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Cardiovascular consequences of metabolic syndrome

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837370/a-glucose-insulin-potassium-solution-improves-glucose-intake-in-hypoxic-cardiomyocytes-by-a-differential-expression-of-glucose-transporters-in-a-metabolic-syndrome-model
#1
R Carbo, E Rodriguez
Among the last consequences of metabolic syndrome are cardiovascular complications such as infarcts. The hypoxic heart switches its lipid-based metabolism to carbohydrates, and a glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) solution can be the metabolic support to protect the organ. Due to the physiology and cardiac risks associated with the metabolic syndrome, we studied the effect of GIK solution during hypoxia in a metabolic syndrome model by observing the participation of glucose transporters (GLUTs). The metabolic syndrome characteristics were established by giving a 30% sucrose drinking solution to Wistar rats for 24 weeks...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30802234/noncontrast-chest-computed-tomographic-imaging-of-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-part-i-cardiovascular-findings
#2
Christopher L Schlett, Johanna Nattenmüller, Nanae Tsuchiya, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, David Levin, Hiroto Hatabu, Jose R Estépar, Ming-Ting Wu, Edwin J R van Beek, Mark L Schiebler
There are physiological consequences of overeating that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review article is to acquaint the reader with the current state of the art in the non-cardiac-gated, noncontrast chest computed tomographic (NCCT) imaging biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome and their prognostic significance found in the lower neck and chest. NCCT imaging biomarkers associated with metabolic syndrome in the chest include premature coronary artery calcification, acceleration of large vessel arterial and valvular calcifications associated with atherosclerosis, and pulmonary arterial enlargement from pulmonary hypertension associated with sleep apnea...
March 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30801454/noncontrast-chest-computed-tomographic-imaging-of-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-part-i-cardiovascular-findings
#3
Christopher L Schlett, Johanna Nattenmüller, Nanae Tsuchiya, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, David Levin, Hiroto Hatabu, Jose R Estépar, Ming-Ting Wu, Edwin J R van Beek, Mark L Schiebler
There are physiological consequences of overeating that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review article is to acquaint the reader with the current state of the art in the non-cardiac-gated, noncontrast chest computed tomographic (NCCT) imaging biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome and their prognostic significance found in the lower neck and chest. NCCT imaging biomarkers associated with metabolic syndrome in the chest include premature coronary artery calcification, acceleration of large vessel arterial and valvular calcifications associated with atherosclerosis, and pulmonary arterial enlargement from pulmonary hypertension associated with sleep apnea...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770030/insulin-resistance-and-insulin-hypersecretion-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes-time-for-a-conceptual-framework-shift
#4
Christopher J Nolan, Marc Prentki
While few dispute the existence of the metabolic syndrome as a clustering of factors indicative of poor metabolic health, its utility above that of its individual components in the clinical care of individual patients is questioned. This is likely a consequence of the failure of clinicians and scientists to agree on a unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance has most commonly been proposed for this role and is generally considered to be a root causative factor for not only metabolic syndrome but also for its associated conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725350/high-fat-diet-administration-leads-to-the-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-selectively-alters-the-expression-of-class-1-glut-protein-in-mice
#5
Dhruv Jha, Papiya Mitra Mazumder
Metabolic syndrome is an agglomeration of disorders including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and characterized as chronic mild inflammation which elevates the circulatory inflammatory markers. This could be due to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and hypoxia as a consequence of high fat diet (HFD) intake. The present study focuses on the effects of HFD on lactate and mitochondrial metabolism as well as tissue dependent changes in glucose transporter (GLUT) expression in liver, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue of mouse...
February 6, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712398/metabolic-syndrome-during-female-midlife-what-are-the-risks
#6
P Chedraui, F R Pérez-López
The metabolic syndrome (METS) is an entity diagnosed by three or more of the following factors: abdominal obesity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high serum triglycerides, fasting glucose, and/or blood pressure levels. Abdominal obesity is the most prevalent component of the syndrome that favors insulin resistance and a proinflammatory and prothrombotic status, and the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic conditions. During the menopausal transition, women tend to gain weight and this has been related to an increase in the prevalence of the METS...
February 4, 2019: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697368/exploratory-metabolomics-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-status-report
#7
REVIEW
Daniella Lent-Schochet, Matthew McLaughlin, Neeraj Ramakrishnan, Ishwarlal Jialal
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is as a cluster of cardio-metabolic factors that greatly increase the risk of chronic diseases such as type II diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In the United States, obesity, physical inactivity, aging, and genetics (to a minor extent) have arisen as risk factors for developing MetS. Although 35% of American adults suffer from MetS, its pathogenesis largely remains unknown. Worse, there is a lack of screening and optimum therapy for this disease. Researchers have consequently turned towards metabolomics to identify biomarkers to better understand MetS...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685917/-prevalence-and-harm-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Y L Shao, J G Fan
Worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity and lifestyle changes has put nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the most prevalent liver disease of the coming decade. NAFLD not only causes cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, but also acts as a component of metabolic syndrome together with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and dyslipidemia. Consequently, its mutual cause-and-effect interactions have brought a huge clinical and financial burden to patients and society...
January 20, 2019: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670174/identification-of-the-metabolic-fingerprints-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-using-the-multiplatform-metabolomics-technique
#9
Magdalena Buszewska-Forajta, Dominik Rachoń, Anna Stefaniak, Renata Wawrzyniak, Aleksandra Konieczna, Agnieszka Kowalewska, Michał Jan Markuszewski
In addition to chronic anovulation and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are insulin resistant and therefore, develop central obesity with its long term consequences such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which all lead to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Due to the polysymptomatic nature of this syndrome and lack of consensus on its diagnostic criteria there is a strong need of finding a reliable biochemical or molecular marker, which would facilitate making the accurate diagnosis of PCOS...
February 2019: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661649/metabolic-syndrome-as-cardiovascular-risk-factor-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#10
REVIEW
V G Pluimakers, M van Waas, S J C M M Neggers, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink
Over the past decades, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably from 5 to 30% in the early seventies to current rates exceeding 80%. This is due to the development of effective chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and stem cell transplantation, combined with an optimized stratification of therapy and better supportive care regimens. As a consequence, active surveillance strategies of late sequelae have been developed to improve the quality of survival. Several epidemiological studies have reported an increased incidence of (components of) metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease in childhood cancer survivors (CCS)...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653780/inflammation-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Hiroaki Hori, Yoshiharu Kim
While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is currently diagnosed based solely on classic psychological and behavioral symptoms, a growing body of evidence has highlighted a link between this disorder and alterations in the immune and inflammatory systems. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that PTSD is associated with significantly increased rates of physical comorbidities in which immune dysregulation is involved, such as metabolic syndrome, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune diseases...
January 17, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633544/alterations-of-circadian-rhythms-and-their-impact-on-obesity-metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
Javier Hernández-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Circadian system is comprised by central circadian pacemaker and several peripheral clocks that receive information from the external environment, synchronizing the circadian clocks. It is widely known that physiology is rhythmic and that the rupture of this rhythmicity can generate serious consequences. Circadian clocks, led by suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the central nervous system, are the responsible for generating this biological rhythmicity. These clocks are affected by external signals such as light (changes between day and night) and feeding rhythms...
January 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30631129/sodium-sensitivity-of-blood-pressure-in-chinese-populations
#13
Yang Liu, Mengyao Shi, Jacquelyn Dolan, Jiang He
Hypertension is an enormous public-health challenge in the world due to its high prevalence and consequent increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Observational epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated a causal relationship between sodium intake and elevated blood pressure (BP). However, BP changes in response to sodium intervention vary among individuals-a trait called sodium sensitivity. This paper aims to review the recent advances in sodium-sensitivity research in Chinese and other populations...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630118/disentangling-microbial-mediators-of-malnutrition-modeling-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Luther A Bartelt, David T Bolick, Richard L Guerrant
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED, syn. environmental enteropathy (EE)) is a subclinical chronic intestinal disorder that is an emerging contributor to early childhood malnutrition. EED is common in resource-limited settings, and is postulated to consist of small intestinal injury, dysfunctional nutrient absorption, and chronic inflammation that results in impaired early child growth attainment. While there is emerging interest in the hypothetical potential for chemical toxins in the environmental 'exposome' to contribute to EED, the propensity of published data, and hence the focus of this review, implicates a critical role of environmental microbes...
January 7, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30615103/alterations-in-protein-kinase-a-substrate-specificity-as-a-potential-cause-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#15
Kerstin Bathon, Isabel Weigand, Jens T Vanselow, Cristina L Ronchi, Silviu Sbiera, Andreas Schlosser, Martin Fassnacht, Davide Calebiro
Cushing's syndrome is a severe endocrine disorder of cortisol excess, associated with major metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae. We recently identified somatic mutations in the gene (PRKACA) encoding the catalytic α (Cα) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) to be responsible for cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (CPAs), which are a major cause of Cushing's syndrome. In spite of previous studies on the two initially identified mutations (L206R, 199_200insW), the mechanisms of action of the clinically highly relevant PRKACA mutations remain poorly understood...
January 4, 2019: Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30556433/cardiometabolic-risks-in-pcos-a-review-of-the-current-state-of-knowledge
#16
N S Kakoly, L J Moran, H J Teede, A E Joham
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting up to 18% women of reproductive age. It is associated with a range of metabolic, reproductive, and psychological features. Current evidence indicates a role of PCOS in the development of metabolic and increased cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) with implications for compromised cardiovascular endpoint disease, which may have a considerable impact on health and health care costs. Areas covered: Existing studies examining long-term cardiometabolic health in PCOS are heterogeneous with inconsistent findings...
January 2019: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30496690/clinical-workup-of-fatty-liver-for-the-primary-care-provider
#17
Thomas Jensen, Amanda Wieland, Melanie Cree-Green, Kristen Nadeau, Shelby Sullivan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is quickly emerging as a global epidemic in parallel with the rise in obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. NAFLD, once seen simply as a passive consequence of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), has been found to interact with other features of MetS to exacerbate insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. NAFLD is also becoming the top indication for liver transplant and an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of this disorder is limited mainly to lifestyle modifications to promote weight loss along with consideration for off-label use of certain medications, but recent progression in clinical trials means more effective treatments are on the horizon...
November 29, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30459740/sex-modulates-lactobacillus-johnsonii-n6-2-and-phytophenol-effectiveness-in-reducing-high-fat-diet-induced-mtor-activation-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Danielle N Kling, Evon M DeBose-Scarlett, Leandro D Teixeira, Salvador A Gezan, Graciela L Lorca, Claudio F Gonzalez
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the underlying cause of some devastating diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These diseases have been associated with over-activation of the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. This study utilizes a high fat diet (HFD) to induce MetS and to dissect the effects of a beneficial bacterium, L. johnsonii N6.2, and natural phenolics on mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) expression compared to a reduced energy density diet (REDD). HFD significantly elevated MetS markers in males, as noted through an increase in weight, glucose levels, and triglyceride levels...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30444706/obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-children
#19
Cristina Perez
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is defined as a "disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction [hypopnea] and/or intermittent complete obstruction (obstructive apnea) that disrupts normal ventilation during sleep and normal sleep patterns." OSAS is both prevalent and underdiagnosed in children. OSAS has harmful central nervous system, cardiovascular, and metabolic consequences, which can include an inability to concentrate in school, poor academic performance, behavioral problems, cardiovascular effects, and poor growth and development...
November 2018: General Dentistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30415572/-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-summary-and-update-based-on-the-easl-easd-easo-clinical-practice-guidelines-of-2016
#20
REVIEW
Ákos Nádasdi, Anikó Somogyi, Péter Igaz, Gábor Firneisz
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a common metabolic disease affects nearly one third of the population in the developed countries. The significance of the NAFLD is due to its spectrum disease (simple steatosis → NASH [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] ± fibrosis → cirrhosis → HCC [hepatocellular carcinome]) character; its association with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance; and its complications both as a consequence of the direct progression of the liver disease and also related to the additional target organ damage due to the progression of the metabolic disease (cardiovascular, renal)...
November 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
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