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Low grade inflammation

Jolan Dupont, Lenore Dedeyne, Sebastiaan Dalle, Katrien Koppo, Evelien Gielen
Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome with increasing importance due to the aging of the population. It is known to impose a major burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and socio-economic costs. Therefore, adequate preventive and treatment strategies are required. Progressive resistance training and protein supplementation are currently recommended for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might be an alternative therapeutic agent for sarcopenia due to their anti-inflammatory properties, which target the 'inflammaging', the age-related chronic low-grade inflammation which is assumed to contribute to the development of sarcopenia...
February 19, 2019: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Alexios-Fotios A Mentis, Marina Boziki, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects an estimated 4.4 billion people globally. Moreover, H. pylori presents the most significant risk factor for gastric cancer and low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and it is the first example of bacterial infection linked to carcinogenesis. Here, we contend that H. pylori research, which focuses on a cancer-causing pathogen resident in a relatively accessible organ, the stomach, could constitute an exemplar for microbial-related carcinogenesis in less tractable organs, such as the pancreas and lung...
February 19, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Anna Picca, Flora Guerra, Riccardo Calvani, Cecilia Bucci, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Hélio José Coelho-Júnior, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
The progressive decline of cell function and integrity, manifesting clinically as increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes and death, is core to biological aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, altered intercellular communication (including chronic low-grade inflammation), genomic instability, telomere attrition, loss of proteostasis, altered nutrient sensing, epigenetic alterations, and stem cell exhaustion have been proposed as hallmarks of aging. These "aging pillars" are not mutually exclusive, making the matter intricate and leaving numerous unanswered questions...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erika Di Zazzo, Rita Polito, Silvia Bartollino, Ersilia Nigro, Carola Porcile, Andrea Bianco, Aurora Daniele, Bruno Moncharmont
Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy balance playing an active role in lipid storage as well as in synthesizing several hormones directly involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Obesity represents a peculiar risk factor for a growing list of cancers and is frequently associated to poor clinical outcome. The mechanism linking obesity and cancer is not completely understood, but, amongst the major players, there are both chronic low-grade inflammation and deregulation of adipokines secretion. In obesity, the adipose tissue is pervaded by an abnormal number of immune cells that create an inflammatory environment supporting tumor cell proliferation and invasion...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kyoko Ikumi, Mizuyu Odanaka, Hiroaki Shime, Masaki Imai, Satoshi Osaga, Osamu Taguchi, Emi Nishida, Hiroaki Hemmi, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Akimichi Morita, Sayuri Yamazaki
Chronic low-grade inflammation can cause several metabolic syndromes. Patients with psoriasis, a chronic immunological skin inflammation, often develop diabetes. However, it is not clear to date how psoriasis leads to, or is correlated with, glucose intolerance. Here, we investigate whether psoriasis itself correlates with hyperglycemia in humans and mice. In patients, severity of psoriasis was correlated with high blood glucose levels and treatment of psoriasis by phototherapy improved insulin secretion. Imiquimod (IMQ)-induced systemic and cutaneous inflammation in mice, with features of human psoriasis, also resulted in hyperglycemia...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Zhiwen Jiang, Yanan Song, Jing Qiao, Yan Yang, Wei Zhang, Wanshun Liu, Baoqin Han
Chitosan as a natural bioactive biopolymer has been commonly employed in guidance conduit for repairing peripheral nerve injury, due to its excellent properties of low toxicity, antibacterial properties, high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this study, chitin and CM-chitosan were prepared from pharmaceutical grade chitosan. Moreover, a novel composite chitosan-based nerve graft comprising microporous chitin-based conduit and internal CM-chitosan fiber was constructed and applied to bridge sciatic nerve across a 10-mm defect in SD rats...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sara Castro-Sánchez, Ángel J García-Yagüe, Sebastian Kügler, Isabel Lastres-Becker
TAU protein aggregation is the main characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also another hallmark that indicates crosstalk between damaged neurons and glial cells. Previously, we have demonstrated that neurons overexpressing TAUP301L release CX3CL1, which activates the transcription factor NRF2 signalling to limit over-activation in microglial cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the connection between CX3CL1/CX3CR1 and NRF2 system and its functional implications in microglia are poorly described...
February 6, 2019: Redox Biology
Cecilie Bay-Richter, Eskild Petersen, Nico Liebenberg, Betina Elfving, Gregers Wegener
Toxoplasma gondii (TOX) is an intracellular parasite which infects warm-blooded animals including humans. An increasing number of clinical studies now hypothesize that latent toxoplasmosis may be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disease. For depression, the results have been varied and we speculate that genetic background is important for the response to latent toxoplasmosis. The main objective of this study was to elucidate gene - environment interactions in the behavioural response to TOX infection by use of genetically vulnerable animals (Flinders sensitive line, FSL) compared to control animals (Flinders resistant line, FRL)...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Paul Pettersson-Pablo, Torbjörn K Nilsson, Lars H Breimer, Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf
The primary aim was to appraise the relationship between body fat percentage and the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and orosomucoid in a population of young, non-smoking, healthy, Swedish adults, without any chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to compare whether these associations differed between the women using estrogen contraceptives and those who did not. We assessed the association in linear regression models between body fat percentage based on a bio-impedance measurement and plasma concentrations of CRP and orosomucoid in men and women aged 18-26 years, n = 834...
February 15, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Hiroto Miwa, Tadayuki Oshima, Toshihiko Tomita, Hirokazu Fukui, Takashi Kondo, Takahisa Yamasaki, Jiro Watari
Over almost 30 years since functional dyspepsia (FD) was defined, researchers have endeavored to elucidate the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Now a consensus is emerging that the gastric symptoms of FD are caused mainly by gastric motility abnormalities and gastric hypersensitivity. The involvement of other causative factors including acid, Helicobacter pylori, psychological factors, and diet has been debated, but how they are involved in the manifestation of dyspeptic symptoms remains unclear...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Gastroenterology
Tomohiko Machida, Shuhei Ohta, Yoshihito Kakimoto, Akira Toyoda, Yoshitake Endou, Osamu Murakami
An 81-year old man with a perirectal abscess was referred in May 2017 by another hospital. We observed swelling in the anal region at the 4 o'clock position and performed incisional drainage. Although this alleviated the pain and inflammation in the anal region, the irritation recurred in early June. The patient presented with bloody stools and a low-grade fever since late June. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)confirmed a solid tumor in the center of the lower rectum(Rb), outside of the anal fistula. We surmised this was rectal cancer...
January 2019: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Rashida Ginwala, Raina Bhavsar, DeGaulle I Chigbu, Pooja Jain, Zafar K Khan
Inflammation has been reported to be intimately linked to the development or worsening of several non-infectious diseases. A number of chronic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders emerge as a result of tissue injury and genomic changes induced by constant low-grade inflammation in and around the affected tissue or organ. The existing therapies for most of these chronic conditions sometimes leave more debilitating effects than the disease itself, warranting the advent of safer, less toxic, and more cost-effective therapeutic alternatives for the patients...
February 5, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Helena Angelica Pereira Batatinha, Tiego Aparecido Diniz, Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Karsten Krüger, Jose Cesar Rosa-Neto
Aging is one of the risk factors for the development of low-grade inflammation morbidities, such as several types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, due to changes in the metabolism, hormonal secretion, and immunosenescence. The senescence of the immune system leads to improper control of infections and tissue damage increasing age-related diseases. One of the mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis is autophagy, a cell-survival mechanism, and it has been proposed as one of the most powerful antiaging therapies...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sven P Hoekstra, Adam K A Wright, Nicolette C Bishop, Christof A Leicht
The acute inflammatory response to active or passive activities that increase body temperature may aid to reduce chronic low-grade inflammation. This study investigates the impact of temperature and extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) on the acute intracellular Hsp72 (iHsp72) and interleukin-6 (iIL-6) response in monocytes. Whole blood was incubated for 2 h at 37.0 °C, 38.5 °C and 40.0 °C, in the absence or presence of 0.5 μg/ml eHsp72. Flow cytometry was used to assess iHsp72 and iIL-6 expression in total monocytes and the three monocyte subsets...
February 12, 2019: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Lauriane Galle-Treger, Ishwarya Sankaranarayanan, Benjamin P Hurrell, Emily Howard, Richard Lo, Hadi Maazi, Gavin Lewis, Homayon Banie, Alan L Epstein, Peisheng Hu, Virender K Rehan, Frank D Gilliland, Hooman Allayee, Pejman Soroosh, Arlene H Sharpe, Omid Akbari
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by disturbances in glucose homeostasis and the development of low-grade systemic inflammation, which increase the risk to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a recently discovered immune population secreting Th2 cytokines. While previous studies show how ILC2s can play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in the adipose tissue, a therapeutic target capable of modulating ILC2 activation has yet to be identified...
February 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Won-Jun Choi, Ji-Won Lee, A Ra Cho, Yong-Jae Lee
Chronic exposure to tobacco smoke leads to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation; however, little is known about the dose-dependent toxic effect of objective tobacco smoking on systemic inflammation. We examined the dose-dependent toxic effect of cotinine-verified tobacco smoking on leukocyte count in a representative sample of Korean adults, including 8655 men and 10,432 women aged 19⁻65 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The participants were categorized into five groups by the level of urine cotinine (Ucot) as follows: A non-smoker group (<50...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rosa Divella, Antonio Mazzocca, Antonella Daniele, Carlo Sabbà, Angelo Paradiso
Western populations are becoming increasingly sedentary and the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing and becoming one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. Also, NAFLD is considered one the new emerging risk factors for development of tumors of the gastro-intestinal tract, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Visceral obesity is an important risk factor for the onset of NAFLD. An accumulation of ectopic fat, including visceral obesity and fatty liver leads to a dysfunction of the adipose tissue with impaired production of adipocytokines which, in turn, favor an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Hirofumi Yasue, Yuji Mizuno, Eisaku Harada
Coronary artery spasm (CAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease, including angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and sudden death, occurring most often from midnight to early morning. CAS is prevalent among East Asians and is associated with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)-deficient genotype (ALDH2*2) and alcohol flushing, which is prevalent among East Asians but is virtually non-existent in other populations. ALDH2 eliminates not only acetaldehyde but also other toxic aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and tobacco smoking, thereby protecting tissues and cells from oxidative damage...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Christian M Madsen, Anette Varbo, Børge G Nordestgaard
BACKGROUND: HDL is quantitatively the most important lipoprotein in most species and mechanistic evidence points toward a role for HDL in normal immune function. We tested the hypothesis that concentrations of HDL cholesterol are associated with risk of autoimmune disease. METHODS: From 2 studies of the general population- the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Co-penhagen City Heart study-we included 107954 and 9387 individuals with baseline measurements of HDL cholesterol...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Chemistry
Yiran Liang, Jing Zhan, Donghui Liu, Mai Luo, Jiajun Han, Xueke Liu, Chang Liu, Zheng Cheng, Zhiqiang Zhou, Peng Wang
BACKGROUND: Disruption of the gut microbiota homeostasis may induce low-grade inflammation leading to obesity-associated diseases. A major protective mechanism is to use the multi-layered mucus structures to keep a safe distance between gut epithelial cells and microbiota. To investigate whether pesticides would induce insulin resistance/obesity through interfering with mucus-bacterial interactions, we conducted a study to determine how long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos affected C57Bl/6 and CD-1 (ICR) mice fed high- or normal-fat diets...
February 11, 2019: Microbiome
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