollard, C E Wylie, K L P Verheyen, J R Newton
BACKGROUND: Equine laminitis is a complex disease that manifests as pain and lameness in the feet, often with debilitating consequences. There is a paucity of data that accounts for the multifactorial nature of laminitis and considers time-varying covariates that may be associated with disease development; particularly those that are modifiable and present potential interventions. A previous case-control study identified a number of novel, modifiable factors associated with laminitis which warranted further investigation and corroboration...
February 12, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Maria Melchert, Christine Aurich, Jörg Aurich, Camille Gautier, Christina Nagel
Mares usually give birth when they perceive their environment as safe and therefore disturbance at foaling may inhibit labor. In this study, foaling mares were transferred to an unfamiliar environment at rupture of the allantochorion (stress, n = 6) or were left undisturbed (control, n = 5). The progress of foaling, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma catecholamine, oxytocin and cortisol concentration were determined. In stressed mares, time from rupture of the allantochorion to appearance of the fetal feet (5...
February 4, 2019: Theriogenology
Ulrike Auer, J Peter Schramel, Yves P Moens, Martina Mosing, Christina H Braun
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the distribution in pulmonary ventilation in anaesthetized ponies using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A group of eight adult pony geldings. METHODS: General anaesthesia was induced and maintained using isoflurane in oxygen with volume-controlled ventilation [tidal volume (VT ) (10 mL kg-1 ), respiratory rate (8-12 breaths minute-1 )] to maintain end-tidal carbon dioxide between 35 and 40 mmHg (4...
October 28, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Melody A de Laat, Martin N Sillence, Dania B Reiche
BACKGROUND: Equine endocrinopathic laminitis is common and can be associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), pasture consumption, or any combination of these factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to improve the risk assessment capabilities of clinicians, and to inform management strategies, for acute endocrinopathic laminitis by prospectively examining the phenotypic, hormonal, and clinical characteristics of the disease in a large cohort...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Elaine M Norton, Felipe Avila, Nichol E Schultz, James R Mickelson, Ray J Geor, Molly E McCue
BACKGROUND: Ponies are highly susceptible to metabolic derangements including hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and adiposity. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Genetic loci affecting height in ponies have pleiotropic effects on metabolic pathways and increase the susceptibility to equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). ANIMALS: Two hundred ninety-four Welsh ponies and 529 horses. METHODS: Retrospective study of horses phenotyped for metabolic traits...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
M A Hannan, Shingo Haneda, Yasuyuki Itami, Sohei Wachi, Tomoko Saitoh, Soon Hon Cheong, Yasuo Nambo
There has been no report of equine embryo transfer in Japan for the last 24 years. Our objective was to establish an effective protocol for embryo transfer in domestic horse. A Hokkaido native pony was bred by deep-horn artificial insemination with frozen semen from a Connemara pony. Embryo collection was performed using a non-surgical method on day 7. Two embryos were obtained from three flushes (67% recovery) and were transferred fresh into crossbred recipient mares. Both recipient mares were diagnosed pregnant (100% pregnancy rate) 5 days after embryo transfer and had normal progesterone levels until the end of the observation on day 35 of gestation...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Philippa K Morrison, Charles J Newbold, Eleanor Jones, Hilary J Worgan, Dai H Grove-White, Alexandra H Dugdale, Clare Barfoot, Patricia A Harris, Caroline McG Argo
Gastrointestinal microbial communities are increasingly being implicated in host susceptibilities to nutritional/metabolic diseases; such conditions are more prevalent in obese and/or older horses. This controlled study evaluated associations between host-phenotype and the fecal microbiome / metabolome. Thirty-five, Welsh Mountain pony mares were studied across 2 years (Controls, n = 6/year, 5-15 years, Body Condition Score (BCS) 4.5-6/9; Obese, n = 6/year, 5-15 years, BCS > 7/9; Aged, n = 6 Year 1; n = 5 Year 2, ≥19 years old)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah A Andres, Adrienne M Bushau-Sprinkle, Michael E Brier, Yvette R Seger
Objectives: To investigate the risk reduction and benefit of wearing body protection/safety vests in equestrian sports. Methods: A comparison of equestrians wearing body protective vests and those not wearing vests was performed using incident report data of 718 participants in the United States Pony Clubs during 2011-2017. Data obtained included age, gender, certification level of member, type of activity, description of incident, description of injuries, what protective equipment was worn and other possible contributing factors...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
D Zare, H Fazeli
BACKGROUND: Hospital-associated infections, recently renamed Healthcare-associated infections, are among the most common life-threatening complications of hospitalized patients, especially the immunocompromised patients. Regarding the significant role of Enterobacteriaceae in nosocomial infections and also the increasing trends of carbapenem-resistant strains, the present study aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern and the occurrence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) in Enterobacteriaceae strains from Iranian cancer patients...
January 2019: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Irene Cincera, Tommaso Frioni, Virginia Ughini, Stefano Poni, Daniela Farinelli, Sergio Tombesi
Stomatal conductance is regulated by many factors such as air vapour pressure deficit (D), which can be the pivotal one affecting leaf gas exchange in species particularly sensitive to D such as C. avellana. The aim of this work was to evaluate stomatal sensibility to D and to determine correlations with hydraulics characteristics of leaves in three genotypes of C. avellana selected over centuries under different climatic conditions in the Italian peninsula. Among the three varieties Tonda Gentile delle Langhe (TGL), which was the one coming from northern Italy suffered the largest stomatal limitation at increasing levels of D in comparison with the other two cultivars [Tonda Romana (TR) and Tonda di Giffoni (TG), selected in central and southern Italy, respectively]...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
C J Joonè, M L Schulman, G T Fosgate, T A Plagis, J E Crafford, S K Gupta, H J Bertschinger
Few studies have investigated the cell mediated immune response during zona pellucida-based immunocontraception, despite hypothesized cytotoxic T-cell involvement in ovarian dysfunction associated with these vaccines. This study aimed to investigate antigen-specific anamnestic responses of helper (CD4+ ) and cytotoxic (CD8+ ) T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from pony mares before and after their treatment with native porcine zona pellucida (pZP), recombinant pZP3 and pZP4 antigens (reZP) or adjuvanted saline...
December 5, 2018: Theriogenology
Eva Zahradnik, Bente Janssen-Weets, Ingrid Sander, Benjamin Kendzia, Wolfgang Mitlehner, Caroline May, Monika Raulf
BACKGROUND: Exposure to horses can cause severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. The breed, American Bashkir Curly Horse is categorized as hypoallergenic, primarily due to reports of allergic patients experiencing fewer symptoms while handling this special breed. The possible reasons for this phenomenon could be lower allergen production and/or reduced allergen release into the air because of increased sebum content in their skin and hair compared to other breeds. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare different horse breeds in relation to allergen content in hair and airborne dust samples...
2018: PloS One
Falk Melzer, Astrid Raßbach, Astrid Köenig-Mozes, Mandy Carolina Elschner, Herbert Tomaso, Anne Busch
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis strain 210217RC10635, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the genus Taylorella and the order Burkholderiales. Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM). The strain reported here was isolated in 2017 from a German stallion.
September 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
V Jagannathan, V Gerber, S Rieder, J Tetens, G Thaller, C Drögemüller, T Leeb
Whole-genome sequencing studies are vital to gain a thorough understanding of genomic variation. Here, we summarize the results of a whole-genome sequencing study comprising 88 horses and ponies from diverse breeds at 19.1× average coverage. The paired-end reads were mapped to the current EquCab3.0 horse reference genome assembly, and we identified approximately 23.5 million single nucleotide variants and 2.3 million short indel variants. Our dataset included at least 7 million variants that were not previously reported...
December 7, 2018: Animal Genetics
D Pollard, C E Wylie, J R Newton, K L P Verheyen
BACKGROUND: Previous robust epidemiological studies of equine laminitis have utilised only veterinary-diagnosed episodes of disease, potentially underestimating true disease frequency. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of, and describe clinical signs associated with, owner-reported active laminitis in horses/ponies, using both veterinary-diagnosed and non-veterinary-diagnosed episodes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. METHODS: Data were collected from horse/pony owners in Great Britain between August 2014 and December 2016 using a web-based application...
December 5, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Gijsbert Wieringa
The 20th century digital revolution has already seen the introduction of faster, more diverse, easier to use technologies with extended capacity and capability that has enhanced productivity in Laboratory Medicine and allowed more effective use of human resource. With increasing demands for better health and best care the challenge to future healthcare systems is to deploy technology, facilities and human resources more effectively. For the 21st century the digital age heralds opportunities for information-led technology providers to become healthcare providers when algorithm driven care can support patients' needs at the point of care close to or in their homes...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Danielle M Fitzgerald, Donald M Walsh, Martin N Sillence, Christopher C Pollitt, Melody A de Laat
BACKGROUND: Supraphysiological insulin and incretin responses to a cereal-based diet have been described in horses and ponies with insulin dysregulation (ID). However, the hormonal responses to grazing have not yet been described. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a difference in the insulin and incretin responses to grazing pasture between insulin-dysregulated and healthy ponies. ANIMALS: A cohort of 16 ponies comprising 5 with normal insulin regulation (NIR), 6 with moderate ID (MID), and 5 with severe ID (SID)...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Laurent Hébert, Edouard Guitton, Anthony Madeline, Tristan Géraud, Stéphan Zientara, Claire Laugier, Aymeric Hans, Philippe Büscher, Julien Cauchard, Sandrine Petry
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of melarsomine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan® ) to cure horses suffering from a nervous form of dourine, a sexually-transmitted disease caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. The recently described experimental model for assessing drug efficacy against horse trypanosomosis allowed us to obtain eight horses (Welsh pony mares) infected by T. equiperdum with parasites in their cerebrospinal fluid. The Cymelarsan® treatment evaluated consisted of the daily administration of 0...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
E M Norton, N E Schultz, A K Rendahl, R J Geor, J R Mickelson, M E McCue
BACKGROUND: Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is a complex clinical disorder with both environmental and genetic factors contributing to EMS phenotypes. Estimates of heritability determine the proportion of variation in a trait that is attributable to genetics. OBJECTIVES: To provide heritability estimates for nine metabolic traits associated with EMS in two high-risk breeds. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data was used to estimate the heritability (h2 SNP ) of nine metabolic traits relevant to EMS in a cohort of 264 Welsh ponies and 286 Morgan horses...
November 25, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Rachael E Antwis, Jessica M D Lea, Bryony Unwin, Susanne Shultz
BACKGROUND: Microbiome composition is linked to host functional traits including metabolism and immune function. Drivers of microbiome composition are increasingly well-characterised; however, evidence of group-level microbiome convergence is limited and may represent a multi-level trait (i.e. across individuals and groups), whereby heritable phenotypes are influenced by social interactions. Here, we investigate the influence of spatial structuring and social interactions on the gut microbiome composition of Welsh mountain ponies...
November 22, 2018: Microbiome
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