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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30901433/computational-modeling-of-primary-blast-lung-injury-implications-for-ventilator-management
#1
Jacob Herrmann, Merryn H Tawhai, David W Kaczka
Primary blast lung injury (PBLI) caused by exposure to high-intensity pressure waves is associated with parenchymal tissue injury and severe ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Although supportive ventilation is often required in patients with PBLI, maldistribution of gas flow in mechanically heterogeneous lungs may lead to further injury due to increased parenchymal strain and strain rate, which are difficult to predict in vivo. In this study, we developed a computational lung model with mechanical properties consistent with healthy and PBLI conditions...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30901420/crossover-assessment-of-intraoral-and-cuffed-ventilation-by-emergency-responders
#2
Bernadette McCrory, Bethany R Lowndes, Darcy L Thompson, Michael C Wadman, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer, Richard Walker, Carol S Lomneth, M Susan Hallbeck
OBJECTIVES: A cuffed bag valve mask (BVM) is the most common device used by emergency medical responders to ventilate patients. The BVM can be difficult for users to seal around the patient's mouth and nose. An intraoral mask (IOM) with snorkel-like design may facilitate quicker and better ventilation particularly under austere conditions. METHODS: Both a BVM and IOM were utilized by 27 trained emergency medical technicians and paramedics to ventilate a lightly embalmed cadaver...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30901391/prehospital-interventions-performed-in-afghanistan-between-november-2009-and-march-2014
#3
Julio Lairet, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Joseph K Maddry, Lauren Reeves, Alejandra Mora, Lorne Blackbourne, Todd Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: Care provided to a casualty in the prehospital combat setting can influence subsequent medical interactions and impact patient outcomes; therefore, we aimed to describe the incidence of specific prehospital interventions (lifesaving interventions (LSIs)) performed during the resuscitation and transport of combat casualties. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational, IRB approved study between November 2009 and March 2014. Casualties were enrolled as they were cared for at nine U...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30901134/airways-wide-shut-a-physiological-phenotype-of-asthma
#4
EDITORIAL
Claude S Farah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900913/endogenous-lung-stem-cells-for-lung-regeneration
#5
Jonathan L McQualter
Lifelong maintenance of a healthy lung requires resident stem cells to proliferate according to tissue requirements. Once thought to be a quiescent tissue, evolving views of the complex differentiation landscape of lung stem and progenitor cells have broad implications for our understanding of how the lung is maintained, as well as the development of new therapies for promoting endogenous regeneration in lung disease. Areas covered: This review collates a large body of research relating to the hierarchical organization of epithelial stem cells in the adult lung and their role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration after injury...
March 22, 2019: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900363/non-woven-bilayered-biodegradable-chitosan-gelatin-polylactide-scaffold-for-bioengineering-of-tracheal-epithelium
#6
Olga A Romanova, Timur H Tenchurin, Tatiana S Demina, Elena V Sytina, Alexey D Shepelev, Stanislav G Rudyak, Olga I Klein, Sergey V Krasheninnikov, Elizaveta I Safronova, Roman A Kamyshinsky, Vissarion G Mamagulashvili, Tatiana A Akopova, Sergey N Chvalun, Andrey A Panteleyev
OBJECTIVES: The conversion of tissue engineering into a routine clinical tool cannot be achieved without a deep understanding of the interaction between cells and scaffolds during the process of tissue formation in an artificial environment. Here, we have investigated the cultivation conditions and structural features of the biodegradable non-woven material in order to obtain a well-differentiated human airway epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bilayered scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning technology...
March 21, 2019: Cell Proliferation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900242/comparison-of-pentax-airway-scope-and-macintosh-laryngoscope-for-orotracheal-intubation-in-children-a-randomised-non-inferiority-trial
#7
In Kyong Yi, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Kyung Mi Kim, Soo Hwan Ahn, Sook Young Lee, Jong Yeop Kim
BACKGROUND: Pentax Airway Scope (AWS) is a recently developed videolaryngoscope for use in both normal and difficult airways, yet its use in paediatric patients has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Pentax AWS regarding intubation time, laryngeal view and ease of intubation in paediatric patients with normal airway, compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. METHOD: A total of 136 paediatric patients aged 1-10 with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II undergoing general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups: Macintosh laryngoscope (n = 68) and Pentax Airway Scope (n = 68)...
March 22, 2019: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900225/tracheoscopic-findings-and-their-impact-on-respiratory-symptoms-in-children-with-esophageal-atresia
#8
Janina Fischer, Johannes Balleisen, Josef Holzki, Grigore Cernaianu, Miguel Alejandre Alcàzar, Martin Dübbers
INTRODUCTION:  Esophageal atresia (EA) is often accompanied by tracheobronchial malformations leading to stridor, recurrent bronchitis, and occasionally to life-threatening obstructive apnea after surgical repair. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of tracheomalacia in patients with EA and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) pre- and postoperatively and to find endoscopic correlates leading to clinical airway symptoms. METHODS:  In a cohort of 362 patients with EA-TEF who underwent 595 tracheoscopies at the Children's Hospital of Cologne between January 1983 and December 2002, impaired tracheal lumen, localization of TEF, tracheal pulsations, and corresponding clinical symptoms were retrospectively analyzed...
March 21, 2019: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900014/pulmonary-acinus-understanding-the-computed-tomography-findings-from-an-acinar-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Bruno Hochhegger, Felipe W Langer, Klaus Irion, Arthur Souza, José Moreira, Matteo Baldisserotto, Yana Pallaoro, Enrico Muller, Tassia Machado Medeiros, Stephan Altmayer, Edson Marchiori
The lung acinus is the most distal portion of the airway responsible for the gas exchange. The normal acini are not visible on conventional computed tomography (CT), but the advent of micro-CT improved the understanding of the microarchitecture of healthy acini. The comprehension of the acinar architecture is pivotal for the understanding of CT findings of diseases that involve the acini. Centriacinar emphysema, for example, presents as round areas of low attenuation due to the destruction of the most central acini with compensatory enlargement of proximal acini due to alveolar wall destruction...
March 21, 2019: Lung
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30899941/-changes-of-airway-before-and-after-twin-block-treatment-in-patients-with-mandibular-retrusion
#10
Wei Wang, Shi-Cheng Mo, Lin Wang
PURPOSE: To observe the changes of upper airway and the effect of different tongue position on upper airway volume before and after Twin-block treatment in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion. METHODS: Thirty-three patients (ages:11.3±0.89) with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion were included in the study and divided into 2 groups, the control group (12 patients) and experimental group (21 patients). In the experimental group, according to the tongue position shown on cone-beam CT (CBCT), the patients were sub-divided into lower tongue position group and higher tongue position group...
December 2018: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30899797/physician-based-on-scene-airway-management-in-severely-injured-patients-and-in-hospital-consequences-is-the-misplaced-intubation-an-underestimated-danger-in-trauma-management
#11
Orkun Özkurtul, Manuel F Struck, Johannes Fakler, Michael Bernhard, Silja Seinen, Hermann Wrigge, Christoph Josten
Background: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is the gold standard for the out-of-hospital emergency airway management in severely injured patients. Due to time-critical circumstances, poor patient presentation and hostile environments, it may be prone for mechanical complications and failure. Methods: In a retrospective study (January 2011 to December 2013), all patients who underwent out-of-hospital ETI before admittance to a level 1 trauma center were analyzed consecutively...
2019: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30899632/a-case-of-pneumomediastinum-and-pneumoperitoneum-with-concurrent-massive-subcutaneous-emphysema-due-to-repositioning-of-a-tracheostomy-tube
#12
Karim O Elkholy, Hamza Akhtar, Eric Landa, Yury Malyshev, Sonu Sahni
Tracheostomy is a common procedure seen in critically ill patients that require long term ventilatory support. As with all airway access procedures, tracheotomy with prolonged tracheal tube placement comes with possible risks such as tracheal scarring, tracheal rupture, pneumothorax, tracheoesophageal fistula among others. Another possible complication, though rare, is escape of free air into the surrounding tissue, as well as pneumomediastinum (PM). This may occur due to various reasons, some of them being tracheal rupture, barotrauma or tracheal tube mispositioning...
January 14, 2019: Curēus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30899365/induction-of-airway-progenitor-cells-via-p63-and-klf11-by-rho-kinase-inhibitor-y27632-in-htert-human-nasal-epithelial-cells
#13
Yakuto Kaneko, Takumi Konno, Takayuki Kohno, Takuya Kakuki, Ryo Miyata, Tsuyoshi Ohkuni, Akito Kakiuchi, Ryoto Yajima, Kizuku Ohwada, Makoto Kurose, Tetsuo Himi, Kenichi Takano, Takashi Kojima
Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632, which is a factor in conditional reprogramming culture, induces airway progenitor clone formation. To investigate whether Y27632 enhances airway progenitor cells in nasal epithelium, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with Y27632. In TERT-HNECs treated with Y27632 for 5 days, upregulation of p63, gap junction molecules Cx26, Cx30, Cx43, cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP39A1, CYP4B1, CYP2G1P, CYP4Z1, and KLF families KLF10 and KLF11 were observed compared to the control...
2019: American Journal of Translational Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30899153/estimation-of-gastric-volume-before-anesthesia-in-term-pregnant-women-undergoing-elective-cesarean-section-compared-with-non-pregnant-or-first-trimester-women-undergoing-minor-gynecological-surgical-procedures
#14
Oren Gal, Mark Rotshtein, Dan Feldman, Amir Mari, Motti Hallak, Yael Kopelman
Background: Traditionally, intubation of pregnant women has been performed using a rapid sequence induction. This is due to the classical concept that women with more than 18 weeks of pregnancy (mid-second trimester) are always considered to have an increased risk of aspiration due to a number of factors, regardless of the fasting duration. Rapid sequence induction is associated with a higher rate of adverse events. Aims: Our study aimed to illuminate the hypothesis that there is no difference in gastric volume between term-pregnant women and non-pregnant or first-trimester pregnant women who were undergoing minor gynecological surgical procedures...
2019: Clinical Medicine Insights. Women's Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30898804/trends-in-the-prevalence-of-airflow-limitation-in-a-general-japanese-population-two-serial-cross-sectional-surveys-from-the-hisayama-study
#15
Hiroaki Ogata, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Koichiro Matsumoto, Jun Hata, Daigo Yoshida, Satoru Fukuyama, Hiromasa Inoue, Takanari Kitazono, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yoichi Nakanishi
OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive airway disease, which is characterised by airflow limitation, is a major burden on public health. Reductions in environmental pollution in the atmosphere and workplace and a decline in the prevalence of smoking over recent decades may have affected the prevalence of airflow limitation in Japan. The present epidemiological study aimed to evaluate trends in the prevalence of airflow limitation and in the influence of risk factors on airflow limitation in a Japanese community...
March 20, 2019: BMJ Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897457/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-alters-brain-microstructure-and-perfusion-patterns-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
Hillel S Maresky, Isaac Shpirer, Miriam M Klar, Max Levitt, Efrat Sasson, Sigal Tal
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on brain structure and function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: A prospective study of seven OSA patients recruited from the sleep center at our institution was carried out. Patients were treated with six weeks of CPAP treatment. Pre-treatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion scans were obtained and compared to assess for treatment-induced changes...
January 31, 2019: Sleep Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897454/effect-of-calf-muscle-electrical-stimulation-on-rostral-fluid-shift-snoring-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Daniel Vena, Owen Lyons, Geoff R Fernie, Milos R Popovic, Daniela Malta, Hisham Alshaer, Azadeh Yadollahi
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Overnight fluid shift from the legs into the neck may contribute to the pathogenesis of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The present study investigates the effects of calf muscle electrical stimulation (ES) on reducing leg fluid accumulation while seated, subsequent rostral fluid shift on lying down, and the impact on snoring and OSA. METHODS: Sixteen non-obese, normotensive men with OSA participated in the study. On the first study day, participants sat for 150 min receiving either active or sham ES through random allocation, then lied supine for 60 min...
February 6, 2019: Sleep Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897431/on-the-rheology-of-pulmonary-surfactant-effects-of-concentration-and-consequences-for-the-surfactant-replacement-therapy
#18
L P A Thai, F Mousseau, E K Oikonomou, J-F Berret
The role of pulmonary surfactant is to reduce the surface tension in the lungs and to facilitate breathing. Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) aims at bringing a substitute by instillation into the airways, a technique that has proven to be efficient and lifesaving for preterm infants. Adapting this therapy to adults requires to scale the administered dose to the patient body weight and to increase the lipid concentration, whilst maintaining its surface and flow properties similar. Here, we exploit a magnetic wire-based microrheology technique to measure the viscosity of the exogenous pulmonary surfactant Curosurf® in various experimental conditions...
March 11, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897309/-how-i-treat-airway-obstruction-in-children-with-sequence-of-pierre-robin
#19
M Thimmesch, N Seret, G Hens, A François, G François
Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is described as a triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis and cleft palate. This sequence may be isolated or associated with a genetic syndrome in half of the cases. Main complications affect respiratory function and the upper digestive tract. Respiratory obstruction can arise as soon as in the first hours of life and may be life-threatening if no early appropriate management is implemented. PRS is phenotypically variable and the required treatment varies accordingly: some patients will be relieved with prone positioning alone while others will benefit from nasopharyngeal tube, CPAP ("Continuous Positive Airway Pressure") or rarely surgery...
March 2019: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897276/nasal-foreign-bodies-management-in-children-our-experience-in-106-patients
#20
Fabio Pagella, Alessandro Pusateri, Elina Matti, Greta Riceputi, Ilaria Brambilla, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Marco Benazzo
1.Nasal foreign bodies are a common problem in children. 2.Prompt management of nasal foreign bodies is required since they can lead to airway obstruction. 3.Several techniques of foreign bodies removal are nowadays available. 4."Hook-scope" technique is a safe and effective technique for nasal foreign bodies removal. 5.A valid flow-chart for the management of nasal foreign bodies in children is proposed in this paper. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 21, 2019: Clinical Otolaryngology
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