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"Head Injury" OR "Traumatic Brain Injury" OR "TBI"

Li-Ru Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Aidan C Smith, Ryan C Holden, Sherry M Rasmussen, Michael R Hoane, Michael J Hylin
Age is a consistent predictor of outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although children and adolescents have the highest rate of hospitalizations and long-term disabilities, few preclinical studies have attempted to model and treat TBI in this population. Studies using nicotinamide (NAM), a soluble B-group vitamin, in older animals (3-6 months) have shown improved functional recovery in experimental models of TBI. The purpose of this study was two-fold: to examine the preclinical efficacy of NAM at different doses on behavioral outcomes in juvenile rats and examine the microglial response over time...
February 13, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Pengfei Pan, Yunlin Song, Xinxin Du, Linlin Bai, Xiaoli Hua, Yawen Xiao, Xiangyou Yu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause non-neurological injuries to other organs such as the intestine. Newer studies have shown that paracellular hyperpermeability is the basis of intestinal barrier dysfunction following TBI. Ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response, abnormal release of neurotransmitters and hormones, and malnutrition contribute to TBI-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Several interventions that may protect intestinal barrier function and promote the recovery of TBI have been proposed, but relevant studies are still limited...
February 15, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Yuemei Zhao, Yanbai Xue, Yan Zhang, Weitao Li, Zhiy Qian
In vivo simultaneous monitoring of blood flow and changes of concentration of oxyhemoglobin (ΔHbO2 ) in brain is a key important method for the research of cerebrovascular disease. In this study, a new monitoring system, combining laser speckle contrast imaging method and spectral analysis method, was proposed, which could be utilized to measure the cerebral blood flow and ΔHbO2 on mice during traumatic brain injury. The principle of the present system was studied and the hardware platform of the detection system was built...
January 30, 2019: Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation
Bruno Follmer, Rodolfo Andre Dellagrana, E Paul Zehr
BACKGROUND: Brain injury arising from head trauma is a major concern in mixed martial arts (MMA) because knockout (KO) and technical knockout (TKO) are frequent fight outcomes. Previous studies have shown a high incidence of matches ending due to strikes to the head but did not consider weight categories and female fights. This study aimed at analyzing match stoppages in MMA and the exposure to head trauma distinguished by sex and weight categories. HYPOTHESIS: The heavier the weight class, the greater the risk and incidence of head trauma will be, regardless of sex...
February 15, 2019: Sports Health
Alexander Lilja-Cyron, Morten Andresen, Jesper Kelsen, Trine Hjorslev Andreasen, Kåre Fugleholm, Marianne Juhler
BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is used in cases of severe intracranial hypertension or impending intracranial herniation. DC effectively lowers intracranial pressure (ICP) but carries a risk of severe complications related to abnormal ICP and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, eg, hygroma formation, hydrocephalus, and "syndrome of the trephined." OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term effect of DC on ICP, postural ICP regulation, and intracranial pulse wave amplitude (PWA)...
February 15, 2019: Neurosurgery
T R Kanmani, Birudu Raju
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) will be the third largest killer by the year 2020 in the world. It creates the great amount of morbidity, disability, mortality, and reduces the psychosocial well-being of the patients and their caregivers. Hence, the current paper aimed to explore the psychosocial distress and caregivers' concerns in emergency and trauma care (ETC) setting. Methodology: This study adopted qualitative research design. All caregivers of TBI survivors were considered as a universe of the study...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Joshua B Brown, Marin Kheng, Nancy A Carney, Andres M Rubiano, Juan Carlos Puyana
Introduction: Significant heterogeneity exists in traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes. In the United States, TBI remains a primary driver of injury-related mortality and morbidity. Prior work has suggested that disparity exists in rural areas; our objective was to evaluate potential differences in TBI mortality across urban and rural areas on a national scale. Methods: Age-adjusted TBI fatality rates were obtained at the county level across the U.S. from 2008 to 2014...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Gwan-Jin Park, Jaeho Shin, Sang-Chul Kim, Dae-Seok Na, Hae-Ju Lee, Hoon Kim, Seok-Woo Lee, Yong-Nam In
INTRODUCTION: Helmet use during motorcycle crashes (MCCs) has been shown to reduce traumatic brain injury and mortality. However, preventive effects of its use on cervical spine injury remain controversial. In this study, we evaluated whether helmet use can reduce cervical spine injury during MCCs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study using data from the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) registry was conducted. Cases were defined as patients with cervical spine injury [≥2 points in the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)] in MCCs from 2011 to 2016...
January 22, 2019: Injury
Eric Rosenfeld, Patricio Lau, Wei Zhang, Robert T Russell, Sohail R Shah, Bindi Naik-Mathuria, Adam M Vogel
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify an optimal definition of massive transfusion (MT) in civilian pediatric trauma. METHODS: Severely injured children (age ≤18 years, injury severity score ≥25) in the Trauma Quality Improvement Program research datasets 2014-2015 that received blood products were identified. Children with traumatic brain injury and non-survivable injuries were excluded. Early mortality was defined as death within 24 h and delayed mortality as death after 24 h from hospital admission...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Marlina E Lovett, Nicole F O'Brien, Jeffrey R Leonard
Severe traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In 2003 the Brain Trauma Foundation released guidelines that have since been updated (2010) and have helped standardize and improve care. One area of care that remains controversial is whether the placement of an intracranial pressure monitor is advantageous in the management of traumatic brain injury. Another aspect of care that is widely debated is whether management after traumatic brain injury should be based on intracranial pressure-directed therapy, cerebral perfusion pressure-directed therapy, or a combination of the two...
January 11, 2019: Pediatric Neurology
Russell E Banks, Delfina C Domínguez
Concussion is a transitory brain injury resulting from a blow to the head. Concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), which is self-limited. Repetitive mTBI has been associated with chronic, progressive neurological damage. Extreme biochemical changes occur in neuron cells as a result of mTBI. These metabolic disturbances may reflect the symptoms observed in patients who had suffered concussions. However, it has been difficult to correlate clinical signs and symptoms. Currently, there are no laboratory tests to diagnose concussion, though several biomarkers are being investigated...
February 14, 2019: Seminars in Speech and Language
Ross C Puffer, John K Yue, Matthew Mesley, Julia B Billigen, Jane Sharpless, Anita L Fetzick, Ava M Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, David O Okonkwo
INTRODUCTION: Prospects for recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often underestimated, potentially leading to withdrawal of care in the comatose TBI patient who may ultimately have a favorable outcome with aggressive care. Outcomes and trajectories of recovery in a large series of TBI patients were evaluated at 30, 90 and 180 days post-injury. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the Phase 3 COBRIT was performed analyzing recovery trajectories and long-term outcomes at 30, 90 and 180 days post-injury...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Véronique Vermeersch, Olivier Huet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Maryam Sulaiman Alsaadi
DAPK (death-associated protein kinase) is a calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) regulated serine/threonine kinase. Structurally, it assumes a multi-domain structure and participates in various apoptotic systems which imply that it may interact with a wide range of intracellular components to exert its action. DAPK plays vital roles in pro-apoptotic, apoptotic and autophagic pathways. In addition, it plays important roles in many diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia and epilepsy. Although a novel protein, DAPK's various cellular signal transduction pathways proves that it can be a target for a potential future therapeutic effects...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Charlotte Oris, Russel Chabanne, Julie Durif, Samy Kahouadji, Marina Brailova, Vincent Sapin, Damien Bouvier
Background The addition of S100B protein to guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) decreases the amount of unnecessary computed tomography (CT) scans with a significant decrease in radiation exposure and an increase in cost savings. Both DiaSorin and Roche Diagnostics have developed automated assays for S100B determination. Recently, bioMérieux developed a prototype immunoassay for serum S100B determination. For the first time, we present the evaluation of the S100B measurement using a bioMérieux Vidas® 3 analyzer...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Jigang Chen, Wen Chen, Kaiwei Han, Enbo Qi, Rongbin Chen, Minkun Yu, Lijun Hou, Liquan Lv
Sympathetic hyperactivity occurs in a subgroup of patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a key region for the activity of sympathetic nervous system. Oxidative stress in the RVLM is proved to be responsible for the increased level of sympathetic activity in animal models of hypertension and heart failure. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative stress in the RVLM contributed to the development of sympathetic hyperactivity after TBI in rats. Model of diffuse axonal injury was induced using Sprague-Dawley rats, and level of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma Norepinephrine (NE) was measured to evaluate the sympathetic activity...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Huaqian Li, Lijun Huang, Ge Wu, Xianmei Chen, Qiaoan Zheng, Faming Su, Maoshan Liang, Xiaoming Chen
RATIONALE: Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders in clinic. Due to the complicated etiology and the nonspecific clinical manifestations, the diagnosis of hyponatremia is a complicated process. A variety of clinical disorders can cause inappropriately increased antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion, leading to inappropriate water retention and consequent hyponatremia. The most common cause of hyponatremia in hospital inpatients is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic (SIADH)...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ji-Peng Jiang, Xue-Gang Niu, Chen Dai, Ke Ma, Hui-You Xu, Shi-Xiang Cheng, Zhi-Wen Zhang, Feng Duan, Xu Zhu, Yu-Ting Wang, Xu-Yi Chen, Sai Zhang
An accurate and effective neurological evaluation is indispensable in the treatment and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. However, most of the existing evaluation methods in basic research and clinical practice are not objective or intuitive for assessing the neurological function of big animals, and are also difficult to use to qualify the extent of damage and recovery. In the present study, we established a big animal model of traumatic brain injury by impacting the cortical motor region of beagles...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
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