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Myocardial ischemia management

Arsalan Majeed Adam, Muhammad Armughan Ali, Arshad Ali Shah, Ather Hasan Rizvi, Aiman Rehan, Ansab Godil, Abdul Haseeb Abbas, Najam Ul Ain Durrani, Ali Tariq Shaikh, Muhammad Saad Ali Mallick, Muhammad Nawaz Lashari
Background : The diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have improved significantly over the past few decades; however, the recognition of myocardial ischemia still proves to be a dilemma for cardiologists. The aim of this study was to determine the role of hematological and coagulation parameters in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with ACS. Methods: This prospective study recruited 250 patients with ACS and 250 healthy controls. The diagnostic role of hematological and coagulation parameters was assessed by comparing the patients with ACS with the control group...
July 2018: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
Salvior Mok, David Majdalany, Gosta B Pettersson
Background: Myocardial bridge is defined as a segment of a coronary artery that takes an intramyocardial course. The presence of myocardial bridge has been observed in as many as 40%-80% of cases on autopsy, angiographically from 0.5% to 16.0%, and often asymptomatic. However, it has been associated with angina, coronary spasm, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, syncope, sudden cardiac arrest, and death. Conflicting opinions exist on the timing of surgical intervention for myocardial bridge...
2019: SAGE open medical case reports
Gloria Santangelo, Alfonso Ielasi, Francesco Pattarino, Antonio Tommaso Saino, Pasquale Antonio Scopelliti, Maurizio Tespili
A 61-year-old man, admitted to our hospital for bilateral pulmonary embolism, complicated by right renal ischemia and multiple splenic infarcts due to a mobile thrombus entrapped in a patent foramen ovale, has been successfully treated with apixaban 5 mg twice daily followed by transcatheter patent foramen ovale closure. < Learning objective: Apixaban could be a therapeutic alternative to thrombolysis and surgery in patients with warfarin-resistant thrombus straddling in the patent foramen ovale (PFO). Furthermore, apixaban could be a simple and useful option to manage patients undergoing transcatheter PFO closure...
January 2019: Journal of Cardiology Cases
Peter Khalil, Ghazal Kabbach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) continues to evolve, many old practices proved to be of a little benefit and other approaches established the new pillars of modern medicine. Treating ACS patients with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for a year by combining aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel) has resulted in better outcomes and is currently the standard of therapy. However, owing to the persistent activation of the coagulation cascade, patients may continue to experience recurrent ischemia and high mortality rates despite compliance with the dual antiplatelet therapy...
January 28, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Abdulkadir Uslu, Serdar Demir, Munevver Sari, Cem Dogan, Ozge Akgun, Mehmet Celik, Taylan Akgun
Spontaneous and simultaneous multivessel coronary artery spasm may present with multisite myocardial ischemia, atrioventricular block, acute lung edema, cardiogenic shock, or ventricular fibrillation. In a case of syncope caused by vasospasm, the underlying mechanism may be complex, such as atrioventricular block and/or ventricular arrhythmia. Dual implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement should be considered along with optimal medical treatment. This report is a description of a 57-year-old male patient who was admitted to the hospital with chest pain followed by loss of consciousness...
September 2018: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
Zuojing Zhang, Meiying Xu, Dehua Wu, Xiaofeng Zhang, Jingxiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Risk of intraoperative hypothermia is relatively high in middle-aged and elderly patients undergoing curative resection of esophageal cancer, which may cause myocardial ischemia during the early postoperative period. The objective of this study was to compare aggressive or standard body temperature management for lowering the incidence of postoperative myocardial injury that was assessed by troponin levels collected at a priori defined set times in these patients. METHODS: Seventy patients undergoing elective curative resection of esophageal cancer were randomly assigned to undergo aggressive body temperature management (nasopharyngeal temperature ≥36°C) or standard body temperature management (n = 35 in each arm)...
January 21, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Benjamin R Griffin, Katja M Gist, Sarah Faubel
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious medical condition associated with significant increases in morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the high incidence and poor outcomes associated with AKI, there has been significant interest in the development of new therapies for the prevention and treatment of the disease. A lack of efficacy in drug trials led to the concern that AKI was not being diagnosed early enough for an effective intervention and that a rise in serum creatinine itself is not a sensitive-enough marker...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Christina Routsi, Ioannis Stanopoulos, Stelios Kokkoris, Antonios Sideris, Spyros Zakynthinos
Among the multiple causes of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation, cardiovascular dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a quite frequent cause that can be treated successfully. In this review, we summarize the contemporary evidence of the most important clinical and diagnostic aspects of weaning failure of cardiovascular origin with special focus on treatment. Pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and mainly include increase in right and left ventricular preload and afterload and potentially induce myocardial ischemia...
January 9, 2019: Annals of Intensive Care
Alexander N Orekhov, Andrey V Grechko, Elena B Romanenko, Dongwei Zhang, Dimitry A Chistiakov
Atherosclerosis is a chronic arterial disease characterized by vascular inflammation, accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall, and formation and growth of atherosclerotic plaques followed by ischemia. In subclinical atherosclerosis, cholesterol retention in subendothelial cells leads to induction of local inflammation, generation of foam cells and lesion formation, followed by a chain of other pathogenic events. Atherosclerotic progression can frequently be fatal, since plaque rupture may lead to thrombosis and acute events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden death...
December 31, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Aram J Mirza, Abdulsalam Y Taha, Bahar R Khdhir
Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to a spectrum of symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia. Plasma markers of inflammation have been recently identified as diagnostic aid and risk predictors. The present study, conducted in Slemani Cardiac Hospital (SCH), Sulaimaniyah, Iraq aimed to recognize some risk factors for ACS in Iraqi adults younger than 40. Methodology: This is a prospective case-control study of 100 patients with ACS vs. a control group of 100 healthy volunteers...
December 2018: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
Mauricio Sendra Ferrer, Mario D Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients with myocardial ischemia requiring hemodynamic support can be refractory to available antiarrhythmic agents and even to cardioversion and defibrillation. The purpose of this study was to report the effect of intravenous ibutilide in patients with a VT and/or VF storm in the presence of incomplete revascularization requiring hemodynamic support. METHODS AND RESULTS: Standard continuous telemetry and frequent 12 lead electrocardiograms were obtained to determine the effect of intravenous Ibutilide in these patients...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Marco Gennari, Gianluca Polvani, Mauro Pepi, Francesco Arlati, Andrea Annoni, Marco Agrifoglio
BACKGROUND: Valve thrombosis - either biological or mechanical - is proved to increase patient's morbidity and mortality. No consensus exist on the best management in such cases. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 69-year-old man presenting with a late thrombosis of a transcatheter aortic valve who was medically managed until he acutely worsened, developing myocardial ischemia and cardiogenic shock. CONCLUSION: This unlucky case raises a word of caution about the safety of a reactive management...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Christoph B Olivier, Hillary Mulder, William R Hiatt, W Schuyler Jones, F Gerry R Fowkes, Frank W Rockhold, Jeffrey S Berger, Iris Baumgartner, Peter Held, Brian G Katona, Lars Norgren, Juuso Blomster, Manesh R Patel, Kenneth W Mahaffey
Importance: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at high risk for myocardial infarction (MI). Objective: To characterize the incidence and types of MI in a PAD population, identify factors associated with MI, and determine the association of MI with cardiovascular mortality and acute limb ischemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Study Comparing Cardiovascular Effects of Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (EUCLID) was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted at 811 sites in 28 countries that randomized 13 885 patients with symptomatic PAD to monotherapy with ticagrelor or clopidogrel...
December 12, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Vinko Boc, Mojca Božic Mijovski, Maja Pohar Perme, Ales Blinc
BACKGROUND: The role of genetic polymorphisms in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is incompletely understood. We tested whether selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with PAD and with adverse events in an observational study cohort. Also, the role of diabetes and smoking was studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 742 patients with PAD and 713 age- and gender-matched control subjects were subjected to yearly physical and laboratory investigations and were managed for 5 years according to the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention...
December 11, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Christopher Jou, Rian Shah, Andrew Figueroa, Jignesh K Patel
INTRODUCTION: Post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) is characterized by systemic ischemia/reperfusion injury, anoxic brain injury, and post-arrest myocardial dysfunction superimposed on a precipitating pathology. The role of inflammatory cytokines in cardiac arrest remains unclear. AIMS: We aimed to describe, with an emphasis on clinical applications, what is known about the role of inflammatory cytokines in cardiac arrest. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed literature review was performed for relevant articles...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Kristina Lambrakis, John K French, Ian A Scott, Tom Briffa, David Brieger, Michael E Farkouh, Harvey White, Anthony Ming-Yu Chuang, Kathryn Tiver, Stephen Quinn, Billingsley Kaambwa, Matthew Horsfall, Erin Morton, Derek P Chew
BACKGROUND: Elevated troponin level findings among patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or another intercurrent illness undeniably identifies patients at increased risk of mortality. Whilst enhancing our capacity to discriminate risk, the use of high-sensitivity troponin assays frequently identifies patients with myocardial injury (i.e. troponin rise without acute signs of myocardial ischemia) or type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI; oxygen supply-demand imbalance)...
October 25, 2018: American Heart Journal
Valeria Raparelli, Marco Proietti, Andrea Lenzi, Stefania Basili
Improvements in ischemic heart disease (IHD) management have been unbalanced between sexes, with coronary microvascular dysfunction considered the likely underlying reason. The Endocrine Vascular disease Approach (EVA) is an observational study ( NCT02737982) aiming to assess sex and gender interactions between coronary circulation, sexual hormones, and platelet function. Consecutive patients with IHD undergoing coronary angiography will be recruited: (1) to assess sex and gender differences in angiographic reperfusion indexes; (2) to evaluate the effects of estrogen/androgen on sex-related differences in myocardial ischemia; (3) to investigate the platelet biology differences between men and women with IHD; (4) to verify sex- and gender-driven interplay between response to percutaneous coronary intervention, platelets, sex hormones, and myocardial damage at baseline and its impact on 12-month outcomes...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Xin Yu, Liang Ge, Liang Niu, Xin Lian, Haichun Ma, Lei Pang
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) from the amino acid L-arginine in the body. Among the three key NOSs, the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) can only be induced by inflammatory stimuli and contribute to the large amount of NO production. iNOS-derived NO plays an important role in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including the ischemic heart disease. Nowadays, the development of specific iNOS inhibitors and the availability of iNOS knockout mice have provided substantial evidence to support the role of iNOS/NO signaling in the myocardium...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Georgios Tzanis, Alessandro Durante, Satoru Mitomo, Francesco Giannini
Coronary sinus Reducer represents a novel therapeutic option for refractory angina. As emerging evidence of both reduction in angina symptoms and reduction of myocardial ischemia burden might lead to increased Reducer implantations, knowledge on how to manage potential complications is of clinical importance. We report a successful management of scaffold migration in right atrium.
November 29, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Anna Z Fashandi, J Hunter Mehaffey, Robert B Hawkins, Irving L Kron, Gilbert R Upchurch, William P Robinson
OBJECTIVE: Major adverse limb events (MALEs) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at 30 days provide standardized metrics for comparison and have been adopted by the Society for Vascular Surgery's objective performance goals for critical limb ischemia. However, MALEs and MACEs have not been widely adopted within the claudication population, and the comparative outcomes after lower extremity bypass (LEB) and infrainguinal endovascular intervention (IEI) remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare MALEs and MACEs after LEB and IEI in a contemporary national cohort and to determine predictors of MALEs and MACEs after revascularization for claudication...
December 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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