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Antiviral high throughput screen method

Jingmei Li, Lei Yu, Jixuan Li, Liping Xie, Rongqing Zhang, Hongzhong Wang
Nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase II (NDT) catalyzes the transglycosylation reaction of the 2'-deoxyribose moiety between purine and/or pyrimidine bases and has been widely used in the synthesis of nucleoside analogs. The high specificity of NDT for 2'-deoxyribose limits its applications. Because 2'C- and/or 3'C-modified nucleosides have been widely used as antiviral or antitumour agents, improving the activity of NDT towards these modified nucleosides by protein engineering is an area of interest to the pharmaceutical industry...
February 23, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Andrew D Huber, Dallas L Pineda, Dandan Liu, Kelsey N Boschert, Anna T Gres, Jennifer J Wolf, Emily M Coonrod, Jing Tang, Thomas G Laughlin, Qiongying Yang, Maritza Puray-Chavez, Juan Ji, Kamlendra Singh, Karen A Kirby, Zhengqiang Wang, Stefan G Sarafianos
An estimated 240 million are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can lead to liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, HBV treatment options include only nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and the immunomodulatory agent interferon alpha, and these treatments are generally not curative. New treatments with novel mechanisms of action, therefore, are highly desired for HBV therapy. The viral core protein (Cp) has gained attention as a possible therapeutic target because of its vital roles in the HBV life cycle...
December 24, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Milan Kožíšek, Václav Navrátil, Kateřina Rojíková, Jana Pokorná, Carlos Berenguer Albiňana, Petr Pachl, Jitka Zemanová, Aleš Machara, Pavel Šácha, Jason Hudlický, Ivana Císařová, Pavlína Řezáčová, Jan Konvalinka
Influenza neuraminidase is responsible for the escape of new viral particles from the infected cell surface. Several neuraminidase inhibitors are used clinically to treat patients or stockpiled for emergencies. However, the increasing development of viral resistance against approved inhibitors has underscored the need for development of new antivirals effective against resistant influenza strains. A facile, sensitive, and inexpensive screening method would help achieve this goal. Recently, we described a multiwell plate-based DNA-linked inhibitor antibody assay (DIANA)...
November 7, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Côme J Thieulent, Erika S Hue, Christine I Fortier, Patrick Dallemagne, Stéphan Zientara, Hélène Munier-Lehmann, Aymeric Hans, Guillaume D Fortier, Pierre-Hugues Pitel, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Stéphane L Pronost
Equid alpha-herpesviruses (EHV) are responsible for different diseases in equine population. EHV-1 causes respiratory diseases, abortions and nervous disorders, EHV-4 causes respiratory diseases and sporadic abortion, while EHV-3 is responsible of equine coital exanthema. In view of the lack of efficacy of vaccines against EHV-1 and EHV-4 and in the absence of vaccines against EHV-3, the use of antiviral treatment is of great interest. In this study, we documented the interest of the Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) technology to monitor the cytopathic effects induced by these viruses on equine dermal cells, and established the efficacy of this method to evaluate the antiviral effect of aciclovir (ACV) and ganciclovir (GCV)...
October 26, 2018: Virology
Motomichi Fujita, Koji Adachi, Michiaki Nagasawa
The group of positive-sense single-stranded RNA ((+) ssRNA) viruses includes many important human pathogens. However, specific antiviral agents are not currently available for many RNA viruses. For screening of antiviral agents, methods that are simple, rapid, and compatible with high-throughput are required. Here, we describe a novel method for measurement of double-stranded RNA using a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay. This method allowed detection of human rhinovirus (HRV), enterovirus, coxsackievirus, and murine norovirus...
October 21, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Jean A Bernatchez, Zunhua Yang, Michael Coste, Jerry Li, Sungjun Beck, Yan Liu, Alex E Clark, Zhe Zhu, Lucas A Luna, Christal D Sohl, Byron W Purse, Rongshi Li, Jair L Siqueira-Neto
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to the development of microcephaly in newborns, as well as Guillain-Barré syndrome. There are currently no drugs available to treat ZIKV infection, and accordingly, there is an unmet medical need for the discovery of new therapies. High-throughput drug screening efforts focusing on indirect readouts of cell viability are prone to a higher frequency of false positives in cases where the virus is viable in the cell but the cytopathic effect (CPE) is reduced or delayed. Here, we describe a fast and label-free phenotypic high-content imaging assay to detect cells affected by the virus-induced CPE using automated imaging and analysis...
October 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Chiara Platella, Domenica Musumeci, Angela Arciello, Filippo Doria, Mauro Freccero, Antonio Randazzo, Jussara Amato, Bruno Pagano, Daniela Montesarchio
Target selectivity is one of the main challenges in the search for small molecules able to act as effective and non-toxic anticancer and/or antiviral drugs. To achieve this goal, handy, rapid and reliable High Throughput Screening methodologies are needed. We here describe a novel functionalization for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides on Controlled Pore Glass, including a flexible hexaethylene glycol spacer linking the first nucleoside through the nucleobase via a covalent bond stable to the final deprotection step...
November 7, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
María Eugenia Quintana, Lucas Barone, María Belén Forlenza, Myrian Vanesa Trotta, Cecilia Turco, Florencia Celeste Mansilla, Nancy Patricia Cardoso, Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Low-cost high-throughput methods applicable to any virus strain are required for screening antiviral compounds against multiple field strains. Colorimetric cell-viability assays are used for this purpose as long as the viruses are cytopathic (CP) in cell culture. However, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strains circulating in the field are mostly non-cytopathic (NCP). An In Cell-ELISA aimed to measure viral infectivity by detecting a conserved protein produced during viral replication (non-structural protein 3, "NS3") was developed...
October 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Amrita Saha, Badri Narayan Acharya, Raj Priya, Nagesh K Tripathi, Ambuj Shrivastava, M Kameswara Rao, Pooja Kesari, Manju Narwal, Shailly Tomar, Sameer S Bhagyawant, Manmohan Parida, Paban Kumar Dash
Chikungunya virus has emerged as one of the most important global arboviral threats over the last decade. Inspite of large scale morbidity, with long lasting polyarthralgia, so far no licensed vaccine or antiviral is available. CHIKV nsP2 protease is crucial for processing of viral nonstructural polypeptide precursor to release enzymes required for viral replication, thus making it a promising drug target. In this study, high cell density cultivation (HCDC) of Escherichia coli in batch process was carried out to produce rCHIKV nsP2pro in a cost-effective manner...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Baicheng Huang, Xia Xiao, Biyun Xue, En-Min Zhou
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a widespread disease that affects domestic pigs of all ages. Accurate and rapid detection of PRRSV specific neutralizing antibodies levels in a pig herd is beneficial for the evaluation of the herd's immunity to combat the specific viral infection. However, the current methods for viral detection, including fluorescent focus neutralization (FFN) and cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction neutralizing assays, are subjective and time-consuming...
September 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Benjamin Clémençon, Benjamin P Lüscher, Matthias A Hediger
INTRODUCTION: Membrane proteins represent roughly one third of the human proteome and many of them serve as targets of therapeutic drugs. An exception is the SLC solute carrier superfamily with only a handful of approved drugs targeting SLCs. Indeed, for many of the SLCs, the natural transport substrates are still unknown. A major limitation for SLCs has been the difficulty to thoroughly characterize these multimembrane spanning proteins. The intrinsic properties of membrane proteins with alternative hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains lead to instability, making the purification tasks even more challenging compared to soluble proteins...
July 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Karen B Fowler, Suresh B Boppana
Each year, thousands of children are born with or develop permanent disabilities such as hearing loss, vision loss, motor and cognitive deficits from congenital CMV infection (cCMV). However, awareness of cCMV and its associated sequelae is very low in pregnant women and healthcare providers. Both targeted and universal approaches to screen newborns for CMV infection are now achievable due to recent scientific advances including the development of a rapid, high-throughput method for detecting CMV in saliva, the efficacy of antiviral treatment in symptomatic infants, and the demonstration of cost effectiveness of CMV screening...
April 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Nyo Min, Pok Thim Leong, Regina Ching Hua Lee, Jeffery Seng Eng Khuan, Justin Jang Hann Chu
Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), resulting from human enterovirus A71 (HEVA71) infection can cause severe neurological complications leading to fatality in young children. Currently, there is no approved antiviral for therapeutic treatment against HEVA71 infection. In this study, a 500-compound flavonoid library was screened to identify potential inhibitors of HEVA71 using high-throughput immunofluorescence-based phenotypic screening method. Two lead flavonoid compounds, ST077124 and ST024734 at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 50 μM were found to be effective antivirals that inhibited replication of HEVA71, reducing infectious viral titers by 3...
February 2018: Antiviral Research
Na Yang, Chaomin Sun, Lixin Zhang, Jianguo Liu, Fuhang Song
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to severe liver diseases, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-structural protein 3 helicase (NS3h) and non-structural protein 5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) are involved in the replication of HCV RNA genome, and have been proved to be excellent targets for discovery of direct-acting antivirals. In this study, two high-throughput screening systems, fluorescence polarization (FP)-based ssDNA binding assay and fluorescence intensity (FI)-based dsRNA formation assay, were constructed to identify candidate NS3h and NS5B inhibitors, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andri Vasou, Christina Paulus, Janina Narloch, Zoe O Gage, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Jean-François Eléouët, Michael Nevels, Richard E Randall, Catherine S Adamson
Viral interferon (IFN) antagonists are a diverse class of viral proteins that counteract the host IFN response, which is important for controlling viral infections. Viral IFN antagonists are often multifunctional proteins that perform vital roles in virus replication beyond IFN antagonism. The critical importance of viral IFN antagonists is highlighted by the fact that almost all viruses encode one of these proteins. Inhibition of viral IFN antagonists has the potential to exert pleiotropic antiviral effects and thus this important protein class represents a diverse plethora of novel therapeutic targets...
February 2018: Antiviral Research
Teilo Schaller, Tobias Wenner, Rupesh Agrawal, Stephen Teoh, Li Ting Phua, Joachim S C Loo, Terry W J Steele
Ganciclovir and valganciclor are antiviral agents used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. The conventional method for administering ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis patients is repeated intravitreal injections. In order to obviate the possible detrimental effects of repeated intraocular injections, to improve compliance and to eliminate systemic side-effects, we investigated the tuning of the ganciclovir pro-drug valganciclovir and the release from thin films of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), or mixtures of both, as a step towards prototyping periocular valganciclovir implants...
April 13, 2015: Materials
Hong-Wei Ma, Wei Ye, He-Song Chen, Tie-Jian Nie, Lin-Feng Cheng, Liang Zhang, Pei-Jun Han, Xing-An Wu, Zhi-Kai Xu, Ying-Feng Lei, Fang-Lin Zhang
Hantaviruses encompass rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality rates in humans. Detection of infectious virus titer lays a solid foundation for virology and immunology researches. Canonical methods to assess viral titers rely on visible cytopathic effects (CPE), but Hantaan virus (HTNV, the prototype hantavirus) maintains a relatively sluggish life cycle and does not produce CPE in cell culture. Here, an in-cell Western (ICW) assay was utilized to rapidly measure the expression of viral proteins in infected cells and to establish a novel approach to detect viral titers...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Dezső P Virók, Ildikó Eszik, Tímea Mosolygó, Kamil Önder, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are common human pathogens that can cause painful but benign manifestations and recurrent complaints, but can also cause significant morbidity and mortality on infection of the eye or brain and with disseminated infection of an immunosuppressed patient or a neonate. HSV growth inhibition measurement by plaque or yield reduction is a key task in the development of novel antiviral compounds but the manual methods are very labour intensive. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for quantitation of HSV DNA related to virus replication; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, namely the requirement of purification of DNA from the infected cells...
April 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Robert S Adcock, Yong-Kyu Chu, Jennifer E Golden, Dong-Hoon Chung
Recent studies have clearly underscored the association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and severe neurological diseases such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Given the historical complacency surrounding this virus, however, no significant antiviral screenings have been performed to specifically target ZIKV. As a result, there is an urgent need for a validated screening method and strategy that is focused on highlighting potential anti-ZIKV inhibitors that can be further advanced via rigorous validation and optimization...
February 2017: Antiviral Research
Sarit Kipper, Dorit Avrahami, Monika Bajorek, Doron Gerber
We present a high-throughput microfluidics platform to identify novel host cell binding partners of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) matrix (M) protein. The device consists of thousands of reaction chambers controlled by micro-mechanical valves. The microfluidic device is mated to a microarray-printed custom-made gene library. These genes are then transcribed and translated on-chip, resulting in a protein array ready for binding to RSV M protein.Even small viral proteome, such as that of RSV, presents a challenge due to the fact that viral proteins are usually multifunctional and thus their interaction with the host is complex...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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