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João B V Campos, Marcos R André, Luiz R Gonçalves, Carla R Freschi, Filipe M Santos, Carina E de Oliveira, Eliane M Piranda, Gisele B de Andrade, Gabriel C Macedo, Rosangela Z Machado, Heitor M Herrera
Brazilian Pantanal is the world´s largest wetland ecosystem, where cattle's ranching is the most important economic activity. The objective of this study was to compile some epidemiological features on equine piroplasmids from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal wetland through the evaluation of the patterns of T. equi and B. caballi infections in different groups of horses; identification of the tick species that infest horses; and to study phylogenetic relationships among Theileria equi 18S rRNA gene sequences...
March 8, 2019: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Vladimir Urubschurov, Christina Stroebel, Elena Günther, Kristin Romanowski, Kirsten Büsing, Annette Zeyner
Effects of probiotics on the intestinal microbiota of foals are yet insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (DSM 7133) and Enterococcus faecium (DSM 7134) influences the bacterial composition of the faecal microbiota of foals. A total of 34 newborn foals were randomly assigned to the placebo group (PG, n = 16) and the treatment group (TG, n = 18). From day 1 to day 14 of life, foals orally received 3 ml of either a probiotic preparation (1...
March 10, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Anna Margareta Bohlin, Susanne Nautrup Olsen, Sigrid Hyldahl Laursen, Anna Öhman, Gaby van Galen
BACKGROUND: Lawsonia intracellularis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, causes equine proliferative enteropathy, mainly in horses around weaning. This disease is rarely reported in the Scandinavian countries. RESULTS: Five cases of equine proliferative enteropathy were diagnosed between 2008-2016 at the University of Copenhagen Large Animal Teaching Hospital. Cases were Danish Warmbloods and a Friesian horse, aged 6-7 months, presenting with typical clinical signs of lethargy, poor body condition, pyrexia and diarrhea...
March 8, 2019: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Teela Jones, José L Bracamonte, Barbara Ambros, Tanya Duke-Novakovski
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of anesthesia induced with alfaxalone and maintained with alfaxalone, dexmedetomidine and remifentanil infusions in foals. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. ANIMALS: A group of six healthy foals [median (range) 11 (8-33) days] undergoing abdominal surgery. METHODS: Intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine (3-7μgkg-1 ) provided sedation for insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter...
January 22, 2019: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
M Malinska, Z Havlicek, E Koru, P Rezac
Little is known about factors influencing gestation length in heavier types of horses. The objective was to assess the effects of the weight and age of mares, weight and sex of foals, lactation, month and year of conception, month of foaling, stallion and mare on gestation length in the endangered Old Kladruber breed that once served as a heavy coach horse for ceremonies of the Imperial Court in Vienna. The study was performed at the stud farm Slatinany, Czech Republic and reports data from foaling seasons between 2001 and 2018...
February 20, 2019: Theriogenology
J Boere, C H A van de Lest, J C de Grauw, S G M Plomp, S F W M Libregts, G J A Arkesteijn, J Malda, M H M Wauben, P R van Weeren
Extracellular vesicle (EV) concentration, characteristics and function in equine synovial fluid (SF) during normal growth and development has not previously been studied. Isolation of EVs was performed in SF from three healthy foals and two adult horses by differential ultracentrifugation (10,000g and 200,000g); EVs were purified by sucrose density gradient floatation and analysed by high-resolution flow cytometry (FCM), buoyant density and western blotting. Additionally, repeated biomarker analysis of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAG), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide type II collagen (CTX-II), collagenase cleaved neopeptide type II collagen (C2C) was performed in SF from 10 foals and six adult horses...
February 2019: Veterinary Journal
Yatta Linhares Boakari, Maria Augusta Alonso, Amanda Vallone Riccio, Claudia Barbosa Fernandes
In equine management, it is important to predict the approximate foaling date of mares to monitor parturition and allow early identification and intervention of problems during the perinatal period. There are no studies comparing accurate gestational length (GL) when mares are carrying mule foals and no controlled comparisons between GL of mares pregnant with equine or mule foals. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare GL of mares pregnant with equine or mule foals and establish normal reference values for GL of mares pregnant with male and female mules...
February 27, 2019: Reproduction in Domestic Animals
Jörg Aurich, Martin Köhne, Manuela Wulf, Christina Nagel, Elisabeth Beythien, Camille Gautier, Jürgen Zentek, Christine Aurich
The importance of the amino acid L-arginine (ARG) for conceptus growth and litter size has been demonstrated in various species. L-arginine is part of embryo-derived polyamines, a substrate for nitric oxide synthase and stimulates protein synthesis by the embryo. In the present study, we have investigated if dietary L-arginine supplementation stimulates early conceptus growth in mares. Warmblood mares with singleton pregnancies received either an arginine-supplemented diet (approximately 0.0125% of body weight, n=12) or a control diet (n=11) from days 15 to 45 after ovulation...
February 27, 2019: Reproduction in Domestic Animals
J M Kouba, T A Burns, S K Webel
The effects of dietary marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (FA) on mare milk and mare and foal plasma FA, postpartum ovarian follicular growth and prostaglandin concentrations were evaluated. Sixty days prior to expected foaling dates, mares were assigned to one of three diets: corn oil (CORN, n = 6), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet (D; 12.64 g/d, n = 7), or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (ED; 8.84 g EPA, 10.43 g DHA/d, n = 7). Milk and plasma were collected for FA analysis. Follicular data were recorded through the first postpartum ovulation...
February 13, 2019: Animal Reproduction Science
Soon Hon Cheong, Juan M Castillo Herrera, Jenna C Dockweiler, Callum G Donnelly, Jennifer L Sones, Robyn E Ellerbrock, Sonya M Lawlis, Robert O Gilbert, Mariana Diel de Amorim
Augmentation of parturition can be used to advance labor in mares to occur at a time when personnel is available to assist if necessary. We performed a retrospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of augmentation to manage foalings. Augmentation was performed with 3 IU oxytocin i.v. when mammary calcium concentrations were ≥250 ppm, mammary secretion pH ≤ 6.5, and the mare showed impending signs of parturition. Augmented parturitions (n = 19) were compared with three different control groups...
March 2019: Animal Reproduction Science
Eva Kammergruber, Carolin Rahn, Barbara Nell, Simone Gabner, Monika Egerbacher
OBJECTIVE: The morphology of the corneal epithelium in two age groups of horses is described. Distribution patterns of proliferation-, differentiation-, stem cell-associated markers and cell junction proteins were assessed. METHODS: Corneal samples from 12 horses (six foals and six adult horses) were analyzed after H&E staining and immunohistochemistry using the following antibodies: E-cadherin, β-catenin, Connexin 43 (Cx43), tight junction protein 1 (TJP1), cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK 19, CK 3, CK 10, vimentin, Ki67, p63, nerve growth factor (NGF), ABCG2, and epithelial growth factor receptor...
February 14, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Candice Sant, Orchid M Allicock, Roger d'Abadie, Roxanne Albertha Charles, Karla Georges
The agents of equine piroplasmosis, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, are endemic in Trinidad, West Indies. While transmission is mainly by ixodid ticks, transplacental transmission of T. equi has also been reported. This disease has contributed to foetal losses as well as morbidity and mortality of neonatal foals and adult horses. Previous 18S rRNA-based phylogenetic studies indicated a noticeable degree of variation within and among B. caballi and T. equi isolates from different geographical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T...
February 13, 2019: Parasitology Research
Maria Melchert, Christine Aurich, Jörg Aurich, Camille Gautier, Christina Nagel
Mares usually give birth when they perceive their environment as safe and therefore disturbance at foaling may inhibit labor. In this study, foaling mares were transferred to an unfamiliar environment at rupture of the allantochorion (stress, n = 6) or were left undisturbed (control, n = 5). The progress of foaling, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma catecholamine, oxytocin and cortisol concentration were determined. In stressed mares, time from rupture of the allantochorion to appearance of the fetal feet (5...
February 4, 2019: Theriogenology
Federica Savini, Laura Gallina, Francesca Mazza, Jole Mariella, Carolina Castagnetti, Alessandra Scagliarini
Despite the characteristic species specificity of Papillomaviruses (PVs), the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1, 2, and-more rarely-13, can cross-infect equids, where they are involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoid neoplasms. Sarcoids are locally invasive fibroblastic skin tumors that represent the most common skin neoplasms in horses worldwide. The transmission mechanism of BPV is still controversial in horses. Thus far, direct and indirect routes have been implicated, while vertical transmission has been suggested after the detection of viral DNA in the semen of healthy stallions...
February 6, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Iciar Tarancón, Marta Leiva, Eduard Jose-Cunilleras, José Ríos, Teresa Peña
OBJECTIVE: To describe ocular findings associated with Rhodococcus equi bronchopneumonia in foals, and to determine whether severity of the ocular lesions is related with outcome. ANIMALS STUDIED: Foals diagnosed with R equi infection at the VTH-UAB from January 2002 to December 2017. PROCEDURE: Rhodococcus equi infection was diagnosed by means of clinical signs, radiographic/ultrasonographic findings, and/or positive culture. In all the foals, a complete ophthalmic examination by a boarded ophthalmologist was performed and ocular signs were recorded and graded (0-4)...
January 31, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Jan Pluháček, Vladimíra Tučková, Sarah R B King, Radka Šárová
Overmarking occurs when one individual places its scent mark directly on top of the scent mark of another individual. Although it is almost ubiquitous among terrestrial mammals, we know little about the function of overmarking. In addition, almost all studies on mammalian overmarking behaviour dealt with adult individuals. Reports on this behaviour in juveniles are extremely rare, yet may elucidate the function of this behaviour. We tested four mutually non-exclusive hypotheses which might explain this behaviour in juveniles: (1) conceal the individual's scent identity, (2) announcement of association with other group members, especially the mother-i...
January 30, 2019: Animal Cognition
Joana N Rocha, Lawrence J Dangott, Waithaka Mwangi, Robert C Alaniz, Angela I Bordin, Colette Cywes-Bentley, Sara D Lawhon, Suresh D Pillai, Jocelyne M Bray, Gerald B Pier, Noah D Cohen
Prescottella equi (formerly Rhodococcus equi) is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes severe pneumonia in foals 1-6 months of age, whereas adult horses are highly resistant to infection. We have shown that vaccinating pregnant mares against the conserved surface polysaccharide capsule, β-1 → 6-linked poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG), elicits opsonic killing antibody that transfers via colostrum to foals and protects them against experimental infection with virulent. R. equi. We hypothesized that equine IgG1 might be more important than IgG4/7 for mediating protection against R...
January 25, 2019: Vaccine
Jennifer M Willingham-Lane, Londa J Berghaus, Roy D Berghaus, Kelsey A Hart, Steeve Giguère
Rhodococcus equi is a leading cause of severe pneumonia in foals. Standard treatment is dual antimicrobial therapy with a macrolide and rifampin, but the emergence of macrolide- and rifampin-resistant R. equi isolates is an increasing problem. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of macrolide and/or rifampin resistance on fitness of R. equi Three unique isogenic sets were created, each consisting of four R. equi strains: a susceptible parent isolate, strains resistant to macrolides or rifampin, and a dual macrolide- and rifampin-resistant strain...
January 25, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ann M Derham, Jessica P Johnson, Clodagh M Kearney, John M O'Leary
This case report demonstrates the use of a 10-hole 2.7-mm locking compression plate (LCP) to repair a depressed, comminuted fracture of the zygomatic process of the frontal bone, in a foal. LCP fixation resulted in excellent cosmesis. The use of LCP fixation in this region has not been previously described.
January 2019: Clinical Case Reports
T J Divers, Y-F Chang, N L Irby, J L Smith, C N Carter
North American horses are commonly exposed to Leptospira organisms. Leptospira Bratislava is the most common infecting serovar but this serovar has not been confirmed to cause clinical disease in North American horses. Leptospira Pomona type kennewicki is responsible for most of the clinical diseases (leptospirosis) in North American horses. Leptospirosis is most commonly associated with diseases of the placenta and fetus, the kidneys and the eyes in horses. In-utero infections in pregnant mares may result in abortion, neonatal illness or birth of an antibody positive healthy foal...
January 10, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
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