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"Nitrous Oxide" AND "Emergency"

Ruth Peters, Nicole Ee, Jean Peters, Andrew Booth, Ian Mudway, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Both air pollution and dementia are current and growing global issues. There are plausible links between exposure to specific air pollutants and dementia. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence base with respect to the relationship between air pollution and later cognitive decline and dementia. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO® were searched from their inception to September 2018, for publications reporting on longitudinal studies of exposure to air pollution and incident dementia or cognitive decline in adults...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Michael S Lundin, John Cherian, Michael Nyika Andrew, Richa Tikaria
A 21-year-old university student studying abroad in the USA presented to the emergency department with double vision, lower extremity weakness with difficulty ambulating and other neuropsychiatric symptoms. MRI of the brain and spinal cord were normal. Vitamin B12 was 78 pg/mL (58 pmol/L, reference 211-911 pg/mL). The patient had been using nitrous oxide capsules used for whipped cream recharging, which she obtained from other students, a few times daily for a month for the purpose of anxiety relief. The patient was not a vegan or vegetarian...
February 7, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
L Al Zoubi, J Schmoeckel, M Mustafa Ali, M Alkilzy, C H Splieth
BACKGROUND: Behaviour management techniques (BMT) in children are essential to achieve a successful dental treatment, but parents are not equally accepting BMT. AIM: To investigate the parental acceptance of advanced behaviour management techniques used in paediatric dentistry in normal and in emergency situations in Germany. METHODS: Parents bringing their children for dental care answered a questionnaire on the acceptance of four advanced BMT: passive restraint, active restraint, nitrous oxide sedation and general analgesia...
January 2, 2019: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
D Shatalin, C F Weiniger, I Buchman, Y Ginosar, S Orbach-Zinger, A Ioscovich
BACKGROUND: This nationwide survey was conducted to provide data about the obstetric anesthesia services in Israeli labor and delivery units in 2016. METHODS: Prospective survey questionnaire was emailed to obstetric anesthesia unit directors/chairperson of all 25 labor and delivery services units within the jurisdiction of the Israeli Ministry of Health. RESULTS: The response rate was 100%. Nineteen (76%) units have dedicated anesthesiologist cover...
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Jun-Young Jo, Kyeo-Woon Jung, Ha-Jung Kim, Se-Ung Park, Hanwool Park, Seungwoo Ku, Seong-Soo Choi
Importance: Emergence agitation is common after nasal surgery under general anesthesia and may lead to serious consequences for the patient, including an increased risk of injury, pain, hemorrhage, and self-extubation. Despite decades of research, studies on the incidence, risk factors, and prevention of emergence agitation in adult patients are ongoing, and opinions differ on the different effects of inhalation and intravenous anesthesia. Objective: To investigate the effect of anesthetic method on the occurrence of emergence agitation after nasal surgery...
November 29, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Torsten Passie, Simon D Brandt
The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the rich tradition of self-experiments (SEs) with psychoactive substances carried out by scientists and therapists for more than a century. Scientifically inspired controlled SEs dominated until the end of the twentieth century, when ethical requirements minimized controlled SEs and "wild" SEs expanded particularly with the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The review focuses on laughing gas (nitrous oxide), cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, entactogens, and dissociative hallucinogens...
November 27, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Mary McCauley, Valentina Actis Danna, Dorah Mrema, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: Most women experience pain during labour and after childbirth. There are various options, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, available to help women cope with and relieve pain during labour and after childbirth. In low resource settings, women often do not have access to effective pain relief. Healthcare providers have a duty of care to support women and improve quality of care. We investigated the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers regarding the provision of pain relief options in a hospital in Moshi, Tanzania...
November 14, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Bin Wang, Paul E Brewer, Herman H Shugart, Manuel T Lerdau, Steven D Allison
Soil-atmosphere exchange significantly influences the global atmospheric abundances of carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O). These greenhouse gases (GHGs) have been extensively studied at the soil profile level and extrapolated to coarser scales (regional and global). However, finer scale studies of soil aggregation have not received much attention, even though elucidating the GHG activities at the full spectrum of scales rather than just coarse levels is essential for reducing the large uncertainties in the current atmospheric budgets of these gases...
November 9, 2018: Global Change Biology
Lu-Lu Gao, Li-Shan Yang, Jun-Jun Zhang, Yi-Ling Wang, Ke Feng, Lei Ma, Yuan-Yuan Yu, Qiang Li, Qing-Huan Wang, Jin-Tao Bao, Ya-Liang Dai, Qiang Liu, Yu-Xiang Li, Qiang-Jian Yu
BACKGROUND: Acute pain is always the most common complaint in Emergency Department admissions and options for analgesia are limited. Nitrous oxide/oxygen possess many properties showing it may be an ideal analgesic method for the Emergency Department; it is quick-acting, well-tolerated, and does not mask signs and symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and analgesic effect of the fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for trauma patients in a busy emergency environment...
September 29, 2018: Trials
Maryam Chaib De Mares, Diego Javier Jiménez, Giorgia Palladino, Johanna Gutleben, Laura A Lebrun, Emilie E L Muller, Paul Wilmes, Detmer Sipkema, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Aplysina aerophoba is an emerging model marine sponge, with a well-characterized microbial community in terms of diversity and structure. However, little is known about the expressed functional capabilities of its associated microbes. Here, we present the first metaproteomics-based study of the microbiome of A. aerophoba. We found that transport and degradation of halogenated and chloroaromatic compounds are common active processes in the sponge microbiomes. Our data further reveal that the highest number of proteins were affiliated to a sponge-associated Tectomicrobium, presumably from the family Entotheonellaceae, as well as to the well-known symbiont "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarium", suggesting a high metabolic activity of these two microorganisms in situ...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jason Kilian, Masashi Kitazawa
As incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases rise, there is increasing interest in environmental factors which may contribute to disease onset and progression. Air pollution has been known as a major health hazard for decades. While its effects on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality have been extensively studied, growing evidence has emerged that exposure to polluted air is associated with impaired cognitive functions at all ages and increased risk of AD and other dementias in later life; this association is particularly notable with traffic related pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, black carbon, and small diameter airborne solids and liquids known as particulate matter...
June 2018: Biomedical Journal
Siyan Zhao, Qing Wang, Jiemin Zhou, Dongdan Yuan, Guibing Zhu
As aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, riparian zones are hotspots not only for denitrification but also for nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission. Due to the potential role of nosZ II in N2 O mitigation, emerging studies in terrestrial ecosystems have taken this newly reported N2 O-reducer into account. However, our knowledge about the interactions between denitrification activities and both N2 O-producers and reducers (especially for nosZ II) in aquatic ecosystems remains limited. In this study, we investigated spatiotemporal distributions of in situ N2 O flux, potential N2 O production rate, and potential denitrification rate, as well as of the related genes in a riparian zone of Baiyangdian Lake...
November 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michael G Richardson, Britany L Raymond, Curtis L Baysinger, Bradley T Kook, David H Chestnut
BACKGROUND: A vast majority of women who choose nitrous oxide for labor report high satisfaction despite variable analgesic effectiveness. We analyzed comments provided by women who used nitrous oxide for labor, to identify determinants of satisfaction in this population, and to better understand reasons for continuing with nitrous oxide despite variable analgesic effectiveness. METHODS: We conducted qualitative content analysis of comments in a quality improvement database of routine follow-up assessments of women who delivered vaginally, using nitrous oxide as the sole labor analgesic...
July 22, 2018: Birth
C M Parihar, M D Parihar, Tek B Sapkota, R K Nanwal, A K Singh, S L Jat, H S Nayak, D M Mahala, L K Singh, S K Kakraliya, Clare M Stirling, M L Jat
Given the increasing scarcity of production resources such as water, energy and labour coupled with growing climatic risks, maize-based production systems could be potential alternatives to intensive rice-wheat (RW) rotation in western Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Conservation agriculture (CA) in maize systems has been widely promoted for minimizing soil degradation and ensuring sustainability under emerging climate change scenario. Such practices are also believed to provide mitigation co-benefits through reduced GHG emission and increased soil carbon sequestration...
November 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rose M Martin, Cathleen Wigand, Elizabeth Elmstrom, Javier Lloret, Ivan Valiela
Salt marshes may act either as greenhouse gas (GHG) sources or sinks depending on hydrological conditions, vegetation communities, and nutrient availability. In recent decades, eutrophication has emerged as a major driver of change in salt marsh ecosystems. An ongoing fertilization experiment at the Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, USA) allows for observation of the results of over four decades of nutrient addition. Here, nutrient enrichment stimulated changes to vegetation communities that, over time, have resulted in increased elevation of the marsh platform...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ke Wang, Yiqi Wu, Zhe Wang, Wei Wang, Nanqi Ren
Electro-dewatering (ED) pretreatment could improve sludge dewatering performance and remove heavy metal, but the effect of ED pretreatment on nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission and related functional genes in sludge composting process is still unknown, which was firstly investigated in this study. The results revealed that ED pretreatment changed the physicochemical characteristics of sludge and impacted N2 O related functional genes, resulting in the reduction of cumulative N2 O emission by 77.04% during 60 days composting...
October 2018: Bioresource Technology
William Egan, Eric Steinberg, Jeremy Rose
A 24-year-old female, otherwise healthy, presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with difficulty walking and bilateral leg pain. The patient was a recreational nitrous oxide (NO2 ) user, also known as "whippets" or simply nitrous. Neurologic examination demonstrated an unsteady gait and positive Romberg sign along with normal deep tendon reflexes and normal muscle strength in upper and lower extremities. Laboratory results demonstrated macrocytic erythropoiesis, reduced B12 , elevated homocysteine, and elevated methylmalonic acid...
September 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Scott C Tadler, Brian J Mickey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After decades without substantial advances, multiple novel antidepressants show promise against treatment-resistant depression. Interestingly, many of these are anesthetics. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence for the antidepressant effects of ketamine, nitrous oxide, isoflurane and propofol and to consider potential clinical, administrative and research implications for anesthesiologists. RECENT FINDINGS: Ketamine has acute, transient antidepressant and antisuicidal effects...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Felix Fischer, Florian Pieper, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Gerhard Engler, Claus C Hilgetag, Andreas K Engel
Cortical single neuron activity and local field potential patterns change at different depths of general anesthesia. Here, we investigate the associated network level changes of functional connectivity. We recorded ongoing electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity from temporo-parieto-occipital cortex of 6 ferrets at various levels of isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia and determined functional connectivity by computing amplitude envelope correlations. Through hierarchical clustering, we derived typical connectivity patterns corresponding to light, intermediate and deep anesthesia...
August 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Alexander Buslov, Matthew Carroll, Manisha S Desai
Three major factors have contributed to the unrivaled popularity of nitrous oxide (N2O) among anesthetists in the 20th century and beyond: its impressive safety profile, its affordability, and its rapid induction and emergence times. These 3 characteristics of N2O have been discussed and written about extensively throughout the medical literature. Nonetheless, the characteristic that contributed most to N2O's initial discovery-the elegance and simplicity of its synthesis-has received substantially less attention...
July 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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