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("End Tidal" OR "End-tidal") AND ("Carbon Dioxide" OR "CO2")

William A Teeter, Matthew J Bradley, Anna Romagnoli, Peter Hu, Yao Li, Deborah M Stein, Thomas M Scalea, Megan Brenner
The purpose of this study is to compare end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO₂) during resuscitation of open-chest cardiac massage (OCCM) with aortic cross-clamp (ACC) versus receiving resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) with closed-chest compressions (CCCs). Patients who received REBOA were compared with patients receiving OCCM for traumatic arrest using continuous vital sign monitoring and videography. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in the REBOA group and 18 patients were enrolled in the OCCM group...
October 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Almasa Bass, Lynn R Webster, Kyle T Matschke, Bimal K Malhotra, Gernot Wolfram
Background: Abuse of prescription opioids, particularly by intravenous (IV) administration, can cause respiratory depression and death. ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation, is designed to release sequestered naltrexone upon manipulation by crushing, thereby antagonizing the pharmacologic effects of oxycodone. This exploratory post-hoc analysis examined the effects of IV administration of simulated crushed ALO-02 on end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2 ), a surrogate marker of respiratory depression...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
John W Kreit
Volume capnography provides a non-invasive, continuous display of the fractional concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide versus exhaled volume. Derived measurements and calculations are influenced by changes in both ventilation and perfusion and are therefore useful for assessing both respiratory and cardiovascular function. This article provides an evidence-based review of several potential uses of volume capnography in the ICU: 1) monitoring the effectiveness of ventilation by using end-tidal PCO2 as a surrogate for arterial PCO2; 2) assessing volume-responsiveness; 3) measuring cardiac output; 4) determining prognosis in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome; 5) optimizing alveolar recruitment; and 6) excluding pulmonary embolism...
February 11, 2019: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ulrike Auer, J Peter Schramel, Yves P Moens, Martina Mosing, Christina H Braun
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the distribution in pulmonary ventilation in anaesthetized ponies using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A group of eight adult pony geldings. METHODS: General anaesthesia was induced and maintained using isoflurane in oxygen with volume-controlled ventilation [tidal volume (VT ) (10 mL kg-1 ), respiratory rate (8-12 breaths minute-1 )] to maintain end-tidal carbon dioxide between 35 and 40 mmHg (4...
October 28, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
C D Nawn, M B Blackburn, R A De Lorenzo, K L Ryan
Proper placement of the tracheal tube requires confirmation, and the predominant method in addition to clinical signs is the presence of end-tidal carbon dioxide. Such is the importance of confirmation that novel methods may also have a place. We previously demonstrated using ex-vivo swine tissue a unique spectral reflectance characteristic of tracheal tissue that differs from oesophageal tissue. We hypothesised that this characteristic would be present in living swine tissue and human cadavers. Reflectance spectra in the range 500-650 nm were captured using a customised fibreoptic probe, compact spectrometer and white light source from both the trachea and the oesophagus in anesthetised living swine and in human cadavers...
January 21, 2019: Anaesthesia
John W Kreit
Volume capnography provides a non-invasive and continuous display of the fractional concentration or partial pressure of expired carbon dioxide versus exhaled volume. Derived measurements and calculations include the end-tidal, mean alveolar, and mixed expired PCO2, the volume of CO2 exhaled per breath and per minute, the airway, alveolar, and physiologic dead space volume, the physiologic dead space to tidal volume ratio, and expired minute ventilation, dead space ventilation, and alveolar ventilation. Thus, volume capnography provides a wealth of information about both respiratory and cardiovascular function, and it has many potential applications in critically ill patients...
January 18, 2019: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jinjun Shu, Kexian Zhang, Yiding Chen, Hongwei Zhang, Jiang Zou, Yumin Tang, Jifu Dong, Yi Du
Capnography is an effective and non-invasive method for monitoring patients during general anesthesia and can reflect the changes in both the respiratory function as well as the circulatory function. In this paper, we present four cases of lobectomy in which we observed a "chair-like" waveform on performing capnography after the surgery. In all the cases, the appearance of this "chair-like" waveform led to the suspicion of a blockage in the pulmonary artery perfusion, which was then confirmed to be an obstruction in the pulmonary artery on further investigation...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Liangchao Qu, Yan Jiao, Zhangjie Jiang, Zhiping Song, Weilu Zhao
To establish rat model of lung ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in vivo, and to explore the effects of acidification pretreatment for respiratory acidosis on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the possible mechanisms.
 Methods: A total of 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a sham group (S group), a IR group, and an experiment group (RA group) (n=12 in each group). The rat left lung hilum in the S group was dissociated, followed by perfusion without ischemia. After the left lung hilum in the IR group was blocked for 45 min, the rats were followed by reperfusion for 180 min...
November 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Katie A Hunt, Rebecca Ling, Marie White, Kamal K Ali, Theodore Dassios, Anthony D Milner, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Sustained inflations at initial stabilisation in the delivery suite may reduce the need for intubation and result in a shorter duration of initial ventilation, but have not been compared to routine UK practice. AIMS: To compare the early efficacy of sustained inflation during stabilisation after delivery to UK practice. STUDY DESIGN: A randomised trial was performed of a fifteen second sustained inflation compared to five inflations lasting 2 to 3 s, each intervention could be repeated once if no chest rise was apparent...
January 11, 2019: Early Human Development
Nuria Lacuey, Johnson P Hampson, Ronald M Harper, Jonathan P Miller, Samden Lhatoo
OBJECTIVE: To precisely identify cortical regions that modulate breathing, and delineate a network of cortical structures that underpin ictal central apnea (ICA) during epileptic seizures. METHODS: We electrically stimulated multiple cortical structures in patients undergoing stereotactic EEG (SEEG) evaluation before epilepsy surgery. Structures investigated were orbitofrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate and subcallosal gyri, insula, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporo-polar cortex, antero-mesial fusiform gyrus, and lateral and basal temporal cortices...
January 11, 2019: Neurology
Kyle M Burk, Derek J Sakata, Kai Kuck, Joseph A Orr
BACKGROUND: Supplemental oxygen is administered during procedural sedation to prevent hypoxemia. Continuous flow oxygen, the most widespread method, is generally adequate but distorts capnography. Pulsed flow oxygen is novel and ideally will not distort capnography. We have developed a prototype oxygen administration system designed to try to facilitate end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) measurement. We conducted a volunteer study (, NCT02886312) to determine how much nasal ETCO2 measurements vary with oxygen flow rate...
January 8, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hannah C Levy, Alyssa Nett, David F Tolin
Difficulty discarding is the core behavioral symptom of hoarding disorder (HD). Patients with HD report greater subjective distress when discarding their own possessions as compared to others' possessions. To date, no prior studies have examined psychophysiological activation, an objective measure of anxious arousal, during discarding among individuals with HD. The current study assessed psychophysiological responses during a baseline resting period and two discarding tasks, one involving personal possessions and the other involving matched control ("experimenter-owned") items in 52 patients with a primary diagnosis of HD...
December 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Giovanni Babini, Giuseppe Ristagno, Antonio Boccardo, Daria De Giorgio, Marcella De Maglie, Roberta Affatato, Sabina Ceriani, Davide Zani, Deborah Novelli, Lidia Staszewsky, Serge Masson, Davide Pravettoni, Roberto Latini, Angelo Belloli, Eugenio Scanziani, Markus Skrifvars
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate in an established porcine post cardiac arrest model the effect of a mild hypercapnic ventilatory strategy on outcome. METHODS: The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded in 14 pigs and ventricular fibrillation induced and left untreated for 12 min. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed for 5 min prior to defibrillation. After resuscitation, pigs were assigned to either normocapnic (end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2 ) target: 35-40 mmHg) or hypercapnic ventilation (EtCO2 45-50 mmHg)...
October 26, 2018: Resuscitation
Carsten Grøndahl, Emilie U Andersen-Ranberg, Jesper B Mosbacher, Mikkel Stelvig, Lars H Hansen, Niels M Schmidt
Immobilizing and handling large, free-ranging animals without proper facilities in harsh environmental conditions poses significant challenges. During two field expeditions, a total of 29 female muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus) were immobilized in Northeast Greenland (74°N, 20°E). Fixed doses of immobilizing drugs were used regardless of animal size: 2 mg etorphine, 30 mg xylazine, 0.3 mg medetomidine, and 40 mg ketamine. Physiologic and behavioral monitoring was performed during the second expedition on 15 female muskoxen...
December 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
L McKetton, L Venkatraghavan, C Rosen, D M Mandell, K Sam, O Sobczyk, J Poublanc, E Gray, A Crawley, J Duffin, J A Fisher, D J Mikulis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One feature that patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease have in common is the presence of white matter (WM) lesions on MRI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of direct surgical revascularization on impaired WM cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with steno-occlusive disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 35 patients with steno-occlusive disease, Moyamoya disease ( n = 24), Moyamoya syndrome ( n = 3), atherosclerosis ( n = 6), vasculitis ( n = 1), and idiopathic stenosis ( n = 1), who underwent unilateral brain revascularization using a direct superficial temporal artery-to-MCA bypass (19 women; mean age, 45...
January 2019: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Josephine Kropf, J M Lynne Hughes
Background: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded clinical study was conducted to determine whether a single dose of midazolam affects the cardiovascular response to surgical manipulation of the ovaries during elective ovariohysterectomy. Thirty-nine client-owned dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were recruited. After scoring cage demeanour, dogs were premedicated with acepromazine (0.03 mg kg-1 ) and pethidine (3 mg kg-1 ) intramuscularly into the quadriceps muscle and 20 min later sedation was scored...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
Emidio M Sivieri, Eric Eichenwald, Salma M Bakri, Soraya Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: This study compared CO2 clearance in a premature infant lung model connected to a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) system supplied with oscillatory versus non-oscillatory flow. DESIGN/METHODS: The lung model was set to compliance 1.0 mL/cmH2 O, RR 60 breaths/min, and 6 mL tidal volume. A 100% CO2 was injected at a constant 15 mL/min. To create oscillation, HFNC flow was interrupted at rates of 4-6-8 and 10 Hz. equilibrated end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 ) was recorded with and without oscillation at set flows of 2-8 L/min and repeated for each oscillation frequency...
December 14, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Amanda K Morrow, David E Tunkel, Joseph M Collaco, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Janet C Lam, Jennifer A Accardo, Suzanne V Rybczynski
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this retrospective review was to determine the utility of polysomnography (PSG) in influencing the decision to decannulate pediatric patients with brain and spinal cord injuries in an inpatient rehabilitation hospital setting. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2016, data were collected on pediatric patients with brain and/or spinal cord injuries who had PSG performed with the goal of decannulation. Patients underwent a decannulation protocol involving toleration of continuous tracheostomy capping and bedside tracheoscopy by otolaryngology...
December 11, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Carolyn D Davies, Patrick B McGrath, Lisa R Hale, Daniel N Weiner, David F Tolin
Capnometry guided respiratory interventions have shown promising results in the treatment of panic disorder, but mechanisms of change are not yet well-understood. The current study examined changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ), anxiety sensitivity, and perceived control as mediators of panic symptom change. Sixty-nine adults with panic disorder received 4 weeks of respiratory training, and panic symptom severity and potential mediators were assessed at Pre-treatment, Mid-treatment, Post-treatment, 2-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up...
December 11, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Henning A Haga, Vanessa Bettembourg, Andreas Lervik
OBJECTIVE: To determine the infusion rates that maintain the train-of-four (TOF) ratio within 20-70% in dogs and compare the infusion rates between diabetic and nondiabetic dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: In total, 47 dogs scheduled for phacoemulsification were included with a median (80% central range) bodyweight of 10.6 (5.7-35.5) kg and age of 7 (1-11) years. Diabetes mellitus was previously diagnosed in nine dogs...
September 19, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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