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"Overdose" AND "Calcium Channel Blocker" AND "Insulin"

Bilal H Lashari, Artem Minalyan, Waqas Khan, Mary Naglak, William Ward
Patients admitted with the presumed coingestion of beta-blockers (BBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) should be initially managed in accordance with standardized resuscitation protocols (the airway, breathing, and circulation (ABC) approach). Additionally, more specific interventions should be promptly attempted. Intravenous glucagon and calcium salts have long been used in the treatment of BB and CCB toxicities. We present a case of a severe, concurrent BB and CCB toxicity resulting in cardiovascular collapse refractory to vasopressors...
November 1, 2018: Curēus
Fiqry Fadhlillah, Shashank Patil
Cardiovascular instability associated with calcium channel blocker toxicity comprises a small percentage of overdose presentations, yet they are associated with a high mortality rate. We detail the management of a 64-year-old man who took an intentional overdose of 840 mg nimodipine. We include the treatment he received and highlight the scarcity of evidence behind the use of gastric decontamination, calcium, glucagon, intravenous lipid emulsion, high-dose insulin therapy, sodium bicarbonate, vasopressors and methylene blue in calcium channel blocker toxicity...
August 27, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
James R Krenz, Yaman Kaakeh
Both calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and β blockers (BBs) are associated with fatal substance exposures within the United States. Cases of overdose with these agents have the potential to be both complex and difficult to manage. A variety of pharmacologic treatment options are available for clinicians to use to help mitigate harm from these poisonings. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic therapy (HIET) was once regarded as a last-ditch effort to treat patients in highly refractory cases. In recent years, this therapy has become a routine therapy in the treatment of CCB/BB overdose...
November 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Kishore Kumar, Madhavi Biyyam, Bharat Bajantri, Sureshkumar Nayudu
Calcium channel blocker (CCB ) overdose, whether intentional or accidental, is a common clinical scenario and can be very lethal. Conventional treatments for CCB overdose include intravenous (IV) fluids, calcium salts, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and glucagon. However, the conventional therapies are unsuccessful in reversing the cardiovascular toxicity of CCB, so they commonly fail to improve the hemodynamic condition of the patient. Blockade of the L-type calcium channels that mediate the antihypertensive effect of CCBs also decreases the release of insulin from pancreatic β-islet cells and reduces glucose uptake by tissues (insulin resistance)...
February 2018: Cardiology Research
Karan Seegobin, Satish Maharaj, Ansuya Deosaran, Pramod Reddy
A 54-year-old female presented after taking an overdose of an unknown amount of hydrochlorothiazide, doxazocin, atenolol and amlodipine. She was initially refractory to treatment with conventional therapy (intravenous fluids, activated charcoal, glucagon 5 mg followed with glucagon drip, calcium gluconate 10%, and atropine). Furthermore, insulin at 4 U/kg was not effective in improving her hemodynamics. Shortly after high dose insulin was achieved with 10 U/kg, there was dramatic improvement in hemodynamics resulting in three of five vasopressors being weaned off in 8 h...
April 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Dayne Laskey, Rajesh Vadlapatla, Katherine Hart
CONTEXT: High-dose insulin has become a first-line therapy for treating severe calcium channel blocker and beta blocker toxicity. Insulin infusions used to treat other conditions (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis) may be used, but this may lead to pulmonary compromise due to fluid volume overload. An obvious solution would be to use a more concentrated insulin infusion; however, data describing the stability of insulin in polyvinyl chloride bags at concentrations >1 unit/mL are not readily available...
November 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Dana Bartlett
Overdoses of β-blockers and calcium channel blockers can produce significant morbidity and mortality, and conventional therapies often do not work as treatments for these poisonings. High-dose insulin/glucose therapy has been successful in reversing the cardiotoxic effects of these drugs in cases where the standard therapies have failed, and it appears to be relatively safe. Many successes have been well documented, but the clinical experience consists of case reports, the mechanisms of action are not completely understood, and guidelines for use of the therapy are empirically derived and not standardized...
April 2016: Critical Care Nurse
Ludovic Gérard, Anne-Cécile Galloy, Arnaud Capron, Philippe Hantson
CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 58-year-old woman who developed a severe distributive shock following the intentional ingestion of a large overdose of amlodipine (480 mg) combined with valsartan (3680 mg). Extreme vasoplegia remained refractory to maximal standard therapy including fluid resuscitation, intravenous calcium, vasopressors at very high doses, hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy, lipid emulsion, and methylene blue administration. Besides, the patient exhibited hyperglycemia refractory to very high doses of insulin...
July 2015: Clinical Toxicology
C Charpentier, M Flandrois, F Labombarda, P Maragnes, M Jokic, F Villedieu
Intoxication with calcium channel inhibitory drugs is rare but mortality rates reach 10 %. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl who had ingested five 240-mg tablets of extended-release verapamil (VLP) and a tablet of bromazepam. Thirty hours after the ingestion she had a vasoplegic shock, heart conduction disorders, and metabolic complications. She was treated in pediatric intensive care with continuous epinephrine and insulin and recovered completely 60h after the ingestion. This case underlines the danger of calcium channel blocker overdose, increased by the extended-release mechanism: the drug effect is to slow down gastric motility - which explains the latency of the symptoms - but this also increases the drug absorption, inducing a vicious circle...
December 2014: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Prashant Nasa, Akhilesh Singh, Deven Juneja, Omender Singh, Yash Javeri
Overdose with calcium channel blockers is uncommon, but is associated with high mortality. The management includes fluid resuscitation, calcium gluconate, glucagon, vasopressors, and high-dose insulin-euglycemia therapy. We describe a rare case of massive overdose of lercanidipine with shock, refractory to conventional therapies and multi-organ failure. Charcoal hemoperfusion with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration was then used successfully and the patient showed remarkable recovery.
November 2014: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
M St-Onge, P-A Dubé, S Gosselin, C Guimont, J Godwin, P M Archambault, J-M Chauny, A J Frenette, M Darveau, N Le Sage, J Poitras, J Provencher, D N Juurlink, R Blais
CONTEXT: Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a common and sometimes life-threatening ingestion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reported effects of treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and hemodynamic parameters. The secondary outcomes included length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, duration of vasopressor use, functional outcomes, and serum calcium channel blocker concentrations...
November 2014: Clinical Toxicology
Sundeep Shenoy, Shilpa Lankala, Sasikanth Adigopula
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are some of the most commonly used medications in clinical practice to treat hypertension, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, and some cases of heart failure. Recent data show that CCBs are the most common of the cardiovascular medications noted in intentional or unintentional overdoses.(1) Novel treatment approaches in the form of glucagon, high-dose insulin therapy, and intravenous lipid emulsion therapies have been tried and have been successful. However, the evidence for these are limited to case reports and case series...
October 2014: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Reena Thakrar, Rob Shulman, Geoff Bellingan, Mervyn Singer
We describe a case of extreme mixed overdose of calcium channel blockers, β-blockers and statins. The patient was successfully treated with aggressive resuscitation including cardiac pacing and multiorgan support, glucagon and high-dose insulin for toxicity related to calcium channel blockade and β-blockade, and ubiquinone for treating severe presumed statin-induced rhabdomyolysis and muscle weakness.
2014: BMJ Case Reports
T El Houari, I Haddiya, N El Ouafi, Z Bazid
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are prescribed in a wide variety of cardiovascular conditions. Nevertheless, they remain a major cause of cardiovascular drug overdose that often leads to a lethal outcome. We report the case of an intoxication with amlodipine, which caused severe hypotension, in a young woman. The patient was initially treated with fluids, calcium gluconate, and Dobutamine without effect. She then received hyperinsulinemia euglycemia therapy. A rise in blood pressure (BP) was observed two hours after insulin was started...
2013: Case Reports in Cardiology
Christina Woodward, Ali Pourmand, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi
Poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) as a result of beta-blocker (β-blocker) or calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdose is a common and potentially life-threatening condition. Conventional therapies, including fluid resuscitation, atropine, cardiac pacing, calcium, glucagon, and vasopressors often fail to improve hemodynamic status. High-dose insulin (HDI) is an emerging therapeutic modality for PICS. In this article, we discuss the existing literature and highlight the therapeutic success and potential of HDI...
April 8, 2014: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Bruce Doepker, William Healy, Eric Cortez, Eric J Adkins
BACKGROUND: Recently, high-dose insulin (HDI) and intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) have emerged as treatment options for severe toxicity from calcium-channel blocker (CCB) and beta blocker (BB). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the use and effectiveness of HDI and ILE for the treatment of CCB and BB overdose. CASE REPORTS: We describe 2 patients presenting to the emergency department after intentional ingestions of CCBs and BBs. A 35-year-old man presented in pulseless electrical activity after ingesting amlodopine, verapamil, and metoprolol...
April 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Tauseef Afaq Siddiqi, Jennifer Hill, Yvonne Huckleberry, Sairam Parthasarathy
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) overdose can be life-threatening when manifest as catastrophic shock and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We describe a case of massive overdose of multiple medications, including sustained-release verapamil, which was resistant to conventional support. Initial treatment for CCB overdose is primarily supportive, and includes fluid resuscitation. The mechanism of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is not well known, and reported cases have been successfully treated with mechanical ventilation...
February 2014: Respiratory Care
Maude St-Onge, Ian Ajmo, Diane Poirier, Martin Laliberté
INTRODUCTION: The object of the current communication is to discuss the theory and the evidence for the use of L-carnitine in calcium channel blocker and metformin poisonings. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old male known for hypertension and type II diabetes was admitted to the critical care unit of a community hospital following an overdose of amlodipine and metformin. The patient was intubated, ventilated, and hemodynamically supported with vasopressors. Despite calcium, glucagon, high-dose insulin (HDI), and lipid emulsion for calcium channel blocker and bicarbonate for metabolic acidosis, the patient remained hemodynamically unstable...
September 2013: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Elizabeth A Persad, Lakshmi Raman, Marita T Thompson, Paul W Sheeran
Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED) six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED...
October 2012: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Nidhi Aggarwal, Yizhak Kupfer, Chanaka Seneviratne, Sidney Tessler
β-blocker and calcium channel blocker toxicity generally present with bradycardia and hypotension. A 69-year-old woman presented after a suicide attempt with a β-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose. Her blood pressure was 69/35 mm Hg and her HR was in the 40s. She was treated with calcium chloride, glucagon, a dextrose-insulin infusion and three vasopressors, but remained hypotensive. She suffered two cardiac arrests and required a transvenous pacemaker. When all interventions failed, she was started on a methylene blue infusion for refractory vasodilatory shock which resulted in a dramatic improvement in her blood pressure...
January 18, 2013: BMJ Case Reports
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