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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874897/effect-of-crhr1-and-crhr2-gene-polymorphisms-and-childhood-trauma-in-suicide-attempt
#1
M A Sanabrais-Jiménez, C E Sotelo-Ramirez, B Ordoñez-Martinez, J Jiménez-Pavón, G Ahumada-Curiel, S Piana-Diaz, G Flores-Flores, M Flores-Ramos, A Jiménez-Anguiano, B Camarena
Family, twin, and adoption studies have suggested that genetic factors might be involved in suicidal behavior. Corticotropin-releasing receptor type 1 (CRHR1) and 2 (CRHR2) genes play a key role in the activation and modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is considered a major stress regulator. Childhood trauma is an environmental risk factor associated with suicide attempt (SA) and it has been related to HPA axis dysregulation. This study aimed at analyzing the relationship of CRHR1 and CRHR2 genes with childhood trauma concerning the development of SA...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864870/%C3%AE-caryophyllene-a-natural-sesquiterpene-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-experimental-diabetic-mice
#2
Dalia Samanta Aguilar-Ávila, Mario Eduardo Flores-Soto, Carolina Tapia-Vázquez, Omar Alonso Pastor-Zarandona, Rocío Ivette López-Roa, Juan Manuel Viveros-Paredes
Neuropathic pain (NP) is associated with chronic hyperglycemia and emotional disorders such as depression in diabetic patients, complicating the course of treatment. Drugs currently used to treat NP have undesirable side effects, so research on other natural sources has been required. β-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural sesquiterpene found in some food condiments and considered an agonist to cannabinoid receptor type 2, could have potential therapeutic effects to treat conditions such as NP and emotional disorders...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862664/kappa-opioid-receptors-drive-a-tonic-aversive-component-of-chronic-pain
#3
Shiwei Steve Liu, Sarah Pickens, Nicole E Burma, Ines Ibarra-Lecue, Hongyan Yang, Lihua Xue, Chris Cook, Joshua K Hakimian, Amie L Severino, Lindsay Lueptow, Kristina Komarek, Anna M W Taylor, Mary C Olmstead, F Ivy Carroll, Caroline E Bass, Anne M Andrews, Wendy Walwyn, Tuan Trang, Christopher J Evans, Frances Leslie, Catherine M Cahill
Pain is a multidimensional experience and negative affect, or how much the pain is "bothersome", significantly impacts the sufferers' quality of life. It is well established that the kappa opioid system contributes to depressive and dysphoric states, but whether this system contributes to the negative affect precipitated by the occurrence of chronic pain remains tenuous. Using a model of persistent pain, we show by quantitative RT-PCR, florescence in situ hybridization, western blotting and GTPgS autoradiography an upregulation of expression and the function of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) and its endogenous ligand dynorphin in the mesolimbic circuitry in animals with chronic pain compared to surgical controls...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30861133/new-viral-genetic-mapping-uncovers-an-enrichment-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-expressing-neuronal-inputs-to-the-nucleus-accumbens-from-stress-related-brain-regions
#4
Christy A Itoga, Yuncai Chen, Cameron Fateri, Paula A Echeverry, Jennifer M Lai, Jasmine Delgado, Shapatur Badhon, Annabel Short, Tallie Z Baram, Xiangmin Xu
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an essential, evolutionarily-conserved stress- neuropeptide. In addition to hypothalamus, CRH is expressed in brain regions including amygdala and hippocampus where it plays crucial roles in modulating the function of circuits underlying emotion and cognition. CRH+ fibers are found in nucleus accumbens (NAc), where CRH modulates reward/motivation behaviors. CRH actions in NAc may vary by the individual's stress history, suggesting roles for CRH in neuroplasticity and adaptation of the reward circuitry...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30856476/emotional-arousal-amplifies-competitions-across-goal-relevant-representation-a-neurocomputational-framework
#5
Michiko Sakaki, Taiji Ueno, Allison Ponzio, Carolyn W Harley, Mara Mather
Emotional arousal often facilitates memory for some aspects of an event while impairing memory for other aspects of the same event. Across three experiments, we found that emotional arousal amplifies competition among goal-relevant representations, such that arousal impairs memory for multiple goal-relevant representations while enhancing memory for solo goal-relevant information. We also present a computational model to explain the mechanisms by which emotional arousal can modulate memory in opposite ways via the local/synaptic-level noradrenergic system...
March 8, 2019: Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30848012/the-meaning-of-acceptance-thum-jai-in-thai-people-letting-it-go%C3%A2-so-life-goes-on
#6
Andrew C Mills, Jidapa Poogpan, Choochart Wong-Anuchit, Darunee Rujkorakarn
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning of acceptance (Thum-jai) as a culturally embedded coping strategy in the lives of Thai people who have experienced adversity that caused suffering. Thematic analysis was used to examine the responses of 47 participants to written, open-ended questions or face-to-face interviews. The EQUATOR's COREQ checklist for qualitative research was followed. Participants came from diverse religious' traditions and geographic regions throughout Thailand. Findings revealed seven themes: circumstance and emotion; thought and action; time, experience, and effort; social and moral support; religious and spiritual ethos; acceptance and hope; and survive and thrive...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30844310/a-multiscale-analysis-in-cd38-mice-unveils-major-prefrontal-cortex-dysfunctions
#7
Lora L Martucci, Muriel Amar, Remi Chaussenot, Gabriel Benet, Oscar Bauer, Antoine de Zélicourt, Anne Nosjean, Jean-Marie Launay, Jacques Callebert, Catherine Sebrié, Antony Galione, Jean-Marc Edeline, Sabine de la Porte, Philippe Fossier, Sylvie Granon, Cyrille Vaillend, José-Manuel Cancela
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by early onset of behavioral and cognitive alterations. Low plasma levels of oxytocin (OT) have also been found in ASD patients; recently, a critical role for the enzyme CD38 in the regulation of OT release was demonstrated. CD38 is important in regulating several Ca2+ -dependent pathways, but beyond its role in regulating OT secretion, it is not known whether a deficit in CD38 expression leads to functional modifications of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a structure involved in social behavior...
March 7, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837923/emotional-reactivity-to-incentive-downshift-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-during-adolescence
#8
José Manuel Lerma-Cabrera, Camilo Andrés Arévalo-Romero, Gustavo Alfredo Cortés-Toledo, Alfredo Alfonso Adriasola-Carrasco, Francisca Carvajal
Alcohol use in adolescents is often characterized by binge-like ethanol consumption pattern, which is associated with long-term health consequences and even with important harms to his developing brain. Among this, ethanol exposure induces long-lasting alterations in anxiety-related neurobiological systems such as corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) or melanocortin system (MC). Recently, it has been demonstrated that adult rats exposed to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure exhibited anxiogenic-like behavior...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30822228/narrative-storytelling-as-both-an-advocacy-tool-and-a-therapeutic-process-perspectives-of-adult-storytellers-with-acquired-brain-injury
#9
Kate D'Cruz, Jacinta Douglas, Tanya Serry
As part of a larger study exploring narrative storytelling, this paper focuses upon the experiences of eight adults with ABI who had participated in storytelling workshops facilitated by an advocacy organization. Following participation in the storytelling workshops, each storyteller was interviewed twice, with three shorter interviews conducted with one participant with significant communication challenges. In total, 25 interview transcripts (17 interviews plus eight transcripts of produced personal narratives) were analysed using constructivist grounded theory methods...
March 1, 2019: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30817770/the-influence-of-olfactory-disgust-on-genital-sexual-arousal-in-men
#10
Charmaine Borg, Tamara A Oosterwijk, Dominika Lisy, Sanne Boesveldt, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND: The generation or persistence of sexual arousal may be compromised when inhibitory processes such as negative emotions, outweigh sexual excitation. Disgust particularly, has been proposed as one of the emotions that may counteract sexual arousal. In support of this view, previous research has shown that disgust priming can reduce subsequent sexual arousal. As a crucial next step, this experimental study tested whether disgust (by means of odor) can also diminish sexual arousal in individuals who are already in a state of heightened sexual excitation...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768781/-you-probably-can-t-feel-as-safe-as-normal-women-hispanic-women-s-reactions-to-breast-density-notification
#11
Alsacia L Pacsi-Sepulveda, Rachel C Shelton, Carmen B Rodriguez, Arielle T Coq, Parisa Tehranifar
BACKGROUND: Patient advocacy has led to state-level legislative mandates for the release of personal mammographic breast density information to women undergoing screening mammography. More research is needed to understand the impact of this information on women's perceptions and mammography screening behavior. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted in English and Spanish with 24 self-identified Hispanic women who had undergone at least 1 mammogram since breast density notification was enacted in New York State...
February 15, 2019: Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755721/a-hypothalamus-habenula-circuit-controls-aversion
#12
Iakovos Lazaridis, Ourania Tzortzi, Moritz Weglage, Antje Märtin, Yang Xuan, Marc Parent, Yvonne Johansson, Janos Fuzik, Daniel Fürth, Lief E Fenno, Charu Ramakrishnan, Gilad Silberberg, Karl Deisseroth, Marie Carlén, Konstantinos Meletis
Encoding and predicting aversive events are critical functions of circuits that support survival and emotional well-being. Maladaptive circuit changes in emotional valence processing can underlie the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The lateral habenula (LHb) has been linked to aversion and mood regulation through modulation of the dopamine and serotonin systems. We have defined the identity and function of glutamatergic (Vglut2) control of the LHb, comparing the role of inputs originating in the globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), respectively...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747098/fibromyalgia-and-the-concept-of-resilience
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Casale, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Rossana Botto, Alessandra Alciati, Alberto Batticciotto, Daniela Marotto, Riccardo Torta
The concept of resilience varies according to the context in which it is used. Resilience is broadly defined as a protective factor that makes people less vulnerable to future adverse life events, in this implying the previous occurrence of an adverse event that has to be confronted before individual equilibrium can be restored. This definition can be applied to fibromyalgia and other chronic pain situations. Resilience is profoundly related to reaction to acute or chronic stress, and is therefore involved in the stress response system...
January 2019: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742315/combined-hormonal-contraceptives-for-heavy-menstrual-bleeding
#14
REVIEW
Anne Lethaby, Michelle R Wise, Maria Aj Weterings, Magdalena Bofill Rodriguez, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Menorrhagia or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an excessive blood loss that impairs a woman's quality of life, either physical, emotional, social or material. It is benign and not associated with pregnancy or any other gynaecological or systemic disease. Medical treatments used to reduce excessive menstrual blood loss (MBL) include prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, antifibrinolytics, oral contraceptive pills, and other hormones. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is claimed to have a variety of beneficial effects, inducing a regular shedding of a thinner endometrium and inhibiting ovulation, thus having the effect of both treating HMB and providing contraception...
February 11, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711532/the-role-of-stress-in-drug-addiction-an-integrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Pablo Ruisoto, Israel Contador
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence and burden to society of drug abuse and addiction is undisputed. However, its conceptualisation as a brain disease is controversial, and available interventions insufficient. Research on the role of stress in drug addiction may bridge positions and develop more effective interventions. AIM: The aim of this paper is to integrate the most influential literature to date on the role of stress in drug addiction. METHODS: A literature search was conducted of the core collections of Web of Science and Semantic Scholar on the topic of stress and addiction from a neurobiological perspective in humans...
April 1, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30699168/chronic-stress-influences-attentional-and-judgement-bias-and-the-activity-of-the-hpa-axis-in-sheep
#16
Else Verbeek, Ian Colditz, Dominique Blache, Caroline Lee
INTRODUCTION: Environmental challenges are part of everyday life for most domestic animals. However, very little is known about how animals cope emotionally and physiologically with cumulative challenges. This experiment aimed to determine the impact of long-term exposure to environmental challenges on the affective state and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a subsequent additional acute shearing challenge. METHODS: Sheep were exposed to either a long-term environmental challenge (rest disruption and individual housing) in order to induce chronic stress (chronic stress group) or control conditions (group housing in a field with low stress handling and daily feed rewards, control group)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684507/mom-doesn-t-care-when-increased-brain-crf-system-activity-leads-to-maternal-neglect-in-rodents
#17
REVIEW
Stefanie M Klampfl, Oliver J Bosch
Mothers are the primary caregivers in mammals, ensuring the survival of their offspring. This strongly depends on the adequate expression of maternal behavior, which is the result of a concerted action of "pro-maternal" versus "anti-maternal" neuromodulators such as the oxytocin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, respectively. When essential peripartum adaptations fail, the CRF system activity has negative physiological, emotional and behavioral consequences for both mother and offspring often resulting in maternal neglect...
January 23, 2019: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678532/a-walk-on-the-dark-side-tms-over-the-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-rifg-disrupts-behavioral-responses-to-infant-stimuli
#18
Pietro De Carli, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Laura Parolin, Carlotta Lega, Beatrice Zanardo, Zaira Cattaneo, Madelon M E Riem
Infant signals, including infant sounds and facial expressions, play a critical role in eliciting parental proximity and care. Processing of infant signals in the adulthood brain is likely to recruit emotional empathy neural circuits, including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to test the role of right IFG (rIFG) in behavioral responses to infant signals. Specifically, a group of nulliparous women were asked to perform a handgrip dynamometer task and an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT) after receiving TMS over the right IFG or over a control site (vertex)...
January 25, 2019: Social Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678530/the-striatum-s-role-in-executing-rational-and-irrational-economic-behaviors
#19
Ian J Bamford, Nigel S Bamford
The striatum is a critical component of the brain that controls motor, reward, and executive function. This ancient and phylogenetically conserved structure forms a central hub where rapid instinctive, reflexive movements and behaviors in response to sensory stimulation or the retrieval of emotional memory intersect with slower planned motor movements and rational behaviors. This review emphasizes two distinct pathways that begin in the thalamus and converge in the striatum to differentially affect movements, behaviors, and decision making...
January 24, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630016/pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-regulates-behaviors-in-adolescent-female-rats-following-with-neonatal-maternal-deprivation-and-chronic-mild-stress
#20
Yilu Ye, Siqi Yao, Rouxin Wang, Zekang Fang, Kai Zhong, Li Nie, Qi Zhang
The early-life aversive experiences are associated with the increased risk for adolescent neuropsychiatric disorders and neuroinflammation. So, we used neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) and chronic mild stress (CMS) to build adolescent depression model and investigate the role of microglia activation, PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway in female rats. Pups in NMD group were separated from mothers for 3 h each day from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 21 and rats in CMS group were subjected to one mild stressor each day from PND 22 to PND 42...
January 7, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
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