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Damien Thiry, Anis Berrah, Julien Evrard, Jean-Noël Duprez, Jacques G Mainil, Marc Saulmont
The identification of colistin-resistant enterobacteria in veterinary medicine is impaired by the absence of first-line reliable phenotypic assay. The purpose of this study was to assess two selective agar media for the detection of colistin-resistant bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli. A total of 158 E. coli (46 R <resistant>, 96 I <intermediate> and 16 S <sensitive> at the disk diffusion assay) isolated between 2013 and 2018 from <3 month-old calves suffering enteritis or septicaemia, were (i) tested by the broth dilution assay to determine colistin Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC); (ii) streaked on CHROMID® Colistin_R and CHROMagar™ COL-APSE agar plates; (iii) submitted to a pentaplex PCR to identify the presence of mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Lurdes Clemente, Vera Manageiro, Ivone Correia, Ana Amaro, Teresa Albuquerque, Patrícia Themudo, Eugénia Ferreira, Manuela Caniça
We screened 1840 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from food-producing animals, meat, meat products and animal feed, for the detection of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance, during 2010-2015. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 8.0% (97/1206) Escherichia coli and in 0.47% (3/634) Salmonella enterica isolates, with a high number of mcr-1 positive E. coli isolates (45.7%) being extended-spectrum β-lactamase or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase co-producers. No mcr-2 gene was detected. Our findings highlight the spread of mcr-1 genes within a wide-ranging sample of food-producing animals and meat, in Portugal...
February 10, 2019: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Hervé Volland, Laurent Dortet, Sandrine Bernabeu, Hervé Boutal, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec, Frédéric Robin, Racha Beyrouthy, Thierry Naas, Stéphanie Simon
Background: Colistin has become a last resort antibiotic for the treatment of highly drug-resistant Gram negatives. Moreover, it has been widely used in the livestock sector. As a consequence, colistin resistance is emerging worldwide. Among colistin resistance mechanism, the spread of the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene mcr-1 (mostly in E. coli ) is of particular concern due to its increased transfer abilities compared to chromosome-encoded resistance. Early detection of MCR-1-producing bacteria is essential to prevent further spread and provide appropriate antimicrobial therapy...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
S G Aguilar-Navarro, A J Mimenza-Alvarado, J E Aguilar-Esquivel, S G Yeverino-Castro, T Juárez-Cedillo, S Mejía-Arango
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Motoric Cognitive Risk (MCR) syndrome, describe associated risk factors and to determine the risk of progression to cognitive impairment after three years of follow-up, in a sample of Mexican older adults. DESIGN: A prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Baseline and follow-up information was obtained from the Mexican Health and Aging Study's 2012 and 2015 waves...
2019: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Joseph D Lutgring, Anny Kim, Davina Campbell, Maria Karlsson, Allison C Brown, Eileen M Burd
Many laboratories are unable to perform colistin susceptibility testing. Diffusion-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods are not recommended and not all laboratories have the capacity to perform broth microdilution (BMD). Using a multi-step tiered approach, we investigated whether the adapted use of the MicroScan colistin well (4 μg/ml) could enhance laboratory capacity for the detection and subsequent molecular characterization of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae For the MicroScan colistin well, categorical agreement with BMD was 92...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Phelim Bradley, Henk C den Bakker, Eduardo P C Rocha, Gil McVean, Zamin Iqbal
Exponentially increasing amounts of unprocessed bacterial and viral genomic sequence data are stored in the global archives. The ability to query these data for sequence search terms would facilitate both basic research and applications such as real-time genomic epidemiology and surveillance. However, this is not possible with current methods. To solve this problem, we combine knowledge of microbial population genomics with computational methods devised for web search to produce a searchable data structure named BItsliced Genomic Signature Index (BIGSI)...
February 2019: Nature Biotechnology
Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Jéssica Moreira, Carolina H de Oliveira, Bárbara P Peres, Ana Paula S Silva, Siddhartha Thakur, Roberto M La Ragione, Andrea M Moreno
Brazilian poultry meat samples were screened for colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica. Sixty Salmonella isolates were tested for in vitro colistin resistance and mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3 and mcr-4 genes. Two isolates harbored the mcr-1 gene and whole-genome analysis determined the serovar to be Schwarzengrund, ST96, harboring the IncX4 plasmid. This is the first report of mcr-1-harboring Salmonella enterica serovar Schwarzengrund in Brazil.
November 1, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
X Zhang, B Zhang, Y Guo, J Wang, P Zhao, J Liu, K He
The global dissemination of colistin resistance has received a great deal of attention. Recently, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by mcr genes in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains from animals, food, and patients in China has been reported frequently. To investigate the colistin resistance and mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes spread in domestic animals in Jiangsu Province, we collected fecael swabs from pigs, chicken and cattle at different ages distributed in intensive feeding farms. The selective chromogenic agar and mcr-PCR were used to screen the colistin resistance and mcr gene carriage...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Xiaohua He, Daniela Mavrici, Stephanie Patfield, Fernando M Rubio
The recent discovery and rapid spread of mobile colistin-resistant gene, mcr-1, among bacteria isolated from a broad range of sources is undermining our ability to treat bacterial infections and threatening human health and safety. To prevent further transfer of colistin resistance, practical and reliable methods for mcr-1-containing bacteria are need. In this study, standards and novel polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MCR-1 were developed. Among nine mAbs, three were MCR-1 specific and six cross-reacted with both MCR-1 and MCR-2...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tommaso Giani, Samanta Sennati, Alberto Antonelli, Vincenzo Di Pilato, Tiziana di Maggio, Antonia Mantella, Claudia Niccolai, Michele Spinicci, Joaquín Monasterio, Paul Castellanos, Mirtha Martinez, Fausto Contreras, Dorian Balderrama Villaroel, Esther Damiani, Sdenka Maury, Rodolfo Rocabado, Lucia Pallecchi, Alessandro Bartoloni, Gian Maria Rossolini
BackgroundThe mcr-1 gene is a transferable resistance determinant against colistin, a last-resort antimicrobial for infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-negatives.AimTo study carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in healthy school children as part of a helminth control and antimicrobial resistance survey in the Bolivian Chaco region.MethodsFrom September to October 2016 we collected faecal samples from healthy children in eight rural villages. Samples were screened for mcr-1 - and mcr-2 genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed, and a subset of 18 isolates representative of individuals from different villages was analysed by whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
November 2018: Euro Surveillance: European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Gabhan Chalmers, Kristin E Davis, Zvonimir Poljak, Robert Friendship, Michael R Mulvey, Anne E Deckert, Richard J Reid-Smith, Patrick Boerlin
Colistin is one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections in humans, but transmissible colistin-resistance genes have emerged in bacteria from animals. The rapid and sensitive detection among animals of colonization with bacteria carrying these genes is critical in helping to control further spread. Here we describe a method for broth enrichment of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from animal fecal and cecal samples followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of two of the main colistin-resistance genes, mcr-1 and mcr-2...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research
A Kumar, L Biswas, N Omgy, K Mohan, V Vinod, A Sajeev, P Nair, S Singh, R Biswas
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in mgrB, phoP/phoQ, pmrA, pmrB, pmrC, and crrABC regulatory systems have been found responsible for colistin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of alteration in mgrB gene and plasmid mediate mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes as a source of colistin resistance in 17 non duplicate Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. METHODS: All isolates classified as resistant to colistin by VITEK 2 system (BioMerieux, Marcy I' Etoile, France) were included...
October 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Mathilde Lescat, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
A rapid (total time <2 h) and reliable multiplex polymerase chain reaction for screening of mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes conferring resistance to colistin has been developed. This technique has been tested on a collection of isolates previously identified as bearing mcr-1, mcr-2, and mcr-like genes and had a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. Using this method, we were also able to identify a single isolate possessing both mcr-1 and mcr-5 genes.
April 22, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Manal AbuOun, Emma J Stubberfield, Nick A Duggett, Miranda Kirchner, Luisa Dormer, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Luke P Randall, Fabrizio Lemma, Derrick W Crook, Christopher Teale, Richard P Smith, Muna F Anjum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Xiaoming Wang, Yao Wang, Ying Zhou, Jiyun Li, Wenjuan Yin, Shaolin Wang, Suxia Zhang, Jianzhong Shen, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang
The rapid increase in carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacteria has renewed focus on the importance of polymyxin antibiotics (colistin or polymyxin E). However, the recent emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants (mcr-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -7), especially mcr-1, in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a serious threat to global health. Here, we characterized a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-8, located on a transferrable 95,983-bp IncFII-type plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae...
July 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Aurélie Jayol, Laurent Poirel, Catherine André, Véronique Dubois, Patrice Nordmann
The commercial SuperPolymyxin medium (ELITechGroup, Puteaux, France), currently licensed in Europe, is aimed to screen for either intrinsic or acquired colistin resistance in Gram negatives. It was tested for screening colistin-resistant Gram-negative rods from bacterial cultures of 145 colistin-resistant and 86 colistin-susceptible Gram-negative rods isolates. It exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 95.2% (138/145) and 95.3% (82/86), respectively. The sensitivity for the detection of the 25 isolates carrying plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, and mcr-4) from bacterial cultures was of 100%...
October 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Mohamed Rhouma, Salma Bessalah, Imed Salhi, William Thériault, John Morris Fairbrother, Philippe Fravalo
Camels (Camelus dromedarius) are known to harbor multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to be involved in the transmission of various microorganisms to humans. Data on the occurrence of colistin resistant Escherichia coli as well as mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes in camels are lacking. We investigated the presence of colistin resistance and mcr (1-2) genes in E. coli from the feces of camels in Tunisia. Presumptive E. coli isolates from camel-calves in southern Tunisia were qualitatively screened for growth on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2 mg/L of colistin...
June 5, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Qiaoling Sun, Yanyan Hu, Hongwei Zhou, Lingbin Shu, Hanyu Wang, Zixian Huang, Rong Zhang
A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 , is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2 , and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Nicolas Kieffer, Patrice Nordmann, Andrea Micke Moreno, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Richard Chaby, Aude Breton, Pierre Tissières, Laurent Poirel
A collection of 126 pigs was screened for carriage of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a farm in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Out of this collection, eight colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were recovered, including one from Minas Gerais State producing a new MCR-3 variant (MCR-3.12). Analysis of the lipopolysaccharide revealed that MCR-3.12 had a function similar to that of MCR-1 and MCR-2 as a result of the addition of a phosphoethanolamine group to the lipid A moiety. Genetic analysis showed that the mcr-3...
July 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Emilia Lönnqvist, Teemu Kallonen, Laura Lindholm, Jari Jalava, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Jaana Vuopio
Colistin resistance mediated by mobile mcr-1 gene has raised concern during the last years. After steep increase in mcr-1 reports, other mcr-gene variants (mcr-2 to mcr-5) have been revealed as well. In 2016, a clinical study was conducted on asymptomatic stool carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Finnish adults. All suspected ESBL producing bacterial isolates were first tested by phenotypic ESBL-confirmation methods, and then further analyzed with whole genome sequencing to identify the resistance genes...
May 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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