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Zuzana Lukacova, Renata Svubova, Simona Janikovicova, Zuzana Volajova, Alexander Lux
The effect of silicon (Si) on tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) development and dodder (Cuscuta europaea) - tobacco interaction were studied. Three Si application approaches were tested: tobacco seed priming (2.5 mM Si and 5 mM Si; 2.5S, 5S), watering tobacco plants with Si solution (2.5 mM Si and 5 mM Si; 2.5W, 5W) and foliar application (1 mM Si and 2.5 mM Si; 1F, 2.5F). Dodder was not able to infect the host plant in almost all Si treatments. Only in the control and 2.5W treatments was dodder able to infect its host...
March 8, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Alicja M Górska, Paulo Gouveia, Ana Rita Borba, Anna Zimmermann, Tânia S Serra, Tiago F Lourenço, M Margarida Oliveira, Christoph Peterhänsel, Nelson J M Saibo
Compartmentation of photosynthetic reactions between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells is a key feature of C4 photosynthesis and depends on the cell-specific accumulation of major C4 enzymes, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1. The ZmPEPC1 upstream region, which drives light-inducible and mesophyll-specific gene expression in maize, has been shown to keep the same properties when introduced into rice (C3 plant), indicating that rice has the transcription factors needed to confer C4 -like gene expression...
March 22, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Halina Falfushynska, Lesya Gnatyshyna, Oksana Horyn, Arkadii Shulgai, Oksana Stoliar
Global decline of amphibian populations causes particular concern about their vulnerability to novel environmental pollutants, including engineering nanomaterials and pharmaceutical products. We evaluated the bioavailability of nanoform of zinc oxide (n-ZnO) in frog Pelophylax ridibundus and determined whether co-exposure to a common pharmaceutical, a calcium-channel blocker nifedipine (Nfd) can affect this bioavailability. Male frogs were exposed for 14 days to the tap water (Control) and n-ZnO (3.1 μM), Zn2+ (3...
March 2019: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Yu-Ting Chang, Daniela Hernandez, Salvador Alonso, Minling Gao, Meng Su, Gabriel Ghiaur, Mark J Levis, Richard J Jones
An intriguing aspect of the clinical activity of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitors (FLT3 TKIs) is their apparent higher activity against peripheral blasts from FLT3/internal tandem duplication (ITD) acute myeloid leukemia than marrow disease in the same patients. Accordingly, studies showed that the bone marrow microenvironment plays a role in FLT3 TKI resistance, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We recently identified a previously undescribed mechanism by which the bone marrow microenvironment can contribute to drug resistance: expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs)...
March 26, 2019: Blood Advances
Ahad Banagozar Mohammadi, Mohammadali Torbati, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Seyyed Mohammad Bagher Fazljou, Seyed Mehdi Vatandoust, Samad E J Golzari, Javad Mahmoudi
This study was aimed to examine the effects of sericin administration on restraint stress induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) of mice. Animals were subjected to chronic restraint stress (3 h/day for 21 days) to induce a depressive-like model. Sericin was administered at different doses (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg/day, gavage for 21 days) along with immobilization. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) were performed to assess anxiety; while, the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were implemented to evaluate depressive-like behaviors...
March 18, 2019: Brain Research
Eva Vidak, Urban Javoršek, Matej Vizovišek, Boris Turk
: For a long time, cysteine cathepsins were considered primarily as proteases crucial for nonspecific bulk proteolysis in the endolysosomal system. However, this view has dramatically changed, and cathepsins are now considered key players in many important physiological processes, including in diseases like cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and various inflammatory diseases. Cathepsins are emerging as important players in the extracellular space, and the paradigm is shifting from the degrading enzymes to the enzymes that can also specifically modify extracellular proteins...
March 20, 2019: Cells
Jiancheng Wang, Cuilin Cheng, Chao Xin, Zhenyu Wang
Fenugreek ( Trigonella Foenum-Graecum ) seeds flavonoids (FSF) have diverse biological activities, while the antidepressant-like effect of FSF has been seldom explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of FSF and to identify the potential molecular mechanisms. LC-MS/MS was used for the determination of FSF. Chronic restraint stress (CRS) was used to establish the animal model of depression. Observation of exploratory behavior in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) indicated the stress level...
March 20, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kerstin Kiefer, Josefina Casas, Roberto García-López, Rubén Vicente
Increased orosomucoid-like 3 (ORMDL3) expression levels, due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), have been associated with several inflammatory diseases, including asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases. ORMDL proteins inhibit serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first rate-limiting enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis and alter cellular calcium homeostasis. Both processes are essential for immune response. The present study addresses ORMDL3 protein involvement in macrophage physiology using an overexpressing knock-in mouse model...
March 20, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matías Fassolari, Guillermo D Alonso
Aurora kinases constitute a family of enzymes that play a key role during metazoan cells division, being involved in events like centrosome maturation and division, chromatin condensation, mitotic spindle assembly, control of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and cytokinesis initiation. In this work, three Aurora kinase homologues were identified in Trypanosoma cruzi (TcAUK1, -2 and -3), a protozoan parasite of the Kinetoplastida Class. The genomic organization of these enzymes was fully analyzed, demonstrating that TcAUK1 is a single-copy gene, TcAUK2 coding sequence is present in two different forms (short and long) and TcAUK3 is a multi-copy gene...
March 21, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Markus Brinkmann, Bogdan Barz, Danielle Carriere, Mirna Velki, Kilian Smith, Henriette Meyer-Alert, Yvonne Müller, Beat Thalmann, Kerstin Bluhm, Sabrina Schiwy, Simone Hotz, Helena Salowsky, Andreas Tiehm, Markus Hecker, Henner Hollert
Hydroxylation of polyaromatic compounds through cytochromes P450 (CYPs) is known to result in potentially estrogenic transformation products. Recently, there has been an increasing awareness of the importance of alternative pathways such as aldehyde oxidases (AOX) or N-methyltransferases (NMT) in bioactivation of small molecules, particularly N-heterocycles. Therefore, this study investigated the biotransformation and activity of methylated quinolines, a class of environmentally relevant N-heterocycles that are no native ligands of the estrogen receptor (ER), in the estrogen-responsive cell line ERα CALUX...
March 21, 2019: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Clive E Bowman
A review of acarine gut physiology based on published narratives dispersed over the historical international literature is given. Then, in an experimental study of the free-living predatory soil mite Pergamasus longicornis (Berlese), quantitative micro-anatomical changes in the gut epithelium are critically assessed from a temporal series of histological sections during and after feeding on larval dipteran prey. An argued functional synthesis based upon comparative kinetics is offered for verification in other mesostigmatids...
March 20, 2019: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Wenming Wang, Yao Zhang, Lele Wang, Qi Jing, Xiaolu Wang, Xiaoli Xi, Xuan Zhao, Hongfei Wang
The γ-class carbonic anhydrases (γ-CAs) mainly come from methanogens methane-producing bacteria that grow in hot springs and catalyze the interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons. Here, the γ-CA from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (γ-TtCA) was expressed and purified, its crystal structure was determined at 2.3 Å resolution in space group P1. The asymmetric unit contains two trimers and six catalytic Zn2+ . In general, the fold of the protein is similar to those of homologous enzymes from Geobacillus Kaustophilus, Bacillus Cereus, Methanosarcina Thermophila and others...
March 20, 2019: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Pedro Curto, Cátia Santa, Paige Allen, Bruno Manadas, Isaura Simões, Juan J Martinez
We have previously reported that Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia montanensis have distinct intracellular fates within THP-1 macrophages, suggesting that the ability to proliferate within macrophages may be a distinguishable factor between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Spotted fever group (SFG) members. To start unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the capacity (or not) of SFG Rickettsia to establish their replicative niche in macrophages, we have herein used quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS to profile the alterations resulted by the challenge of THP-1 macrophages with R...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hai-Yan Wang, Hai-Mei Zhao, Yao Wang, Yi Liu, Xiu-Yun Lu, Xue-Ke Liu, Fang Chen, Wei Ge, Zheng-Yun Zuo, Duan-Yong Liu
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in the initialization and development phase of inflammatory injuries, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Sishen Wan (SSW) is a classic Chinese patent medicine listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which is usually used to treat chronic colitis; however, it is unclear whether SSW can treat IBD via the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of SSW was demonstrated by the decreased index of colonic weight, macroscopic and microscopic score, and pathological observation in chronic colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Gloria Ruiz-Gómez, Sarah Vogel, Stephanie Möller, M Teresa Pisabarro, Ute Hempel
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic network constantly remodeled by a fine-tuned protein formation and degradation balance. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute key orchestrators of ECM degradation. Their activity is controlled by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Here, we investigated the molecular interplay of MMP2 with different GAG (chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronan (HA), sulfated hyaluronan (SH) and heparin (HE)) and the impact of GAG on MMP2/TIMP3 complex formation using in vitro-experiments with human bone marrow stromal cells, in silico docking and molecular dynamics simulations...
March 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Iwai Ohbayashi, Shaobai Huang, Hidehiro Fukaki, Xiaomin Song, Song Sun, Miyo Terao Morita, Masao Tasaka, A Harvey Millar, Masahiko Furutani
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the first enzyme (E1) of the PDH complex (PDC). This multienzyme complex contains E1, E2 and E3 components and controls the entry of carbon into the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to enable cellular energy production. The E1 component of PDC is composed of an E1α catalytic subunit and an E1β regulatory subunit. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are two mitochondrial E1α homologs encoded by IAA-Alanine Resistant 4 (IAR4) and IAR4-LIKE (IAR4L), and one mitochondrial E1β homolog...
March 20, 2019: Plant Physiology
Yue Jiao, Caichao Wan, Wenbo Zhang, Wenhui Bao, Jian Li
A facile and scalable two-step method (including pyrolysis and magnetron sputtering) is created to prepare a core‒shell structured composite consisting of cotton-derived carbon fibers (CDCFs) and nano-copper. Excellent hydrophobicity (water contact angle = 144°) and outstanding antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (antibacterial ratios of >92%) are achieved for the composite owing to the composition transformation from cellulose to carbon and nano-size effects as well as strong oxidizing ability of oxygen reactive radicals from interactions of nano-Cu with sulfhydryl groups of enzymes...
March 19, 2019: Nanomaterials
Peipei Zhang, Shuangshuang Li, Pengcheng Zhao, Zhenfei Guo, Shaoyun Lu
The role of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the cold acclimation of forage legumes was investigated in this study. Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcang. (hereafter M. falcata ) is a forage legume with a higher cold tolerance than Medicago truncatula , a model legume. Cold acclimation treatment resulted in increased cold tolerance in both M. falcata and M. truncatula , which was suppressed by pretreatment with tungstate, an inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR), and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO), a scavenger of NO...
March 19, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xuexiang Qin, Kakani Meghana, Nelluri Lakshmi Sowjanya, Katakam Revathi Sushma, Ch Gopala Krishna, Jagarlamudi Manasa, Gadamsetty Jaya Alekhya Sita, Motati Gowthami, Dronadula Honeyshmitha, Gadiparthi Srikanth, Nagaraja SreeHarsha
In kidneys, elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress were observed in nephrotoxicity triggered by cisplatin. Embelin has the anti-inflammatory property. It also got anti-tumorigenic and antioxidant properties. In this research, we analyzed the actions of embelin on nephrotoxicity triggered by cisplatin and vital actions by which it increases antioxidant actions and corrects the inflammation after embelin administration during nephrotoxicity triggered by cisplatin. Kidney function markers including blood urea nitrogen; serum creatinine; the markers of oxidative stress like malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant systems like glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase, and glutathione reductase; inflammation markers like nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); and the extent of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined...
March 20, 2019: BioFactors
Sergey O Bachurin, Galina F Makhaeva, Elena F Shevtsova, Natalia P Boltneva, Nadezhda V Kovaleva, Sofya V Lushchekina, Elena V Rudakova, Ludmila G Dubova, Daria V Vinogradova, Vladimir B Sokolov, Alexey Yu Aksinenko, Vladimir P Fisenko, Rudy J Richardson, Gjumrakch Aliev
We studied the inhibitory activity of methylene blue (MB) γ-carbolines (gC) conjugates (MB-gCs) against human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE), equine serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and a structurally related enzyme, porcine liver carboxylesterase (CaE). In addition, we determined the ability of MB-gCs to bind to the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of Electrophorus electricus AChE (EeAChE) and competitively displace propidium iodide from this site. Moreover, we examined the ability of MB-gCs to scavenge free radicals as well as their influence on mitochondrial potential and iron-induced lipid peroxidation...
March 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
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