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"Envenomation" OR "Snake Bite" OR "Pressure Immobilisation Bandage" OR "Pressure Immobilization Bandage" OR "PIB" OR "Spider Bite" OR "Insect Bite" OR "Bites And Stings" OR "Marine Sting" OR "Mammalian Bite" OR "Octopus" OR "Jellyfish" OR "Stonefish"

Giampiero Giovacchini, Elisabetta Giovannini, Elisa Borsò, Patrizia Lazzeri, Mattia Riondato, Rossella Leoncini, Valerio Duce, Andrea Ciarmiello
Neuropathological and clinical evidence indicates that the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) occurs as neuropathology exceeds the brain reserve capacity. The brain or cognitive reserve (BCR) hypothesis states that high premorbid intelligence, education, and an active and stimulating lifestyle provide reserve capacity, which acts as a buffer against the cognitive deficits due to accumulating neuropathology. Neuroimaging studies that assessed the BCR hypothesis are critically reviewed with emphasis on study design and statistical analysis...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Matthew C Hernandez, Michael Traynor, John L Bruce, Wanda Bekker, Grant L Laing, Johnathon M Aho, Victor Y Kong, Denise B Klinkner, Martin D Zielinski, Damian L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is associated with major morbidity especially in low- and middle-income countries and may require fasciotomy. We determined patient factors associated with the need for fasciotomy after venomous snake bites in children located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: Single institutional review of historical data (2012-2017) for children (<18 years) sustaining snake envenomation was performed. Clinical data, management, and outcomes were abstracted...
February 19, 2019: World Journal of Surgery
Ganesh Mohan, Pruthvi Raj Guduri, Shamee Shastry
Post snake bite renal failure due to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is often overlooked and not considered as a separate entity while managing the patient. This case report highlights the efficacy of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange in managing the post envenomation TMA. Anti-snake venom was administered following severe hematotoxic envenomation, but later on developed acute kidney injury and hence hemodialysis was done for 2 days without much improvement. On third day of bite, diagnosis of TMA was made from microangiopathic hemolytic picture in peripheral blood smear, thrombocytopenia and renal failure...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Charles DeCarli, Sylvia Villeneuve, Pauline Maillard, Danielle Harvey, Baljeet Singh, Owen Carmichael, Evan Fletcher, John Olichney, Sarah Farias, William Jagust, Bruce Reed, Dan Mungas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of vascular burden on rates of decline in episodic memory and executive function. We hypothesize that greater vascular burden will have an additive negative impact on cognition after accounting for baseline cognitive impairment, positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid burden, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. METHODS: Individuals were followed an average of 5 years with serial cognitive assessments. Predictor variables include vascular burden score (VBS), quantitative brain MRI assessment, and amyloid imaging...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Hiroo Kasahara, Masaki Ikeda, Kazuaki Nagashima, Yukio Fujita, Kouki Makioka, Setsuki Tsukagoshi, Tsuneo Yamazaki, Eriko Takai, Etsuko Sanada, Ayumi Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kishi, Takayuki Suto, Tetsuya Higuchi, Yoshito Tsushima, Yoshio Ikeda
Neuroimages of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and small vessel disease (SVD) were examined in patients with various types of cognitive disorders using 11C-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography (PiB-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (mcSUVR) was applied for a quantitative analysis of PiB-PET data. The severity of white matter lesions (WML) and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) on MRI were assessed to evaluate complicating cerebral SVD using semiquantitative scales...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Chetan D Rajput, Balkrishna P Nikam, Shailesh S Malani
Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare paraneoplastic manifestation particularly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).Clinically, it presents as a peculiar polymorphic pruritic eruption with characteristic histological findings of superficial and deep dense perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes and eosinophils without any vasculitis. Although it has been reported intermittently with different names, there is paucity of reports of this condition in Indian literature. Here, we report a patient of CLL having insect bite-like eruptions nonresponsive to conventional therapy and confirmed as eosinophilic dermatosis on histology...
January 2019: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
D Paniagua, I Vergara, R Román, C Romero, M Benard-Valle, A Calderón, L Jiménez, M J Bernas, M H Witte, L V Boyer, A Alagón
CONTEXT: Historically, administration and dosing of antivenom (AV) have been guided primarily by physician judgment because of incomplete understanding of the envenomation process. As demonstrated previously, lymphatic absorption plays a major role in the availability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of coral snake venom injected subcutaneously, which suggests that absorption from subcutaneous tissue is the limiting step for venom bioavailability, supporting the notion that the bite site is an ongoing venom depot...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Toxicology
S Spampinato, L Fokdal, E Marinovskij, S Axelsen, E M Pedersen, R Pötter, J C Lindegaard, K Tanderup
PURPOSE: To provide an analysis of dose distribution in sub-structures that could be responsible for urinary toxicity after Image-Guided Adaptive BrachyTherapy (IGABT) in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer (LACC). METHODS: 105 LACC patients treated with radiochemotherapy and IGABT were selected. Sub-structures (bladder wall, trigone, bladder neck, urethra) were contoured on IGABT-planning MRIs. D2cm3 and D0.1cm3 , ICRU Bladder-Point (ICRU BP) and Posterior-Inferior Border of Symphysis points (PIBS, PIBS + 2 cm, PIBS - 2 cm) doses were extracted...
February 13, 2019: Physica Medica: PM
Michael Mohseni, Theodore Szymanski
BACKGROUND Auricular hematomas are well-known among wrestlers and other contact sports participants, but spontaneous auricular hematomas are rare. The differential diagnosis for acute spontaneous auricular swelling is limited. In addition to infectious causes, antecedent trauma, and bleeding complications, angioedema should also be considered. Although rare, acute non-traumatic auricular hematomas need urgent surgical intervention if they are large. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with the complaint of acute pain and swelling to his left ear 30 minutes prior to arrival...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Norhan Saif Sheraba, Mohamed Reda Diab, Aymen Samir Yassin, Magdy Aly Amin, Hamdallah Hafez Zedan
Snake antivenoms are the only definitive management of snake envenoming's. Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs. A greater understanding of the nature of LAL-Test interferences and the use permissible dilutions has minimized enhancement problems. Common interference mechanisms include suboptimal pH, enzyme or protein modification, and non-specific LAL activation. The study aimed at sorting out the interfering factors before validating the antitoxic sera preparations to avoid false positive results when testing snake venom antiserum samples by (LAL) method...
February 15, 2019: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Choo Hock Tan, Kin Ying Wong, Nget Hong Tan, Tzu Shan Ng, Kae Yi Tan
The protein abundances of phospholipases A₂ in cobra venom proteomes appear to vary among cobra species. To determine the unique distribution of snake venom phospholipases A₂ (svPLA₂) in the cobras, the svPLA₂ activities for 15 cobra species were examined with an acidimetric and a colorimetric assay, using egg yolk suspension and 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy benzoic acid (NOBA) as the substrate. The colorimetric assay showed significant correlation between svPLA₂ enzymatic activities with the svPLA₂ protein abundances in venoms...
February 14, 2019: Toxins
Alvaro Martínez-Doménech, Marta García-Legaz-Martínez, Cristian Valenzuela-Oñate, Gemma Pérez-Pastor, Fernando Alfageme-Roldán, José Luis Sánchez-Carazo, Amparo Pérez-Ferriols
A 50-year-old woman consulted to the emergency department for painful erythematous swelling on her forearm hours after a spider bite. The patient had spent the evening cleaning the outside of her home, located in the periphery of an urban area, next to a ravine, on the western Mediterranean Basin, when she identified a spider on the dorsum of her forearm. She described it as a light-brown coloured spider, with darker long legs, between 1 and 1,5 cm in size. Though she felt no pain she brushed off the spider and it scared away...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Dale Halliday, Robert Cumming, Khin Thida Thwin, Mya Myitzu, Julian White, Sam Alfred, David A Warrell, David Bacon, Win Naing, Htay Aung, Myat Myat Thein, Nyein Nyein Chit, Sara Serhal, Myat Thet Nwe, Pyae Phyo Aung, Chen Au Peh
INTRODUCTION: Every year millions of people in developing countries suffer from snakebite, causing a large number of deaths and long term complications. Prevention and appropriate first aid could reduce the incidence and improve the health outcomes for those who suffer bites. However, many communities where snakebite is a major issue suffer from a lack of information about prevention and first aid measures that a family or community member could take to prevent severe envenoming, complications and poor outcomes...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jongwook W Heo, Munseok S Chae, Jooeun Hyoung, Seung-Tae Hong
Rhombohedral potassium-zinc hexacyanoferrate K1.88 Zn2.88 [Fe(CN)6 ]2 (H2 O)5 (KZnHCF) synthesized using a precipitation method is demonstrated as a high-voltage cathode material for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs), exhibiting an initial discharge capacity of 55.6 mAh g-1 with a discharge voltage of 3.9 V versus K/K+ and a capacity retention of ∼95% after 100 cycles in a nonaqueous electrolyte. All K ions are extracted from the structure upon the initial charge process. However, only 1.61 out of 1.88 K ions per formula unit are inserted back into the structure upon discharge, and it becomes the reversible ion of the second cycle onward...
February 15, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Sümeyye Ekmekçi, Ülkü Küçük, Yelda Dere, Ebru Çakır, Hatice Ceren Sayar, Batuhan Ergani, Özgür Çakmak, Ozan Bozkurt, Kutsal Yörükoğlu
Background/aim: This study was designed to determine the characteristic features of upper urinary system urothelial carcinomas (UUSUCs) and to evaluate the clinicopathological parameters associated with prognosis. Materials and methods: A total of 74 cases of UUSUC were included, from three different centers. Demographic data and histopathological features such as tumor localization, concomitant tumor in the urinary system, distant metastasis with overall survival and disease-free survival obtained from the hospital records were evaluated retrospectively...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Markus Berger, João Alfredo de Moraes, Walter Orlando Beys-da-Silva, Lucélia Santi, Paula Barros Terraciano, David Driemeier, Elizabeth Obino Cirne-Lima, Eduardo Pandolfi Passos, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro Vieira, Thereza Christina Barja-Fidalgo, Jorge Almeida Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Lonomia obliqua venom is nephrotoxic and acute kidney injury (AKI) is the main cause of death among envenomed victims. Mechanism underlying L. obliqua-induced AKI involves renal hypoperfusion, inflammation, tubular necrosis and loss of glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption capacities. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of kallikrein to the hemodynamic instability, inflammation and consequent renal and vascular impairment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Addition of L...
February 14, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Joseph Carpenter, Brian Patrick Murray, Lindsay Schaack Rothstein, Alaina Steck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Clinical Toxicology
David S Knopman, Emily S Lundt, Terry M Therneau, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J Lowe, Kejal Kantarci, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Bradley F Boeve, David T Jones, Jon Graff-Radford, Sabrina M Albertson, Christopher G Schwarz, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
As more biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and age-related brain conditions become available, more sophisticated analytic approaches are needed to take full advantage of the information they convey. Most work has been done using categorical approaches but the joint relationships of tau PET, amyloid PET and cortical thickness in their continuous distributions to cognition have been under-explored. We evaluated non-demented subjects over age 50 years in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, 2037 of whom had undergone 3 T MRI scan, 985 amyloid PET scan with 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and MRI, and 577 PIB-PET, 18F-AV1451 flortaucipir PET and MRI...
February 12, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Charles J Gerardo, João R N Vissoci, C Scott Evans, David L Simel, Eric J Lavonas
Importance: Venomous snakebite severity ranges from an asymptomatic dry bite to severe envenomation and death. The clinical evaluation aids in prognosis and is essential to determine the risks and potential benefits of antivenom treatment. Objectives: To identify historical features, clinical examination findings, basic laboratory testing, and clinical grading scales that will risk-stratify patients with pit viper snake envenomation for severe systemic envenomation, severe tissue injury, and/or severe hematologic venom effects...
February 13, 2019: JAMA Surgery
Khaoula Ameur, Monia Youssef, Hichem Belhadjali, Yosra Soua, Mouna Korbi, Mohamed A Henchi, Jameleddine Zili
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe eruption characterized by numerous non-follicular sterile pustules on an erythematous background. AGEP is mostly caused by systemic drugs mainly antibiotics. Others causes of AGEP, such as contact with mercury, spider bites and viral infection had been described.1 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 12, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
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