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"Midazolam" AND "Emergency"

Scott R Penzak, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez
A number of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A phenotyping probes have been used to characterize the drug interaction potential of new molecular entities; of these, midazolam has emerged as the gold standard. Recently, plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-OHC), the metabolite of CYP3A-mediated cholesterol metabolism, has been championed as an endogenous biomarker for CYP3A, particularly during chronic conditions where CYP3A activity is altered by disease and in long-term treatment studies where midazolam administration is not optimal...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Maarten Bak, Irene Weltens, Chris Bervoets, Jürgen De Fruyt, Jerzy Samochowiec, Andrea Fiorillo, Gaia Sampogna, Przemyslaw Bienkowski, W Ulrich Preuss, Blazej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Agnieszka Samochowiec, Emma Bak, Marjan Drukker, Geert Dom
INTRODUCTION: Non-pharmacological interventions preferably precede pharmacological interventions in acute agitation. Reviews of pharmacological interventions remain descriptive or compare only one compound with several other compounds. The goal of this study is to compute a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect on restoring calmness after a pharmacological intervention, so a more precise recommendation is possible. METHOD: A search in Pubmed and Embase was done to isolate RCT's considering pharmacological interventions in acute agitation...
February 2, 2019: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Frédéric Bloch, Ilhem Karoui, Samir Boutalha, Christian Defouilloy, Jean-Marc Dubaele
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Behavioural disorders are difficult to manage in elderly demented patients because of the lack of appropriate drugs or difficulties surrounding the route of administration. The tolerability of Midazolam is well described in the emergency management of agitation for young patients, when administered intramuscularly or intravenously. However, very little data are available on the use of oral Midazolam for this indication and in the elderly population. METHODS: A literature review was conducted, and studies were included if involving adults, receiving Midazolam, alone or in combination, whatever the route, dosage or indication and if they reported adverse events related to the use of Midazolam...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Ian Ferguson, James Bliss, Anders Aneman
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is an induction agent frequently used for general anaesthesia in emergency medicine. Generally regarded as haemodynamically stable, it can cause hypertension and tachycardia and may cause or worsen shock. The effects of ketamine may be improved by the addition of fentanyl to the induction regime. We conducted a systematic review to identify evidence with regard to the effect of adding fentanyl to an induction regime of ketamine and a paralysing agent on post-induction haemodynamics, intubating conditions and mortality...
January 15, 2019: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Lisa M Williams, Xiaoji He, Tasneem M Vaid, Alaa Abdul-Ridha, Alice R Whitehead, Paul R Gooley, Ross A D Bathgate, Spencer J Williams, Daniel J Scott
α1A - and α1B -adrenoceptors (ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by adrenaline and noradrenaline to modulate smooth muscle contraction in the periphery, and neuronal outputs in the central nervous system (CNS). α1A - and α1B -AR are clinically targeted with antagonists for hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia and are emerging CNS targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases. The benzodiazepines midazolam, diazepam, and lorazepam are proposed to be positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α1 -ARs...
February 2019: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Tatsuya Norii, Yosuke Homma, Hiroyasu Shimizu, Hiroshi Takase, Sung-Ho Kim, Shimpei Nagata, Akihikari Shimosato, Cameron Crandall
PURPOSE: Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is widely performed outside of the operating theater, often in emergency departments (EDs). The practice and safety of PSA in the ED in an aging society such as in Japan have not been well described. We aimed to characterize the practice pattern of PSA including indications, pharmacology and incidence of adverse events (AEs) in Japan. METHODS: We formed the Japanese Procedural Sedation and Analgesia Registry, a multicenter prospective observation registry of ED patients undergoing PSA...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Anesthesia
Narjes Akhlaghi, Pooya Payandemehr, Mehdi Yaseri, Ali A Akhlaghi, Ali Abdolrazaghnejad
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the effect of midazolam and haloperidol premedication for reducing ketamine-induced recovery agitation in adult patients undergoing procedural sedation. We also compare physician satisfaction and recovery time. METHODS: We randomized emergency department patients older than 18 years who needed procedural sedation to receive 1 of the following 3 interventions in double-blind fashion 5 minutes before receiving intravenous ketamine at 1 mg/kg: intravenous distilled water, intravenous midazolam at 0...
January 3, 2019: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Afshin Amini, Ali Arhami Dolatabadi, Hamid Kariman, Hamidreza Hatamabadi, Elham Memary, Sohrab Salimi, Shahram Shokrzadeh
Introduction: Need for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is felt in emergency department (ED) more and more each day. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of low-dose fentanyl, propofol, midazolam, ketamine and lidocaine combination with regular dose of propofol and fentanyl combination for induction of deep sedation. Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, candidate patients for sedation and analgesia aged more than 15 and less than 60 years old, with pain score ≥6 were allocated to one of the groups using block randomization and were compared regarding onset of action, recovery time, and probable side effects...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Majid Hajimaghsoudi, Mehdi Bagherabadi, Ehsan Zarepur, Vahid Ahmadi Hanzaei
Introduction: The quality of interventions in children is largely dependent on their control. Hence, this study compared the sedative effects of subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) Midazolam in pediatric sedation induction. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on children aged 1-6 years presenting to emergency departments of Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoon Hospitals, Yazd, Iran. Participants were randomly assigned to IV or SC midazolam using a jet injector and success rate, degree of sedation, and satisfaction of parents and physician were compared between groups...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Mohammadali Jafari, Amir Aliheidari Biuki, Majid Hajimaghsoudi, Mehdi Bagherabadi, Ehsan Zarepur
Introduction: Conversion disorder is a condition in which the patient shows psychological stress in physical ways. This study aimed to compare the effects of haloperidol versus midazolam in patients with conversion disorder. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients with conversion disorder who had presented to the emergency department, throughout 2015. Patients were randomly divided into two groups and were either treated with 2...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
James J Brown, James M Gray, Mark G Roback, Usha Sethuraman, Ahmad Farooqi, Nirupama Kannikeswaran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present more frequently to the emergency department (ED) than children with normal development, and frequently have injuries requiring procedural sedation. Our objective was to describe sedation practice and outcomes in children with ASD in the ED. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of children with ASD who underwent sedation at two tertiary care EDs between January 2009-December 2016...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Steven G Schauer, Jason F Naylor, Joseph K Maddry, Denise M Beaumont, Cord W Cunningham, Megan B Blackburn, Michael D April
OBJECTIVES: Airway failures are the second leading cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. Improvements in airway management depend on identifying current challenges. We sought to build on previously reported data on prehospital, combat airway management. METHODS: We used a series of emergency department procedure codes to identify patients within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from January 2007 to August 2016. This is a subanalysis of those with a documented prehospital airway intervention...
December 2018: Southern Medical Journal
David Barbic, Gary Andolfatto, Brian Grunau, Frank X Scheuermeyer, William MacEwan, William G Honer, Hubert Wong, Skye P Barbic
BACKGROUND: The rapid control of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with psychomotor agitation and violent behavior is paramount for the safety of patients and ED staff. The use of intramuscular (IM) ketamine in the pre-hospital and ED settings has demonstrated promising preliminary results to provide rapid and safe behavioral control. A prospective, randomized controlled trial is required to measure the potential superiority of IM ketamine compared to current standard care (IM benzodiazepines plus antipsychotics)...
November 26, 2018: Trials
Sylvia Kramer, Martin Krebs, Claudia Spies, Shahab Ghamari, Claudia Höhne, Karin Becke, Christoph Eich, Andreas Hoeft, Julius Wermelt, Richard K Ellerkmann
The upcoming and ongoing debate on neurotoxicity of anesthetics at a young age put a new spotlight on the emergence delirium of children (paedED). The European Society for Anesthesiology published a consensus guideline on prevention and therapy in 2017 which can be a useful guidance in daily clinical practice. Patient data management systems with their clear documentation concerning pain/therapy of pain and paedED will be valuable tools in order to assess the real incidence of paedED. Differentiating between pain/agitation and paedED migth not always be easy...
November 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
G Homfray, A Palmer, H Grimsmo-Powney, A Appelboam, G Lloyd
BACKGROUND: The elderly are perceived as a high-risk group for procedural sedation. Concern exists regarding the safety of sedation of this patient group by emergency physicians, particularly when using propofol. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected data on patients aged 75 yr or older undergoing sedation between October 2006 and March 2017 in the emergency department of a single centre. We used the World Society of Intravenous Anaesthesia International Sedation Task Force adverse event tool, stratifying identified adverse events according to consensus agreement...
December 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Manal H Saad, Candace L Savonen, Matthew Rumschlag, Sokol V Todi, Carl J Schmidt, Michael J Bannon
Opioid abuse is now the primary cause of accidental deaths in the United States. Studies over several decades established the cyclical nature of abused drugs of choice, with a current resurgence of heroin abuse and, more recently, fentanyl's emergence as a major precipitant of drug-related deaths. To better understand abuse trends and to explore the potential lethality of specific drug-drug interactions, we conducted statistical analyses of forensic toxicological data from the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office from 2012-2016...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Itai Shavit, Danielle Shavit, Oren Feldman, Nir Samuel, Anat Ilivitzki, Daniel M Cohen
BACKGROUND: Ileocolic intussusception is a major cause for intestinal obstruction in early childhood. Reduction of intussusception, in the vast majority of institutions, is performed on awake children, without sedation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the course of the first patients who were sedated by emergency physicians for pneumatic reduction of intussusception (PRI). METHODS: We conducted a case series analysis of prospectively collected data on patients undergoing PRI, using a sedation recording tool...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Torgrim Soeyland, Alan Garner, Sam Vidler, Cristian Humberto Gutierrez, Arnold Foster, Jane Kitcher
BACKGROUND: Prehospital medical teams are commonly required to administer a range of medications for urgent stabilisation and treatment. The safe preparation of medications during resuscitation requires attention, time and resources, and can be a source of medication error. In our two road and HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service) prehospital services, medication errors are mitigated by predrawing commonly used medications to set concentrations daily (Hunter Retrieval Service, HRS) or second-daily (CareFlight Sydney, CFS)...
December 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Amgad H Hanna, Davinder Ramsingh, Whitney Sullivan-Lewis, Sarah Cano, Patrick Leiter, Desiree Wallace, Gerald Andrews, Briahnna Austin, Richard L Applegate
BACKGROUND: Anxiety associated with pediatric surgery can be stressful. Midazolam is a well-accepted anxiolytic in this setting. However, there are cases in which this medication is not effective. Zolpidem is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drug that is administered orally and has quick onset of action (~15 minutes), and 2-3 hour duration. AIMS: Based on the theory that impaired perception following oral zolpidem administration would suppress the development of anxiety, we sought to compare zolpidem to midazolam for pediatric preoperative anxiety...
October 17, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Katharina Marquart, Julia Herbert, Niko Amend, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Timo Wille
BACKGROUND: In a military or terrorist scenario, combination of organophosphorus compounds (OP) poisoning with physical trauma requiring surgical treatment and thus general anaesthesia are possible. Previous in vitro studies showed an altered potency of relevant anaesthetics during cholinergic crisis. Hence, it is not clear, which anaesthetics are suitable to achieve the necessary stage of surgical anaesthesia in OP poisoning. METHODS: In the present study, different anaesthetic regimens (ketamine-midazolam, propofol-fentanyl, thiopental-fentanyl), relevant in military emergency medicine, were examined in soman-poisoned rats...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
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