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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763724/chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging-for-monitoring-effects-of-heterobasidion-parviporum-small-secreted-protein-induced-cell-death-and-in-planta-defense-gene-expression
#1
Zilan Wen, Tommaso Raffaello, Zhen Zeng, Mirko Pavicic, Fred O Asiegbu
Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen of Norway spruce (Picea abies). H. parviporum genome encodes numerous necrotrophic small secreted proteins (SSP) which might be important for promoting and sustaining the disease development. However, their transcriptional dynamics and plant defense response during infection are largely unknown. In this study, we identified a necrotrophic SSP named HpSSP35.8 and its coding gene was highly expressed in the pre-symptomatic phase of host (Norway spruce) infection...
February 11, 2019: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759823/nitric-oxide-its-generation-and-interactions-with-other-reactive-signaling-compounds
#2
REVIEW
John T Hancock, Steven J Neill
Nitric oxide (NO) is an immensely important signaling molecule in animals and plants. It is involved in plant reproduction, development, key physiological responses such as stomatal closure, and cell death. One of the controversies of NO metabolism in plants is the identification of enzymatic sources. Although there is little doubt that nitrate reductase (NR) is involved, the identification of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzyme remains elusive, and it is becoming increasingly clear that such a protein does not exist in higher plants, even though homologues have been found in algae...
February 12, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759350/fusarium-graminearum-arabinanase-arb93b-enhances-wheat-head-blight-susceptibility-by-suppressing-plant-immunity
#3
Guixia Hao, Susan McCormick, Martha Vaughan, Todd Naumann, Hye-Seon Kim, Robert H Proctor, Amy Kelly, Todd Ward
Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum reduces crop yield and contaminates grain with mycotoxins. In this study, we investigated two exo-1, 5-α-L-arabinanases (Arb93A and Arb93B) secreted by F. graminearum, and their effect on wheat head blight development. Arabinan is an important component of plant cell walls, but it was not known if these arabinanases play a role in FHB. Both ARB93A and ARB93B were induced during the early stages of infection. arb93A mutants did not exhibit a detectable change in ability to cause FHB, whereas, arb93B mutants caused lower levels of FHB symptoms and deoxynivalenol contamination compared to the wild type...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758749/salicylic-acid-induced-ros-production-by-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-depends-on-the-activity-of-mitochondrial-hexokinases-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l
#4
Péter Poór, Gábor Patyi, Zoltán Takács, András Szekeres, Nikolett Bódi, Mária Bagyánszki, Irma Tari
The growth regulator, salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in the induction of cell death in plants. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC), cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria and loss of mitochondrial integrity can be observed during cell death execution in plant tissues. The aim of this work was to study the putative role of hexokinases (HXKs) in the initiation of cell death using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaves and mitochondria isolated from plants exposed to a sublethal, 0...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758729/bioreduction-of-toxicity-influenced-by-bioactive-molecules-secreted-under-metal-stress-by-azotobacter-chroococcum
#5
Asfa Rizvi, Bilal Ahmed, Almas Zaidi, Mohd Saghir Khan
Heavy metal pollution destruct soil microbial compositions and functions, plant's performance and subsequently human health. Culturable microbes among many metal abatement strategies are considered inexpensive, viable and environmentally safe. In this study, nitrogen fixing bacterial strain CAZ3 recovered from chilli rhizosphere tolerated 100, 1000 and 1200 µg mL-1 of cadmium, chromium and nickel, respectively and was identified as Azotobacter chroococcum by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Under metal stress, cellular morphology of A...
February 13, 2019: Ecotoxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758674/mutation-in-a-putative-glycosyltransferase-like-gene-causes-programmed-cell-death-and-early-leaf-senescence-in-rice
#6
Shanwen Ke, Shuchun Liu, Xin Luan, Xin-Ming Xie, Tzung-Fu Hsieh, Xiang-Qian Zhang
Leaf senescence is a genetically regulated, highly complex and ordered process. Although it has been extensively studied, the mechanism of leaf senescence is not well understood. In this study, we isolated a rice mutant, designated as premature senescence leaf (psl), which exhibits early senescence and spontaneous lesion mimic phenotype after flowering. The psl mutant displays programmed cell death with elevated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Molecular and genetic analyses revealed that the phenotypes were caused by a phenylalanine deletion in the OsPSL (LOC_Os12g42420) that encode a putative core 2/I branching beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase predicted to be involved in protein glycosylation modification...
February 13, 2019: Rice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753811/piperlongumine-induced-nuclear-translocation-of-the-foxo3a-transcription-factor-triggers-bim-mediated-apoptosis-in-cancer-cells
#7
Zhenxing Liu, Zhichen Shi, Jieru Lin, Shuang Zhao, Min Hao, Junting Xu, Yuyin Li, Qing Zhao, Li Tao, Aipo Diao
The transcription factor forkhead box O 3A (FOXO3A) is a tumor suppressor that promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Piperlongumine (PL), a plant alkaloid, is known to selectively kill tumor cells while sparing normal cells. However, the mechanism of PL-induced cancer cell death is not fully understood. We report here that an association of FOXO3A with the pro-apoptotic protein BIM (also known as BCL2-like 11, BCL2L11) has a direct and specific function in PL-induced cancer cell death. Using HeLa cells stably expressing a FOXO3A-GFP fusion protein and several other cancer cell lines, we found that PL treatment induces FOXO3A dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation and promotes its binding to the BIM gene promoter, resulting in the up-regulation of BIM in the cancer cell lines...
February 9, 2019: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753698/microspore-embryogenesis-targeting-the-determinant-factors-of-stress-induced-cell-reprogramming-for-crop-improvement
#8
Pilar S Testillano
Under stress, isolated microspores are reprogrammed in vitro towards embryogenesis, producing doubled haploid plants that are useful biotechnological tools in plant breeding as a source of new genetic variability, fixed in homozygous plants in only one generation. Stress-induced cell death and low rates of cell reprogramming are major factors that reduce yield. Knowledge gained in recent years has revealed that initiation and progression of microspore embryogenesis involve a complex network of factors, whose roles are not yet well understood...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753577/extracellular-peptide-kratos-restricts-cell-death-during-vascular-development-and-stress-in-arabidopsis
#9
Sacha Escamez, Simon Stael, Julia Vainonen, Patrick Willems, Huiting Jin, Sachie Kimura, Frank Van Breusegem, Kris Gevaert, Michael Wrzaczek, Hannele Tuominen
During plant vascular development, xylem tracheary elements (TEs) form water-conducting, empty pipes through genetically regulated cell death. Cell death is prevented from spreading to non-TEs by unidentified intercellular mechanisms, downstream of METACASPASE9 (MC9)-mediated regulation of autophagy in TEs. Here, we identified differentially abundant extracellular peptides in vascular-differentiating wild type and MC9-downregulated Arabidopsis cell suspensions. The peptide Kratos rescued the abnormally high ectopic non-TE death resulting from either MC9 knockout or TE-specific overexpression of the ATG5 autophagy protein during experimentally induced vascular differentiation in Arabidopsis cotyledons...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742443/neuroprotective-secondary-metabolite-produced-by-an-endophytic-fungus-neosartorya-fischeri-js0553-isolated-from-glehnia-littoralis
#10
Sunghee Bang, Ji Hoon Song, Dahae Lee, Changyeol Lee, Soonok Kim, Ki Sung Kang, Jong Hun Lee, Sang Hee Shim
Roots of Glehnia littoralis have been used to heal stroke as a traditional medicine. Even though many studies on this plant have been conducted, the secondary metabolites produced by its endophytes and their bioactivities have not been investigated thus far. Therefore, a new meroditerpenoid named sartorypyrone E (1) and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from extracts of cultured Neosartorya fischeri JS0553, an endophyte of G. littoralis. The isolated metabolites were identified using spectroscopic methods and chemical reaction, based on a comparison to literature data...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735606/genetic-buffering-of-cyclic-amp-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-compromises-the-plant-immune-response-triggered-by-an-avirulent-strain-of-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato
#11
Wilma Sabetta, Elodie Vandelle, Vittoria Locato, Alex Costa, Sara Cimini, Andrea Bittencourt Moura, Laura Luoni, Alexander Graf, Luigi Viggiano, Laura De Gara, Diana Bellin, Emanuela Blanco, Maria Concetta de Pinto
Cyclic AMP plays important roles in different physiological processes, including plant defence responses. However, since little is known on plant enzyme responsible for cAMP production/degradation, the study of cAMP functions relied, until now, on non-specific pharmacological approaches. We thus developed a more reliable approach, producing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing the "cAMP-sponge" (cAS), a genetic tool that specifically buffers cAMP levels. In response to an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv...
February 8, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732760/antiproliferative-xylan-from-corn-cobs-induces-apoptosis-in-tumor-cells
#12
Raniere Fagundes Melo-Silveira, Rony Lucas Silva Viana, Diego Araujo Sabry, Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Daisy Machado, Ana Karina Lima Nascimento, Katia Castanho Scortecci, Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha
Xylan is one of the most abundant hemicellulose constituents in the plant kingdom. We extracted xylan from corn cobs (XCC) using ultrasound. The structure of XCC was determined by NMR analysis, which revealed a composition of xylose:glucose:arabinose:galactose:mannose:glucuronic acid in a molar percentage ratio of 48:21:16:10:2.5:2.5. XCC induced the proliferation of murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) and inhibited the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) by 20% and human cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) by 60%...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721992/plant-serpin-protease-inhibitors-specificity-and-duality-of-function
#13
Maja Cohen, Olga Davydov, Robert Fluhr
The serpins are a family of structurally conserved protease inhibitors found in all animal and plant kingdoms. After interaction with their cognate substrate(s), their native energetically stressed state is relaxed by hydrolysis, resulting in a semi-stable covalent bond that disables the protease. The inherent flexible serpin structure supports additional non-inhibitory functions. This review will focus on several biological functions attributed to plant serpins, ranging from specific cell death protease inhibitors to a stabilizing role for β-amylase in seeds...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715462/plant-proteases-in-the-control-of-the-hypersensitive-response
#14
Jose Salguero-Linares, Núria S Coll
The hypersensitive response (HR) is a plant defence reaction triggered by activation of immune receptors upon pathogen recognition. It results in rapid cell death at the attempted invasion site, confining the pathogen and sending signals to distal parts of the plant that can in turn activate defences for subsequent attacks. HR cell death is a highly controlled phenomenon, requiring the concerted action of diverse plant proteases and regulatory mechanisms to keep it efficient yet confined.Research in the last decade has significantly contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to HR, although our knowledge about the pathways that regulate this form of programmed cell death still remains scattered...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711391/synthetic-derivatives-of-the-natural-product-13-amino-2-desoxy-4-epi-pulchellin-inhibit-stat3-signaling-and-induce-g2-m-arrest-and-death-of-colon-cancer-cells
#15
Junxing Niu, Hui Huang, Fei Wang, Xianjing Zhang, Yi Liu, Qiang Yu, Lihong Hu
2-Desoxy-4-epi-puchellin (PCL) is a sesquiterpene-lactone, which naturally occurs in many traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and has antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, a series of 13-amino derivatives of PCL were synthesized through Michael addition reaction. Inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway and in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated, and their effect on the cell cycle was also studied. The methyl hydroxyethylamine derivatives showed higher potency than PCL, which could induce significant mitotic arrest via G2/M arrest in HCT116 cancer cells, indicating that these derivatives have the potential to be developed into anti-colon cancer drugs...
January 25, 2019: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709491/toward-the-understanding-of-the-role-of-cdc48-a-major-component-of-the-protein-quality-control-in-plant-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Hervé Bègue, Arnaud Mounier, Claire Rosnoblet, David Wendehenne
The evolutionally conserved chaperone-like protein CDC48 (cell division cycle 48) is a major component of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathways in animal and yeast and, more generally, of the protein quality control machinery. In plants, CDC48 plays essential regulatory functions in development and the possibly that it contributes to protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system has been reported. In this review we described recent findings highlighting a role for CDC48 in plant immunity...
February 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709487/genes-involved-in-nonhost-disease-resistance-as-a-key-to-engineer-durable-resistance-in-crops
#17
REVIEW
Jose Pedro Fonseca, Kirankumar S Mysore
Most potential pathogens fail to establish virulence for a plethora of plants found in nature. This intrinsic property to resist pathogen virulence displayed by organisms without triggering canonical resistance (R) genes has been termed nonhost resistance (NHR). While host resistance involves recognition of pathogen elicitors such as avirulence factors by bona fide R proteins, mechanism of NHR seems less obvious, often involving more than one gene. We can generally describe NHR in two steps: 1) pre-invasive resistance, either passive or active, which can restrict the pathogen from entering the host, and 2) post-invasive resistance, an active defense response that often results in hypersensitive response like programmed cell death and reactive oxygen species accumulation...
February 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703731/attack-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-bloom-on-a-ceratophyllum-submersum-field-ecotoxicological-measurements-in-real-environment-with-real-microcystin-exposure
#18
Andrea Zsuzsanna Ujvárosi, Milán Riba, Tamás Garda, Gyöngyi Gyémánt, György Vereb, Márta M-Hamvas, Gábor Vasas, Csaba Máthé
Overproduction of toxic cyanobacteria is a type of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The heptapeptide microcystins (MCs) are one of the most common cyanotoxins. There is increasing research concerning the effects of MCs on growth and physiology of vascular plants, however there is a lack of studies on their direct effects on aquatic macrophytes in the real environment. Here we report the occurrence of a MC producing HAB in Lake Bárdos, Hungary in 2012 with harmful effects on cytological, histological and biochemical parameters of Ceratophyllum submersum (soft hornwort) plants naturally growing at the blooming site...
January 22, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703564/a-phytophthora-capsici-effector-targets-acd11-binding-partners-that-regulate-ros-mediated-defense-response-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Qi Li, Gan Ai, Danyu Shen, Fen Zou, Ji Wang, Tian Bai, Yanyu Chen, Shutian Li, Meixiang Zhang, Maofeng Jing, Daolong Dou
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in plant immune response, but the genes involved in regulation of ROS are scantily reported. Phytophthora pathogens produce a large number of effectors to promote infection, but the modes of action adopted are largely unknown. Here, we found RxLR207 could activate ROS-mediated cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and was essential for virulence of P. capsici. Then we demonstrated that this effector targeted to BPA1 (binding partner of ACD11) and 4 members of BPLs (BPA1 Like proteins) in Arabidopsis, and the corresponding mutants resulted in enhanced ROS accumulation and cell death under biotic or abiotic stresses...
January 28, 2019: Molecular Plant
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703532/cytotoxicity-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-caused-by-the-dietary-supplement-l-norvaline
#20
Kate Samardzic, Kenneth J Rodgers
In addition to the 20 protein amino acids that are encoded for protein synthesis, hundreds of other naturally occurring amino acids, known as non-proteinogenic amino acids (NPAAs) exist. It is well known that some NPAAs are toxic through their ability to mimic protein amino acids, either in protein synthesis or in other metabolic pathways, and this property is utilised by some plants to inhibit the growth of other plants or kill herbivores. L-norvaline is an NPAA readily available for purchase as a dietary supplement...
January 28, 2019: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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