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Kuei-Pin Huang, Charlotte C Ronveaux, Guillaume de Lartigue, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Helen E Raybould
Deletion of the leptin receptor from vagal afferent neurons (VAN) using a conditional deletion (Nav1.8/LepRfl/fl ) results in an obese phenotype with increased food intake and lack of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced satiation in male mice. Female mice are partially protected from weight gain and increased food intake in response to ingestion of high-fat (HF) diets. However, whether lack of leptin signaling in VAN leads to an obese phenotype or disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in female mice is unclear...
February 12, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Daniel G Bichet
Recent experiments using optogenetic tools facilitate the identification and functional analysis of thirst neurons and vasopressin-producing neurons. Four major advances provide a detailed anatomy and physiology of thirst, taste for water, and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release: ( a) Thirst and AVP release are regulated by the classical homeostatic, interosensory plasma osmolality negative feedback as well as by novel, exterosensory, anticipatory signals. These anticipatory signals for thirst and vasopressin release concentrate on the same homeostatic neurons and circumventricular organs that monitor the composition of blood...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
Sunil Sirohi, Elena Skripnikova, Jon F Davis
OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are the most commonly performed bariatric procedures. Whereas studies report new-onset alcohol misuse following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the impact of VSG on alcohol intake is less clear. Hedonic feeding, alcohol drinking, and hypothalamic obesity-related gene expression following VSG were evaluated. METHODS: Male Long-Evans rats underwent VSG or sham surgery. To evaluate hedonic feeding, rats received a high-fat diet following behavioral satiation on chow...
February 10, 2019: Obesity
Guey-Ying Liao, Clint E Kinney, Juan Ji An, Baoji Xu
Genetic evidence indicates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through the TrkB receptor plays a critical role in the control of energy balance. Mutations in the BDNF or the TrkB-encoding NTRK2 gene have been found to cause severe obesity in humans and mice. However, it remains unknown which brain neurons express TrkB to control body weight. Here, we report that TrkB-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) regulate food intake. We found that the DMH contains both glutamatergic and GABAergic TrkB-expressing neurons, some of which also express the leptin receptor (LepR)...
February 4, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
L Cruz-Font, B J Shuter, P J Blanchfield, C K Minns, M D Rennie
1.We used acoustic telemetry and acceleration sensors to compare population-specific measures of the metabolic costs of an apex fish predator living in four separate lakes. We chose our study species and populations to provide a strong test of recent theoretical predictions that optimal foraging by an apex fish predator in a typical aquatic environment would be consistent with feeding to satiation rather than continuous feeding. We chose four populations where the primary prey type differed along a body size gradient (from small invertebrates to large planktivorous fish) and along a thermal accessibility gradient (from easily accessible cold-water pelagic prey to less accessible warm-water epilimnetic and littoral prey)...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
Wenquan Qin, Xuan Chen, Linda M Hooper-Bùi, Jiacheng Cai, Lei Wang, Zhaohui Sun, Xiujun Wen, Cai Wang
The food-burying behavior has been reported in many mammals and birds, but was rarely observed in invertebrates. The red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is an invasive pest in many areas of the world that usually performing food-burying during the foraging processes. However, the impacted factors and measureable patterns of this behavior is largely unknown. In the present study, food-burying vs food-transport behaviors of Solenopsis invicta were observed under laboratory and field conditions. When starved (no food was provided for 37 days) in the laboratory, food (sausage) was consumed by large numbers of ants, and few burying behaviors were observed...
2019: PeerJ
Hee Sung Kim, Sung Hwoan Cho
Dietary inclusion effect of feed ingredients showing high feeding attractiveness to rockfish on the growth, feed utilization, condition factor (CF) and whole body composition of fish was investigated. Three hundred sixty juvenile rockfish were randomly distributed into 18 50-L flow-through tanks (twenty fish per tank). Six experimental diets were prepared: the control (Con) diet containing 55% anchovy meal, and 5% anchovy meal in the Con diet was replaced with an equivalent amount of jack mackerel, sardine, Pollack, squid and shrimp meals, referred to as the JM, SM, PM, SQM and SHM diets, respectively...
January 26, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Victoria Whitelock, Alexandra Gaglione, Jennifer Davies-Owen, Eric Robinson
Attending to food during a meal ('attentive eating') may reduce later overeating. However, evidence in support of this comes primarily from studies in women. The aims of the current study were to investigate the effect that attentive eating has on later food intake in men and examine potential underlying mechanisms. Using a within-subjects design, 34 men (BMI M = 23.73 kg/m2 , SD = 2.93; age M = 29.15, SD = 11.99) consumed a fixed lunchtime meal on two study days. On one study day participants were instructed to pay attention to the sensory properties of the meal as they ate (focused attention condition), and on the other study day participants ate lunch normally...
January 25, 2019: Appetite
Adam M Leventhal, Nicholas I Goldenson, Claudia G Aguirre, Jimi Huh, Matthew G Kirkpatrick
This pilot study tested a novel human laboratory model for estimating the extent to which electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) serve as motivational substitutes for combustible cigarettes. The model assesses 3 parameters of substitutability, including the: (a) increase in motivational reward value of e-cigarettes after tobacco deprivation; (b) reduction in the reward value of combustible cigarettes after e-cigarette administration; and (c) comparability of the withdrawal-suppressing effects of e-cigarettes versus combustible cigarettes...
January 28, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
David N Kearns
This article reviews studies investigating the effect of economy type on reinforcer value. In a closed economy, consumption of the reinforcer depends entirely on the subject's behavior, whereas in an open economy it does not, due, for example, to the provision of free reinforcers after the session. In theory, reinforcers should have higher value in a closed economy than in an open economy. Experimental results relevant to this prediction and methods used to test economy type effects are summarized and discussed here...
January 24, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Jennifer Ferrar, Rebecca L Griggs, Bobby G Stuijfzand, Peter J Rogers
When trying to reduce food portion size, it is important that meal satisfaction is, as far as possible, preserved. Otherwise, individuals may select accompaniments to the meal (e.g., snacks, beverages) to achieve satisfaction and, in doing so, negate any benefit of the original portion size reduction. This study investigated whether varying portion sizes of food would influence choice of accompanying beverages. That is, when presented with a food portion size that is smaller or larger than their ideal, an individual may compensate by choosing a beverage based on its satiating and/or orosensory properties to balance the expected satiation and satisfaction of a meal...
January 24, 2019: Appetite
Antonello E Rigamonti, Roberto Leoncini, Claudia Casnici, Ornella Marelli, Alessandra De Col, Sofia Tamini, Elisa Lucchetti, Sabrina Cicolini, Laura Abbruzzese, Silvano G Cella, Alessandro Sartorio
INTRODUCTION: Proteins, particularly whey proteins, represent the most satiating macronutrient in animals and humans. A dietetic regimen based on proteins enriched preload before eating might be a strategy to counteract obesity. AIMS AND METHODS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an isocaloric drink containing whey proteins or maltodextrins (preload) on appetite (satiety/hunger measured by a visual analogue scale or VAS), glucometabolic control (blood glucose/insulin), and anorexigenic gastrointestinal peptides (pancreatic polypeptide or PP, glucagon-like peptide 1 or GLP-1 and peptide YY or PYY) in a cohort of obese young women ( n = 9; age: 18...
January 23, 2019: Nutrients
Wendy E Vandersteen, Rosalind Leggatt, L Fredrik Sundström, Robert H Devlin
Salmonids show a high degree of phenotypic plasticity that can differ among genotypes, and this variation is one of the major factors contributing to uncertainty in extrapolating laboratory-based risk assessment data to nature. Many studies have examined the relative growth and survival of transgenic and non-transgenic salmonids, and the results have been highly variable due to genotype × environment interactions. The relative survival of fast- and slow-growing strains can reverse depending on the environment, but it is not clear which specific environmental characteristics are driving these responses...
January 23, 2019: Scientific Reports
Imke Masuy, Jan Tack, Kristin Verbeke, Florencia Carbone
BACKGROUND: Acotiamide, a prokinetic agent was shown to be efficacious in the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD). The exact mechanism of action is incompletely elucidated. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study aimed to examine the effect of acotiamide on gastric motility, measured as intragastric pressure, gastric emptying (GE) rate and gastrointestinal (GI) symptom perception in healthy volunteers (HVs). Participants were treated with acotiamide (100 mg tid) and placebo for 3 weeks, separated by a 1-week washout period...
January 20, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Ya-Quan Hou, Xin Zhang, Jian-Feng Tu, Yang Zheng, Jing-Wen Yang, Mirim Kim, Hui Hu, Li-Qiong Wang, Jing-Jie Zhao, Wei Zhou, Jun Wang, Xuan Zou, Yu Wang, Guang-Xia Shi, Cun-Zhi Liu
BACKGROUND: Postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) has a considerable impact on quality of life. Our previous pilot trial suggested that acupuncture might be a potential treatment option for PDS. We will conduct this large trial to determine the efficacy of acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for PDS. METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 280 eligible patients who meet the Rome IV criteria for PDS will be randomly allocated to either the acupuncture group or the sham acupuncture group...
January 18, 2019: Trials
Kazuko Sonoda, Yuko Matsunari, Syuji Takei
BACKGROUND: Birth weight is continuously decreasing in Japan since food satiation has become a problem in recent years. The present study aimed to develop and examine the reliability and validity of a scale for the assessment of risk factors for low birth weight in infants born at term. METHODS: A self-administered postal questionnaire survey comprising a low birth weight risk assessment scale was conducted on mothers with children of nursery school or kindergarten age...
January 18, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Susan C C Gordon, Shannon A Meadley-Dunphy, Kirsten M Prior, Megan E Frederickson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phenological mismatch has received attention in plant-pollinator interactions, but less so in seed dispersal mutualisms. We investigated whether the seasonal availability of myrmecochorous seeds is well matched to the seasonal activity patterns of seed-dispersing ants. METHODS: We compared seasonal timing of seed removal by a keystone seed-dispersing ant, Aphaenogaster rudis, and fruit dehiscence of several species of plants whose seeds it disperses in a deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada...
January 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Xoaquín Moreira, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Ignacio M Pérez-Ramos, Johannes M H Knops, Mario B Pesendorfer, Walter D Koenig, Kailen A Mooney
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The influence of weather conditions on masting and the ecological advantages of this reproductive behavior have been the subject of much interest. Weather conditions act as cues influencing reproduction of individual plants, and similar responses expressed across many individuals lead to population-level synchrony in reproductive output. In turn, synchrony leads to benefits from economies of scale such as enhanced pollination success and seed predator satiation. However, there may also be individual-level benefits from reproductive responses to weather cues, which may explain the origin of masting in the absence of economies of scale...
January 11, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Atsushi Fujimoto, Yukiko Hori, Yuji Nagai, Erika Kikuchi, Kei Oyama, Tetsuya Suhara, Takafumi Minamimoto
Processing incentive and drive is essential for control of goal-directed behavior. The limbic part of the basal ganglia has been emphasized in these processes, yet the exact neuronal mechanism has remained elusive. In this study, we examined the neuronal activity of the ventral pallidum (VP) and its upstream area, the rostromedial caudate (rmCD), while two male macaque monkeys performed an instrumental lever-release task, in which a visual cue indicated the forthcoming reward size. We found that the activity of some neurons in VP and rmCD reflected the expected reward-size transiently following the cue...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hugo Monrroy, Teodora Pribic, Carmen Galan, Adoracion Nieto, Nuria Amigo, Anna Accarino, Xavier Correig, Fernando Azpiroz
Various conditioning factors influence the sensory response to a meal (inducible factors). We hypothesized that inherent characteristics of the eater (constitutive factors) also play a role. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to determine the role of gender, as an individual constitutive factor, on the meal-related experience. Randomized parallel trial in 10 women and 10 men, comparing the sensations before, during, and after stepwise ingestion of a comfort meal up to full satiation. Comparisons were performed by repeated Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) measures...
January 8, 2019: Nutrients
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