Read by QxMD icon Read

Central Pattern Generators Mastication

Inge Steuer, Pierre A Guertin
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are generally defined as networks of neurons capable of enabling the production of central commands, specifically controlling stereotyped, rhythmic motor behaviors. Several CPGs localized in brainstem and spinal cord areas have been shown to underlie the expression of complex behaviors such as deglutition, mastication, respiration, defecation, micturition, ejaculation, and locomotion. Their pivotal roles have clearly been demonstrated although their organization and cellular properties remain incompletely characterized...
January 28, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Charles G Widmer, Joyce Morris-Wiman
INTRODUCTION: Vertebrate incising and chewing are controlled by a set of neurons comprising the central pattern generator (CPG) for mastication. Mandibular positioning and force generation to perform these tasks is complex and requires coordination of multiple jaw opening and closing muscle compartments located in muscles on both sides of the jaw. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the CPG by recording mouse incising forces in the home cage environment to evaluate changes in force characteristics with incising frequency and force direction...
November 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
David Acton, Gareth B Miles
Astrocytes are proposed to converse with neurons at tripartite synapses, detecting neurotransmitter release and responding with release of gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. However, a paucity of evidence from behavioral studies calls into question the importance of gliotransmission for the operation of the nervous system in healthy animals. Central pattern generator (CPG) networks in the spinal cord and brain stem coordinate the activation of muscles during stereotyped activities such as locomotion, inspiration, and mastication and may therefore provide tractable models in which to assess the contribution of gliotransmission to behaviorally relevant neural activity...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Nazim Keven, Kathleen A Akins
Over 35 years ago, Meltzoff and Moore (1977) published their famous article 'Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates'. Their central conclusion, that neonates can imitate, was and continues to be controversial. Here we focus on an often neglected aspect of this debate, namely on neonatal spontaneous behaviors themselves. We present a case study of a paradigmatic orofacial 'gesture', namely tongue protrusion and retraction (TP/R). Against the background of new research on mammalian aerodigestive development, we ask: How does the human aerodigestive system develop and what role does TP/R play in the neonate's emerging system of aerodigestion? We show that mammalian aerodigestion develops in two phases: (1) from the onset of isolated orofacial movements in utero to the post-natal mastery of suckling at 4 months after birth, and; (2) thereafter, from preparation to the mastery of mastication and deglutition of solid foods...
July 14, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Ji-Soo Kim
Non-vestibular sensorimotor signals modulate the vestibular nucleus neuron to achieve current behavioral goals, and may generate or modulate nystagmus. In central lesions affecting the vestibular nuclei, non-vestibular signals such as mastication or swallowing may induce nystagmus. However, the influence of non-vestibular signals on these types of nystagmus has not been investigated in a systematic way and the underlying mechanisms of the modulation are poorly understood. In this study, several non-vestibular sensorimotor stimuli were applied to evaluate the patterns of nystagmus modulation in a patient with suspected rhombencephalitis or imaging negative small infarction, probably involving the left dorsolateral medulla...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
Aklesso Kadala, Dorly Verdier, Philippe Morquette, Arlette Kolta
Proper function of all excitable cells depends on ion homeostasis. Nowhere is this more critical than in the brain where the extracellular concentration of some ions determines neurons' firing pattern and ability to encode information. Several neuronal functions depend on the ability of neurons to change their firing pattern to a rhythmic bursting pattern, whereas, in some circuits, rhythmic firing is, on the contrary, associated to pathologies like epilepsy or Parkinson's disease. In this review, we focus on the four main ions known to fluctuate during rhythmic firing: calcium, potassium, sodium, and chloride...
September 2015: Physiology
I Arshavsky, T G Deliagina, G N Orlovsky
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are a set of interconnected neurons capable of generating a basic pattern of motor output underlying "automatic" movements (breathing, locomotion, chewing, swallowing, and so on) in the absence of afferent signals from the executive motor apparatus. They can be divided into the constitutive CPGs active throughout the entire lifetime (respiratory CPGs) and conditional CPGs controlling episodic movements (locomotion, chewing, swallowing, and others). Since a motor output of CPGs is determined by their internal organization, the activities of the conditional CPGs are initiated by simple commands coming from higher centers...
March 2015: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
Tomio Inoue
Abstract Comminution of food by mastication contributes to an increase in the efficiency of energy intake from food, which supports the high metabolic rate of mammals. The central pattern-generating circuit for mastication produces motor commands for mastication by using sensory information from periodontal mechanoreceptors and muscle spindles in the jaw-closing muscles. The motor commands that are glutamatergic, glycinergic, and GABAergic are transmitted to motoneurons for the jaw, tongue, etc., through premotor neurons that are located in the supratrigeminal region, reticular formation dorsal to the facial nucleus, etc...
February 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Epaminondas Rosa, Quinton M Skilling, Wolfgang Stein
Central pattern generators are neuron networks that produce vital rhythmic motor outputs such as those observed in mastication, walking and breathing. Their activity patterns depend on the tuning of their intrinsic ionic conductances, their synaptic interconnectivity and entrainment by extrinsic neurons. The influence of two commonly found synaptic connectivities--reciprocal inhibition and electrical coupling--are investigated here using a neuron model with subthreshold oscillation capability, in different firing and entrainment regimes...
January 2015: Bio Systems
Jessica M C Po, Luigi M Gallo, Ambra Michelotti, Mauro Farella
The masticatory central pattern generator (CPG) may be implicated in the pathophysiology of sleep bruxism (SB). The aim of this study was to compare rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) occurring during sleep related to SB with that of natural voluntary chewing in a sample of sleep bruxers. It was hypothesized that the pace of RMMA during sleep is correlated with the chewing pace. Electromyographic (EMG) surface activity was recorded unilaterally from the masseter muscle of 13 participants diagnosed with SB (mean age ± standard deviation =26...
October 2013: Journal of Sleep Research
A Quintero, E Ichesco, R Schutt, C Myers, S Peltier, G E Gerstner
Mastication is one of the most important orofacial functions. The neurobiological mechanisms of masticatory control have been investigated in animal models, but less so in humans. This project used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess the positive temporal correlations among activated brain areas during a gum-chewing task. Twenty-nine healthy young-adults underwent an fcMRI scanning protocol while they chewed gum. Seed-based fcMRI analyses were performed with the motor cortex and cerebellum as regions of interest...
March 2013: Journal of Dental Research
J P Ignatova, A A Kromin
We studied reflection of artificially induced and amplified food motivation in impulse activity of the masticatory muscles during electrostimulation of "hunger center" of the lateral hypothalamus in the absence and presence of food. The threshold stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in hungry and satiated animals in the absence of food induced incessant food-procuring behavior paralleled by regular generation of spike bursts in masticatory muscles with biomodal distributions of intervals between pulses. This reaction of masticatory muscles during stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in the absence of food was an example of the anticipatory reaction reflecting characteristics of the action result acceptor...
April 2012: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Y Tanigawa, T Kasahara, S Yamashita
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to locate the main occluding area when the reduced posterior occlusal support was treated with an implant-supported prosthesis and to evaluate the subsequent improvement in the masticatory ability as compared with removable partial dentures. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with implant prostheses and 24 patients with removable partial dentures were recruited for this study. All patients had partially lost their posterior occlusal support...
June 2012: Australian Dental Journal
Philippe Morquette, Raphaël Lavoie, Mitch-David Fhima, Xavier Lamoureux, Dorly Verdier, Arlette Kolta
The basic pattern of rhythmic jaw movements produced during mastication is generated by a neuronal network located in the brainstem and referred to as the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). This network composed of neurons mostly associated to the trigeminal system is found between the rostral borders of the trigeminal motor nucleus and facial nucleus. This review summarizes current knowledge on the anatomical organization, the development, the connectivity and the cellular properties of these trigeminal circuits in relation to mastication...
March 2012: Progress in Neurobiology
J M C Po, J A Kieser, L M Gallo, A J Tésenyi, P Herbison, M Farella
UNLABELLED: The aim of this observational study was to investigate the features of the chewing activity and the variability of the human chewing pace, as assessed in the natural environment. It was hypothesized that the chewing pace is relatively constant within individuals across different days but is variable across individuals. Electromyographic surface activity was recorded unilaterally from the masseter in 21 participants for 3 hours over 3 recording days, in the natural environment, by means of portable recorders...
October 2011: Journal of Dental Research
Karl-Gunnar Westberg, Arlette Kolta
Mastication is a vital function that ensures that ingested food is broken down into pieces and prepared for digestion. This review outlines the masticatory behavior in terms of the muscle activation patterns and jaw movements and gives an overview of the organization and function of the trigeminal neuronal circuits that are known to take part in the generation and control of oro-facial motor functions. The basic pattern of rhythmic jaw movements produced during mastication is generated by a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) located in the pons and medulla...
2011: International Review of Neurobiology
Shazia Naser-Ud-Din, Paul F Sowman, Wayne J Sampson, Craig W Dreyer, Kemal Sitki Türker
INTRODUCTION: The masticatory muscles are considered to be important determinants of facial form, but little is known of the muscle spindle reflex characteristics and their relationship, if any, to face height. The aim of this study was to determine whether spindle reflexes, evoked by mechanical stimulation of an incisor and recorded on the masseter muscle, correlated with different facial patterns. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult volunteers (16 women; ages, 19-38 years) underwent 2-N tap stimuli to their maxillary left central incisor during simulated mastication...
April 2011: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
James P Lund
The main text of this chapter, written by James P. Lund, summarizes most of the work related to the neural control of mastication that he conducted with his collaborators throughout the years. From his early PhD work showing that mastication is centrally patterned to his latest work related to the interaction between pain and movement, Lund will have addressed many essential questions regarding the organization and functioning of the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). His earliest studies examined how the CPG modulates reflexes and the excitability of primary afferents, interneurons, and motoneurons forming their circuitry...
2011: Progress in Brain Research
Ronald M Harris-Warrick
The cellular and ionic mechanisms that generate the rhythm in central pattern generator (CPG) networks for simple movements are not well understood. Using vertebrate locomotion, respiration and mastication as exemplars, I describe four main principles of rhythmogenesis: (1) rhythmogenic ionic currents underlie all CPG networks, regardless of whether they are driven by a network pacemaker or an endogenous pacemaker neuron kernel; (2) fast synaptic transmission often evokes slow currents that can affect cycle frequency; (3) there are likely to be multiple and redundant mechanisms for rhythmogenesis in any essential CPG network; and (4) glial cells may participate in CPG network function...
2010: Progress in Brain Research
Arlette Kolta, Philippe Morquette, Raphaël Lavoie, Isabel Arsenault, Dorly Verdier
Increasing evidence suggests that the dorsal part of the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (NVsnpr) contains a significant core of the central pattern generator (CPG) circuitry required for mastication (Tsuboi et al., 2003). Like many trigeminal brainstem neurons, those of NVsnpr are rhythmically active in phase with fictive mastication in vivo (Tsuboi et al., 2003) and project directly to the trigeminal motoneurons (Kolta et al., 2000), but in contrast with the others, they are the only neurons with intrinsic bursting abilities (Sandler et al...
2010: Progress in Brain Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"