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Sarcopenia and liver disease

Luise Aamann, Puneeta Tandon, Chantal Bémeur
Sarcopenia and malnutrition are common features in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Ammonia, a factor implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy, may be cleared by the muscle via the enzyme glutamine synthetase when the liver function is impaired. Hence, optimizing muscle mass in patients suffering from hepatic encephalopathy is a potential strategy to decrease ammonia levels. Exercise could be an efficient therapeutic approach to optimize muscle mass and therefore potentially reduce the risk of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with chronic liver disease...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Luis F Acosta, Roberto Galuppo, Catherine R García, Evelyn Villacorta, Adam Dugan, Ana Lía Castellanos, Roberto Gedaly, James T Lee
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis. Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that are unsuitable for resection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 163 patients transplanted at our institution with HCC from 1998 to 2016. Sarcopenia was diagnosed based on the skeletal muscle mass on computed tomography imaging using SliceOmatic 5.0 software at L3 level (≤52...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Yuya Seko, Naoki Mizuno, Shinya Okishio, Aya Takahashi, Seita Kataoka, Keiichiroh Okuda, Mitsuhiro Furuta, Masashi Takemura, Hiroyoshi Taketani, Atsushi Umemura, Taichiro Nishikawa, Kanji Yamaguchi, Michihisa Moriguchi, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is diagnosed with the skeletal muscle index (SMI) or the sarcopenia index (SI). We previously reported that the ratio of skeletal muscle mass to body fat mass (SF ratio) was a novel index of sarcopenia in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate sarcopenia with these indices in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Consecutive 156 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and ALT >40 IU/L were enrolled...
February 4, 2019: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Maliha Naseer, Erica P Turse, Ali Syed, Francis E Dailey, Mallak Zatreh, Veysel Tahan
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, i.e ., muscle loss is now a well-recognized complication of cirrhosis and in cases of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease can contribute to accelerate liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. Hence, it is imperative to study interventions which targets to improve sarcopenia in cirrhosis. AIM: To examine the relationship between interventions such nutritional supplementation, exercise, combined life style intervention, testosterone replacement and trans jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to improve muscle mass in cirrhosis...
January 26, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Anton Faron, Claus C Pieper, Frederic C Schmeel, Alois M Sprinkart, Daniel L R Kuetting, Rolf Fimmers, Jonel Trebicka, Hans H Schild, Carsten Meyer, Daniel Thomas, Julian A Luetkens
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical potential of fat-free muscle area (FFMA) to predict outcome in patients with liver-predominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) undergoing radioembolization (RE) with 90 Yttrium microspheres. METHODS: Patients with mCRC who underwent RE in our center were included in this retrospective study. All patients received liver magnetic resonance imaging including standard T2-weighted images. The total erector spinae muscle area and the intramuscular adipose tissue area were measured at the level of the origin of the superior mesenteric artery and subtracted to calculate FFMA...
January 28, 2019: European Radiology
Mats I Nilsson, Jacqueline M Bourgeois, Joshua P Nederveen, Marlon R Leite, Bart P Hettinga, Adam L Bujak, Linda May, Ethan Lin, Michael Crozier, Daniel R Rusiecki, Chris Moffatt, Paul Azzopardi, Jacob Young, Yifan Yang, Jenny Nguyen, Ethan Adler, Lucy Lan, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Biological aging is associated with progressive damage accumulation, loss of organ reserves, and systemic inflammation ('inflammaging'), which predispose for a wide spectrum of chronic diseases, including several types of cancer. In contrast, aerobic exercise training (AET) reduces inflammation, lowers all-cause mortality, and enhances both health and lifespan. In this study, we examined the benefits of early-onset, lifelong AET on predictors of health, inflammation, and cancer incidence in a naturally aging mouse model (C57BL/J6)...
2019: PloS One
Jone Tamosauskaite, Janice L Atkins, Luke C Pilling, Chia-Ling Kuo, George A Kuchel, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer
Background: Iron is essential for life but contributes to oxidative damage. In Northern-European ancestry populations, HFE gene C282Y mutations are relatively common (0.3%-0.6% rare homozygote prevalence) and associated with excessive iron absorption, fatigue, diabetes, arthritis, and liver disease, especially in men. Iron excess can be prevented or treated but diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Data on sarcopenia, pain, and frailty are scarce. Methods: Using 200,975 UK Biobank volunteers aged 60-70 years, we tested associations between C282Y homozygosity with Fried frailty, sarcopenia, and chronic pain using logistic regression adjusted for age and technical genetic covariates...
January 16, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Bora Lee, Min Hee Lee, Soung Won Jeong, Jae Young Jang, Sae Hwan Lee, Hong Soo Kim, Young Don Kim, Gab Jin Cheon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Accurate evaluation of renal function in patients with liver cirrhosis is critical for clinical management. However, discrepancy still exists between the measured GFR (mGFR) and Cr-based estimated GFR (eGFR). In this study, we compared the performance of two common eGFR measurements with mGFR, and evaluated the impact of low muscle mass on overestimation of renal function. METHODS: This study included 779 consecutive cirrhotic patients who underwent 51 Cr- ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) (as a mGFR) and abdominal computed tomography (CT)...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
W J Bush, J P Davis, M A Maluccio, C A Kubal, J B Salisbury, R S Mangus
BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) develop severe nutrition deficits that affect morbidity and mortality. Laboratory measures of nutrition fail to fully assess clinical deficits in muscle mass and fat stores. This study employs computed tomography imaging to assess muscle mass and subcutaneous and visceral fat stores in patients with ESLD. METHODS: This 1:1 case-control study design compares ESLD patients with healthy controls...
December 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Kazunori Yoh, Yoshinori Iwata, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Kyohei Kishino, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Ryo Takata, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Takashi Nishimura, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
We sought to investigate the influence of sarcopenia as defined by muscle strength and skeletal muscle mass (SMM) on sleep disturbance as evaluated by the Japanese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) ( n = 419). Muscle strength and muscle mass were determined by grip strength (GS) and SMM using bioimpedance analysis. Patients were classified into four types: type A ( n = 61); decreased GS and decreased SMM; type B ( n = 45); decreased GS and non-decreased SMM; type C ( n = 102); non-decreased GS and decreased SMM; and type D ( n = 211); non-decreased GS and non-decreased SMM...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jae Yoon Jeong, Sanghyeok Lim, Joo Hyun Sohn, Jae Gon Lee, Dae Won Jun, Yongsoo Kim
Background: Sarcopenia is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, it is not known whether the rate of skeletal muscle depletion is also associated with a poor prognosis. We investigated the prognostic impact of the rate of skeletal muscle depletion in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: We included retrospectively all patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent both multiple computed tomography scans and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Yukihiro Shimizu
Gut microbiota are involved in the development or prevention of various diseases such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, and malignancy such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, atherosclerotic stroke and cardiovascular disease are major diseases associated with decreased activities of daily living (ADL), especially in elderly people. Recent analyses have revealed the importance of gut microbiota in the control of these diseases. The composition or diversity of these microbiota is different between patients with these conditions and healthy controls, and administration of probiotics or prebiotics has been shown effective in the treatment of these diseases...
November 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
C H De Fré, M A De Fré, W J Kwanten, B J Op de Beeck, L F Van Gaal, S M Francque
Sarcopenia, described as the loss of muscle mass and/or strength, is gaining importance as it can be increasingly related to many chronic diseases. It is also associated with chronic liver disease, and recently it has been more frequently linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in particular. Both sarcopenia and NAFLD are subject to complex and intermingled pathophysiological processes, of which some are in common. Furthermore, it is presently unclear if sarcopenia directly contributes to NAFLD or vice versa...
November 25, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Paulo F L da Silva, Mikolaj Ogrodnik, Olena Kucheryavenko, Julien Glibert, Satomi Miwa, Kerry Cameron, Abbas Ishaq, Gabriele Saretzki, Sushma Nagaraja-Grellscheid, Glyn Nelson, Thomas von Zglinicki
Senescent cells accumulate with age in multiple tissues and may cause age-associated disease and functional decline. In vitro, senescent cells induce senescence in bystander cells. To see how important this bystander effect may be for accumulation of senescent cells in vivo, we xenotransplanted senescent cells into skeletal muscle and skin of immunocompromised NSG mice. 3 weeks after the last transplantation, mouse dermal fibroblasts and myofibres displayed multiple senescence markers in the vicinity of transplanted senescent cells, but not where non-senescent or no cells were injected...
November 21, 2018: Aging Cell
Kana Wu, Mike Z Zhai, Erin K Weltzien, Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Edward Giovannucci, Bette J Caan
PURPOSE: Liver diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and ensuing alterations to the micro-environment may affect development of liver metastasis. Mirroring the rise in obesity rates, prevalence of NAFLD is increasing globally. Our objective was to examine the association between NAFLD and mortality in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Colorectal Cancer-Sarcopenia and Near-term Survival (C-SCANS) is a retrospective cohort study which included 3,262 stage I-III patients, aged 18-80 years, and diagnosed between 2006 and 2011 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California...
November 15, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Kazuki Ohashi, Toru Ishikawa, Asami Hoshi, Mitsuyuki Suzuki, Yuta Mitobe, Etsuko Yamada, Hansani Madushika Abeywickrama, Nao Seki, Chikayo Koyama, Hagiko Aoki, Yu Koyama
Background: Sarcopenia can affect the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Exercise therapy and nutritional therapy are carried out to prevent processing sarcopenia. In addition, changing lifestyle is also important. However, there are only few reports on the physical activities (PAs) and lifestyle of chronic liver disease patients and their association with sarcopenia. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sarcopenia in patients with chronic liver disease and both PA and lifestyle...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Meiyi Song, Lu Xia, Qi Liu, Mengxue Sun, Fei Wang, Changqing Yang
Sarcopenia is a common clinical symptom in aging and patients with wasting diseases, characterized by a decreased skeletal muscle mass. As a consequence of lifestyle change, the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents a rising trend. In the past three decades, increasing evidence has proved that sarcopenia is related to NAFLD. In this chapter, we will summarize the emerging evidence of the predictive role of sarcopenia in NAFLD and review the diagnosis value, feasible mechanism, and therapy strategies of sarcopenia in NAFLD...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jeffery Chakedis, Eliza W Beal, Steven Sun, Jason Galo, Aaron Chafitz, Gail Davidson, Joshua Reardon, Mary Dillhoff, Timothy M Pawlik, Sherif Abdel-Misih, Mark Bloomston, Carl R Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic arterial infusion pump (HAIP) therapy for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is beneficial in selected patients yet wide acceptance in the oncology community is lacking. METHODS: A surgeon-led team implemented a HAIP program in 2012. Pumps were placed by laparotomy for CRLM and fluorodeoxyuridine was infused via HAIP every 28 days without systemic chemotherapy supervised by the operating surgeon. RESULTS: Sixty patients were treated with HAIP, either in the adjuvant setting after liver resection or ablation of CRLM in 26 (43%) patients or with the unresectable disease in 34 (57%)...
December 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Seong Hee Kang, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Soon Koo Baik, Seung Hwan Cha, Moon Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia has been reported as a prognostic factor. We evaluated the impact of sarcopenia to the conventional prognostic factors [Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG)] in cirrhosis. METHODS: Overall, 452 patients with cirrhosis were stratified by MELD score (low < 15, high ≥ 15), CTP class, and HVPG [non-clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH), 6-9 mmHg; CSPH, 10-19 mmHg; extremely severe PH, ≥20 mmHg]...
October 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Rajab Idriss, Jeanette Hasse, Tiffany Wu, Fatima Khan, Giovanna Saracino, Greg McKenna, Testa Giuliano, James Trotter, Goran Klintmalm, Sumeet K Asrani
Bariatric surgery (BS) is effective in treating morbid obesity but the impact of prior BS on candidacy for liver transplantation (LT) is unclear. We examined 78 cirrhotic patients with prior BS compared with a concurrent cohort of 156 patients matched by age, MELD score, and underlying liver disease. We compared rates of transplant denial after evaluation, delisting on the waitlist (WL) and survival after LT. The median time from BS to LT evaluation was 7 years. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was the most common BS procedure performed (63% of cohort)...
October 28, 2018: Liver Transplantation
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